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Personality emotions

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human Behavior in An Organization

human Behavior in An Organization

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  • Values represent basic convictions that a “specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.” Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) which consists of two sets of values: terminal values or desirable end-states of existence and instrumental values , preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values. The following are some examples of terminal values: a world of peace, a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, equality, freedom, and salvation. The following are some examples of instrumental values: capable, cheerful, courageous, imaginative, logical, loving, and responsible.
  • Workers who grew up influenced by the Great Depression, World War II, U.S. leadership in world manufacturing, the Andrews sisters, and the Berlin blockade entered the workforce from the mid-1940s to the late 1950s. They believed in the Protestant work ethic. Once hired, they tend to be loyal to an employer. They are likely to value family security and a comfortable life. Employees who entered the workforce from the 1960s to the mid-1970s were influenced by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights movement, the Beatles, and the war in Vietnam. They brought with them a large measure of the “hippie ethic” and existential philosophy. Quality of life is more important to them than money and possessions. They value autonomy, freedom, and equality. Those who entered the workforce from the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s reflect society’s return to more traditional values but with a greater emphasis on achievement and material success. They were influenced by Ronal Reagan, the defense build-up, dual-career households, and $150,000 starter homes. They are pragmatists who believe that ends can justify means. A sense of accomplishment and social recognition rank high for them. The lives of the members of Generation X have been shaped by globalization, the fall of Communism, MTV, AIDS, and computers. They value flexibility, life options, job satisfaction, family, and relationships. Money is important as an indicator of career performance, but they are willing to trade off leisure time for increases in salary, titles, security, and promotions.
  • Individuals seek consistency. Cognitive dissonance occurs when there are inconsistencies between two or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s attitudes and behaviors. The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that people try to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes. Several moderating factors suggest that individuals who are experiencing dissonance will not necessarily move directly toward a reduction of the dissonance (consistency). If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct the imbalance will be low. Also, the degree of influence that one has over the elements involved will affect how he or she reacts to dissonance. Rewards also influence the degree to which individuals are motivated to reduce dissonance.
  • Individuals seek consistency. Cognitive dissonance occurs when there are inconsistencies between two or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s attitudes and behaviors. The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that people try to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes. Several moderating factors suggest that individuals who are experiencing dissonance will not necessarily move directly toward a reduction of the dissonance (consistency). If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct the imbalance will be low. Also, the degree of influence that one has over the elements involved will affect how he or she reacts to dissonance. Rewards also influence the degree to which individuals are motivated to reduce dissonance.
  • Individuals seek consistency. Cognitive dissonance occurs when there are inconsistencies between two or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s attitudes and behaviors. The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that people try to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes. Several moderating factors suggest that individuals who are experiencing dissonance will not necessarily move directly toward a reduction of the dissonance (consistency). If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct the imbalance will be low. Also, the degree of influence that one has over the elements involved will affect how he or she reacts to dissonance. Rewards also influence the degree to which individuals are motivated to reduce dissonance.
  • Early research on the relationship between attitudes and behavior assumed a causal relationship--that is, the attitudes that people hold determine what they will do. In the late 1960s, this assumed (A-B) relationship was challenged. More recent research suggests that there is a measurable (A-B) relationship, if moderating contingency variables are considered. Concentration on specific attitudes and specific behaviors improves our chances of finding significant A-B relationships. It is one thing to talk about a person being an environmental activist and another to talk about his or her attitude toward “donating $100 to save the whales.” Social constraints may also moderate behavior so strongly that discrepancies between a person’s attitudes and behavior may occur. Group pressures may explain why an anti-union employee attends pro-union organizing meetings. A and B may be at odds for other reasons. People can hold contradictory attitudes, even though there are pressures toward the reduction of cognitive dissonance. Notwithstanding these moderating variables, attitudes do influence behaviors.
  • Personality and individual differences affect our decisions. Two of these variables are particularly relevant to organizational decisions: the individual’s decision-making style and level of moral development. The decision-styles model above identifies four approaches to decision making. The model illustrates that people differ along two dimensions: in their thinking styles (some are logical and rational, others intuitive and creative); in their tolerance for ambiguity . People using the directive style dislike ambiguity and prefer rationality. Those using the analytic style confront ambiguity by demanding more alternatives. Individuals using the conceptual style consider the “big picture” and seek multiple alternatives. Those using a behavioral style work well with others and are receptive to suggestions.
  • The Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator is a 100-question personality test that asks people to select how they usually feel or act in particular situations. On the basis of their answers, they are classified as extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and perceiving or judging (P or J). Since results provide insights into what individuals enjoy doing, using this test in employee selection can minimize personality-job conflicts.
