The five-factor model of personality—the Big Five —offers a comprehensive, unifying framework for identifying personality dimensions. The dimension of extraversion captures one’s comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to maintain a large number of relationships. Introverts tend to be reserved and have fewer relationships. The dimension of agreeableness refers to a person’s propensity to defer to others. People high in this dimension value harmony more than having their own way. People low in this dimension focus on their own needs more than on the needs of others. The dimension of conscientiousness refers to the number of goals on which a person focuses. Those high in this dimension pursue fewer goals and tend to be responsible, persistent, and achievement-oriented. Those low in this dimension tend to be more easily distracted, less focused, and more hedonistic. Emotional stability refers a person’s ability to withstand stress. People high on this dimension tend to be calm, enthusiastic, and secure. Those low in this dimension tend to be anxious, nervous, and insecure. Openness to experience refers to one’s range of interests. Those high in this dimension are fascinated by imaginative, creative, and intellectual activities. Those low in this dimension tend to be more conventional and prefer the familiar.
Holland’s personality job-fit model is based on the notion of fit between an individual’s personality and his or her occupational environment. Holland identified six personality types: realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic. Each of the six personality types has a congruent occupational environment, as shown in the table above.
Holland developed a Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire that contains 160 occupational titles. Respondents indicate which of those occupations they like or dislike, and their answers are used to form personality profiles. The figure above shows that the closer two fields or orientations are in the hexagon, the more compatible they are. Adjacent categories are quite similar, whereas those diagonally opposed are highly dissimilar. The bottom line, according to Holland, is that satisfaction is highest and turnover is lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. For instance, a realistic person in a realistic job is in a more congruent situation than a realistic person in an investigative job. A realistic person in a social job is the most incongruent situation possible.
Before we proceed with our analysis, we need to clarify three terms that are closely related. Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people can experience. This term encompasses both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings directed at someone or something. Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
Personality and Emotions
Personality and Emotions by: Ma. Stella M. Frias MME Prof Jo B. Bitonio ME 217 HBO
Chapter 4 What Is Personality? Heredity Situation Environment
The Big Five Personality Model Chapter 4 Openness to Experience Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability
Personality Attributes and Behavior Chapter 4 Risk Taking Locus of Control Self-Esteem Type A Personality Self-Monitorin g Machiavellian Traits
Chapter 4 Achievement and Material Success Relationship to the Environment Personality and National Culture
Chapter 4 Holland ’ s Personality-Job Fit Theory Type Personality Occupations Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic Shy, Stable, Practical Analytical, Independent Sociable, Cooperative Practical, Efficient Ambitious, Energetic Imaginative, Idealistic Mechanic, Farmer, Assembly-Line Worker Biologist, Economist, Mathematician Social Worker, Teacher, Counselor Accountant, Manager Bank Teller Lawyer, Salesperson Painter, Writer, Musician
Chapter 4 Investigative A I S C E R Realistic Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Occupational Personality Types
Chapter 4 What Are Emotions? Affect Moods Emotions