Planning and Development in the Third World by: Dr. Eusebio F. Miclat Jr. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU (2004)


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Planning in 1950's in the Philippines, Educational Planning

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Planning and Development in the Third World by: Dr. Eusebio F. Miclat Jr. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU (2004)

  1. 1. Unit A: Strategic Planning: Concepts, Theories & Practices 1. Planning & Development in the Third World a. 1950’s: The First Development Decade 2. Philippine Planning Experiences Educational Planning In the Third World Planning in Higher Education
  2. 2. • Describe the focus of national socio- economic planning and development in the Third World during 1950’s and 1960’s; • Specify the contributions – benefits and problems of socio economic planning and development in the Third World Countries
  3. 3. • Public Administration (PA) from the western concept was introduced in the Philippines through National Economic Council and International Cooperation Agency (ICA) • Signing of MOA of the Quirino – Foster Agreement in Nov. 1950 • The economic and technical cooperation agreement between Phil & United States was signed in 1951. • The assistance gave emphasis on the improvement of PA in the country Philippine Planning Experiences
  4. 4. Why there is a need to adopt development planning? State of their underdevelopment. The conditions are: a. Predominantly agricultural economy and were exporters of primary products. b. The existence of a vast expanse of poverty and illiteracy among the masses of people and the limited public resources
  5. 5. State of Underdevelopment c. Development planning was seen as indispensable means of national cohesion. It could mitigate economic and social inequities, create greater opportunities for the people giving them a collective achievement d. Crucial role in the functioning of the government and in the evolution of coherent and effective public administration
  6. 6. PA Assisted Projects The kroeger group of American consultants and experts contributed tangibly the introduction of American version of PA in the country. • Improvement on budgeting, auditing, and revenue collection and assessment, general services, justice system and civil service; • Police management and the setting of NBI; • Census management;
  7. 7. PA Assisted Projects • Organization and establishment of: - Institute of PA at UP - Bureau of Lands - National Media Production Center - Wage and Position Classification Office • Organization of the Government Survey and reorganization Commission in Congress L.D. Kroeger et al, 1959
  8. 8. National Economic Council (NEC) • Created in 1935 by virtue of CA No. 2 • Tasked as the economic adviser and to formulate economic program • For 13 years , NEC failed to come out with comprehensive plans by it’s lack of purposeful effort and political will on the part of the national leadership
  9. 9. • Failed to adopt the Five year Economic and Social Development Program FY 1957-1961 and the Three year Program of economic & Social development FY 1959-1961 • In 1955 NEC was revitalized. The New NEC as tasked to: a) advise the President on matters concerning the economy, b) formulate definite & consistent national economic policies and to prepare and comprehensive economic and social development program
  10. 10. Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) • Creation of the Commission on reorganization (COR) in 1968 to promote simplicity, economy and efficiency in the government to enable it to pursue programs consistent with the national goals of accelerated social and economic development and to improve the service in the transaction of the public business
  11. 11. • Regionalization as a policy was then adopted to reduce disparities among the different regions of the country. The plan further provided the division of the country from eight regions into 13 administrative regions, the establishment of RDCs, as the planning and implementing machinery in the region
  12. 12. • The IRP gave emphasis on the regional planning and development in the country. Three models are made based on the degree of political & administrative authority over regional offices and LGUs namely: 1) RDC 2) MMDA 3) ARMM
  13. 13. • In Sept 1972, Pres. Marcos declared Martial Law and picked up the old reorganization plan and named it Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) under PD No. 1 • The NEC, Presidential Economic Staff (PES) and some offices under the Budget Commission were integrated into a new super body called the NEDA chaired by the Pres of the Republic. The Secretary of the NEDA sits as the director general
  14. 14. Local Government Units • RA 7160 Local Government Code further strengthened the planning structures in local levels. The LDCs as planning bodies are lodged with the responsibility of formulating development plans, appraising and establishing priority socio- economic development programs and projects and coordinating and monitoring the implementation of said programs and projects with the participation of NGOs
  15. 15. Problems encountered by LDCs • Lack of power and authority to allocate and implement plans • Plans are not religiously followed • Limited amount of funds in the local development fund
  16. 16. Planning Body • The National Economic and Development Authority (Filipino: Pambansang Pangasiwaan sa Kabuhayan at Pagpapaunlad), abbreviated as NEDA, • The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), as mandated by the Philippine Constitution, is the country’s independent economic development and planning agency. It is headed by the President as chairman of the NEDA board, with the Secretary of Socio- Economic Planning, concurrently NEDA Director-General, as vice-chairman. Several Cabinet members, the Central Bank Governor, ARMM and ULAP are likewise members of the NEDA Board
  17. 17. Unit A: Strategic Planning: Concepts, Theories & Practices 2. Philippine Planning Experiences Educational Planning In the Third World Planning in Higher Education