  • Six additional personality attributes have been identified that appear to have more direct relevance for explaining and predicting behavior in organizations. Some people believe that they are masters of their own fate. Others think that they are pawns of fate. Locus of control in the first case is internal--they control their destiny. Externals believe that life is controlled by outsiders. Authoritarianism is the belief that there should be power and status differences among people in organizations. Those who are high in this trait are rigid intellectually, judgmental of others, deferential to those in authority and exploitative of those below, distrustful, and resistant to change. An individual exhibiting strong Machiavellian tendencies is manipulative, maintains emotional distance, and believes that the ends justify the means. “If it works, use it” is consistent with a high-Mach personality. People who are high in self-monitoring are sensitive to external cues and can behave differently according to the demands of the situation. On the other hand, low self-monitors are consistent. Individuals with a high risk propensity make more rapid decisions with less information than individuals with a low risk propensity. Type A personalities are characterized by an incessant struggle to achieve more in less time. They are impatient, cope poorly with leisure time, and create a life of self-imposed deadlines.
  • J. L. Holland’s personality job-fit model is based on the notion of fit between an individual’s personality and his or her occupational environment. Holland identified six personality types: realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic. Each of the six personality types has a congruent occupational environment, as shown in the table above.
  • Holland developed a Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire that contains 160 occupational titles. Respondents indicate which of those occupations they like or dislike, and their answers are used to form personality profiles. The figure above shows that the closer two fields or orientations are in the hexagon, the more compatible they are. Adjacent categories are quite similar, whereas those diagonally opposed are highly dissimilar. The bottom line is (according to Holland) that satisfaction is highest and turnover is lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. For instance, a realistic person in a realistic job is in a more congruent situation than a realistic person in an investigative job. A realistic person in a social job is the most incongruent situation possible.
  • Until recently, the topic of emotions had been all but ignored in management scholarship. There are two possible explanations. First, the myth of rationality held that well-run organizations operated without frustration, anger, love, hate, joy, grief, and similar feelings. Since such emotions were the antithesis of rationality, even though researchers and managers tried to create organizations that were emotion-free. Second, when emotions were considered, the strong negative emotions (like anger) took center stage because they interfered with the productivity of employees. So emotions were rarely viewed as being constructive or motivational. But no study of behavior could be comprehensive without studying the role of emotions in the workplace. Before going further, we need to clarify three closely-related terms. Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of human feelings. It is an umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings which are directed at someone or something. Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and lack a contextual stimulus. Every employee expends physical and mental labor on the job. But most jobs require emotional labor . This is when an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Emotional labor creates dilemmas for employees when their job requires that they exhibit emotions which are incongruous with their true feelings. Felt emotions are a person’s actual emotions. Displayed emotions are considered appropriate in a given job. The key point is that felt and displayed emotions are often quite different.
  • Research has identified six universal emotions: anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise. These emotions can be conceptualized as existing along a continuum. The closer any two emotions are on this continuum, the more people are likely to confuse them. For example, happiness and surprise are often mistaken, but happiness and disgust are rarely confused. People give different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli. In some cases, this can be attributed to the individual’s personality. Other times it is a result of the job requirements. Cultural norms in the United States dictate that employees working in service organizations should smile and act friendly when interacting with customers. In some cultures, smiling is seen as a sign of inexperience or flirtatiousness. So cultural factors will influence what is or is not emotionally appropriate. What is acceptable in one culture may seem unusual or dysfunctional in another. And cultures influence how emotions are interpreted. As a result, there is high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures but not between them.
  • Some people find it hard to express their emotions and to understand the emotions of others. Psychologists call this condition alexithymia (Greek for lack of emotion). Does their inability to express emotions or read others mean that they will be poor workers? Not necessarily. While they are ill-suited for sales or managerial positions, they may be excellent computer programmers. It is widely assumed that women are more “in touch” with their feelings than men. Is this assumption true? Evidence confirms that women and men differ in their emotional abilities. Women show greater emotional expression than men; they experience emotions more intensely and display them more frequently; they are more comfortable expressing their emotions; and they are better at reading nonverbal cues. Three possible explanations for these differences have been offered: (1) men and women are socialized differently; (2) women have more innate ability to read others and express their emotions; and (3) women have a greater need for social approval and display more positive emotions. What is acceptable in one culture may be unusual or dysfunctional in another culture. And cultures interpret emotions differently. There tends to be high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures but not between them. Studies show that some cultures lack words for such standard emotions as anxiety, depression, or guilt. Tahitians, for instance, do not have a word directly equivalent to sadness. When Tahitians are sad, their peers typically attribute their state to a physical illness.
  • Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a assortment of non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. It is composed of five dimensions: self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills. Several studies show that EI can play an important role in job performance, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction. Traditional approaches to decision making in organizations have emphasized rationality and downplayed or ignored the role of emotions. Yet, it is naïve to assume that decisions are not influenced by one’s feelings. Indeed, people use emotions as well as rational and intuitive processes when making decisions. The dominant approaches to the study of motivation reflect an over-rationalized view of individuals. Motivational theories assert that people are “motivated to the extent that their behavior is expected to lead to desired outcomes.” But people’s perceptions of situations are filled with emotional content that strongly influences the amount of effort they exert. And people who are highly motivated in their work are emotionally committed, too. Effective leaders almost always rely on the expression of feelings to help convey their ideas. In fact, the expression of emotions in a speech is often what determines whether the audience accepts or rejects the message. So when leaders want to implement significant changes, they must employ the “evocation, framing, and mobilization of emotions.” Whenever interpersonal conflicts arise, emotions are almost always involved. The manager who focuses on rational and task-focused concerns and ignores emotional elements is not likely to be effective at resolving conflicts in the workplace.