  18. 18. LGUs of the Philippines REGION PROVINCES CITIES MUNICIPALITIES BARANGAYS 17 80 122 1,512 42,025 Source: NSCB
  19. 19. Educational Planning in the Third World As evidenced by the development experiences of the Third world countries “Economic is not economic growth alone. There are some non-economic ingredients of economic development”
  20. 20. More than half the economic growth of the last decade in industrialized countries was due to factors other than the classical inputs of labor and capital, to improvements in the quality of labor due to scientific research, technological innovation and EDUCATION AND TRAINING (A. king, 1967)
  21. 21. It was for this reason that educational objectives were subsumed in national development plans centered on the task of orchestrating the tremendous expansion of education systems with the aims of: a. Universalizing education b. Providing national economies with the qualified manpower they needed
  22. 22. Major Economic Crisis in the ’70s and’90s • Austerity and belt tightening measures were adopted led to a limitation in the resources made available to education • With the dwindling Financial resources due to increased debt payments education planning was confronted challenge to link between reduced public budget for quality education
  23. 23. Problems Encountered • Excessive quantitative orientation • Over centralization • Weaknesses in implementation • Evaluation dimension is slow
  24. 24. Impact of the over-all integrated education systems a. The evolution of over-all integrated education system b. Development of educational administration and organization of planning structures within the education system; and c. Sharpened administrative perception on the problem of efficiency in the system (R.Singh, 1990)
  25. 25. Planning in Higher Education • Educational planning was operated on ad hoc basis • In 1970 The Phil Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) observed that educational planning has not been the strength of Philippine Education (B. Reyes, 1974) • PCPSE recommended to FM to give further emphasis to educational planning through the promulgation of Education Development Decree of 1972
  26. 26. Proliferation of SCUs • 1972 23 SCUs P 706 Million • 1984 78 SCUs • 1990 100 SCUs P 4.6 B • 1995 P 7.4 B 2013 110 State Universities and Colleges with a budget of P34.9 B
  27. 27. +*- "!=HI!"34C("7*+(.(&.+,"*@"!!X"ET](="HH"W `T]"%+5"!LNO"2).>%&/9 1,741 HIE s consisting of 110 SUCs, 77 LGUC, and 1538 Private The quality of teachers, teaching materials, and education planning depends on the quality of education of the teachers and the education of administrators have attained. The effect of producing poor quality HE graduates and underdevelopment of an innovation system have lowered the productivity of the country ‘s labor force and inhibited technological progress.
  28. 28. • LOI No. 1461 in 1985 Each university or college shall identify an area of specialization and its capability to implement taking into account its available resources, namely: faculty, employees, finances, buildings, and equipment etc.
  29. 29. • In 1994 the CHED was created by RA 7722. • The result of the Congressional Commission on education (EDCOM) study revealed that the quality of Phil education was declining continuously. Elem & HS were failing to teach the competence of average citizen need to become responsible, productive and self-fulfilling
  30. 30. • Elem & HS were failing to teach the competence of average citizen need to become responsible, productive and self-fulfilling • Colleges and technical and vocational schools were not producing the manpower needed to develop the economy
  31. 31. Thus the EDCOM recommended the restructuring of the DECS into three major agencies: 1) CHED 2) The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) 3) Dept of Basic Education (DBE)
  32. 32. • CHED supervised higher education institutions were required to submit their ten year development plan • In the private education sector the preparation of a long term plan is “sine qua non” as this is a requirement before a college or university is granted permit to operate.
  33. 33. Stages of studies: • Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type) • University level studies: 1) first stage: Bachelor's Degree 2) second stage: Post Baccalaureate (Certificate/Diploma); 3) University level third stage: PhD:
  34. 34. Main laws/decrees governing higher education • Decree: Education Act Year: 1982 Concerns: All levels of education • Decree: Republic Act 7722 Year: 1994 Concerns: Commission on Higher education • Decree: Republic Act 7796 Year: 1994 Concerns: Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) • Decree: Republic Act 8292, Higher Education Modernization Act Year: 1997 Concerns: State universities and colleges
  35. 35. National Bodies • Department of Education (DepEd) • Commission on Higher Education (CHED) • Technical Education and Skills Development Authority – TESDA • Educational Associations Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP) • Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines (AACUP)
  36. 36. National Bodies • Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities, Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA) • Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU) • Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC) • Association of Catholic Universities of the Philippines (ACUP)
  37. 37. National Bodies • Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities – PACU • Coordinating Council for Private Educational Association (COCOPEA) • Association of Christian Schools and Colleges (ACSC) • Association of Local Colleges and Universities (ALCU)
  38. 38. National Bodies • Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP) • Philippine Association of Private Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAPSCU) • Fund Assistance to Private Education (FAPE)
  39. 39. Reference Miclat, Jr. Eusebio F. Development Planning & Budgeting, PSU, 2004