  • The model above summarizes our discussion of individual behavior. An individual enters an organization with a relatively entrenched set of values and an established personality. Even though they are not permanently fixed, individual attitudes, values, and personality are essentially “givens.” How employees interpret their environment will influence their level of motivation, what they learn on the job, and their on-the-job behavior. We have also added “ability” to the model to acknowledge that an individual’s behavior is influenced by the talents and skills that he or she holds when joining the organization. Learning, of course, will alter this variable over time.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Organizational Behavior: Values, Attitudes, Personality & Emotions ALVAREZ, Karmilyn A. & SAGMAYAO, Bingle Presenters/Discussants Professor: Jo B. Bitonio DM 217 Human Behavior in Organization
    • 2. Types of Values Terminal Values Instrumental Values
    • 3. Dominant Values in Today’s Workforce Career Stage Entered the Workforce Approximate Current Age Dominant Work Values 1. Protestant Work Ethic (Veterans) 2. Existential 3. Pragmatic (boomers) 4.generation X (Xers) Mid-1940s to Late 1950s 1960s to Mid-1970s Mid-1970s to Mid-1980s Mid-1980s through 1990s 60 to 75 45 to 60 35 to 45 Under 35 Hard working; loyal to firm; conservative Nonconforming; seeks autonomy; loyal to self Ambitious, hard worker; loyal to career Flexible, values leisure; loyal to relationships
    • 4. Power Distance Individualism - Collectivism Quantity of Life (Masculinity) - Quality of Life (Femininity) Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term or Short-Term Orientation Values Across Cultures
    • 5. Cognitive Component Attitude Affective Component Behavioral Component
    • 6. Type of Attitude
      • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
      • Job Satisfaction
      • Job Involvement
      • Organizational Commitment
    • 7. Importance of the Elements Cognitive Dissonance Degree of Personal Influence Rewards Involved
    • 8. The Attitude-Behavior Relationship Level of Specificity Accessibility Social Pressures Importance Direct Experience
    • 9. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Performance
      • Job Satisfaction and Productivity
      • Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism
      • Job Satisfaction and Turnover
      • Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
    • 10. Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect Constructive Active Passive Destructive Response to Job Dissatisfaction
    • 11. Style of Decision Making Judgmental (J) Perceptive (P) Preference for Decision Making Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Type of Social Interaction Introvert (I) Extrovert (E) Preference for Gathering Data Intuitive (N) Sensing (S) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • 12. The Big Five Personality Dimensions
      • Extroversion : Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
      • Agreeableness : Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted
      • Conscientiousness : Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent
      • Emotional stability : Relaxed, secure, unworried
      • Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded
      • Research finding : Conscientiousness is the best (but not a strong) predictor of job performance.
    • 13. Other Key Personality Attributes Locus of Control Self-Esteem Risk Propensity Type A Personality Machiavellian Personality Self Monitoring
    • 14. Holland’s Theory of Personality-Job Fit Type Personality Occupations Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic Shy, Stable, Practical Analytical, Independent Sociable, Cooperative Practical, Efficient Ambitious, Energetic Imaginative, Idealistic Mechanic, Farmer, Assembly-Line Worker Biologist, Economist, Mathematician Social Worker, Teacher, Counselor Accountant, Manager Bank Teller Lawyer, Salesperson Painter, Writer, Musician
    • 15. Investigative A I S C E R Realistic Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Occupational Personality Types
    • 16. Felt Versus Display Emotions What Are Emotions? Emotional Dissonance Important Terms
    • 17. Six Universal Emotions Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness Anger Disgust
    • 18. Emotionless People Other Key Issues Gender and Emotions Culture and Emotions
    • 19. Emotional Intelligence (EI) Decision Making Motivation Leadership Interpersonal Conflict OB Applications
    • 20. Multiple Intelligence
      • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
      • Emotional Intelligence (EI) or Emotional Quotient (EQ)
      • Spiritual Intelligence
      • Cultural Intelligence
    • 21. Key Variables Affecting Behavior Values Attitudes Personality Ability Motivation Perception Learning Behavior
    • 22. An OB Model for Studying Individual Differences Personality traits
      • Self Concept
      • Self-esteem
      • Self-efficacy
      • Self-monitoring
      The Unique Individual Forms of Self- Expression Attitudes Abilities Emotions
    • 23. Self-Efficacy
      • Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs :
        • - Prior experience
        • - Behavior models
        • - Persuasion from others
        • - Assessment of physical/emotional state
      Self-efficacy : “A person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.”
    • 24. Covey’s Seven Habits: An Agenda for Managerial Self-Improvement
      • 1. Be proactive.
      • 2. Begin with the end in mind.
      • 3. Put first things first.
      • 4. Think win/win.
      • 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood.
      • 6. Synergize.
      • 7. Sharpen the saw.