ORGANIZATION ANDMANAGEMENT Prepared by: GEORGE RUBIO MARCA, MDA Police Senior Inspector REE, RME Elective : PA 101
INTRODUCTION• The driving force behind every organization is its MANAGEMENT TEAM• There is no universal accurate management to define the one that is best• O and M is twin terms that exist side by side with each other – each one needs and support the other• In real world of administration, O and M are essential elements through which human actions and objectives are carried out and accomplished
ORGANIZATION• Organizations consist of people who more or less, share common objectives or purpose• Organizations use knowledge and techniques to accomplish its goals.• According to Scott and Mitchell as cited in Nigro 1989, “Formal Organizations are “A system of coordinated activities of a group of people working cooperatively toward a common goal under authority and leadership”
ORGANIZATION• Formal organization are popularly known as “BUREAUCRACY” – to carry out its functions and perform its role in society.• According to Stoner and Freeman, 1989, “Informal organization undocumented and officially unrecognized relationships between members of an organization that inevitably emerged out of the personal and group needs of employees.”
ORGANIZATIONSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (5 M’s)1. Men – members of the organization starting from the very top of the last workman in the organization2. Materials – represent the materials necessary in the distribution of functions or in the attainment of its objective3. Machine – the tools necessary in producing its desired output
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS4. Methods – the procedures and ways used in the course of its action5. Money – The financial resources of the organization
ORGANIZATIONPRINCIPLES OF GOOD ORGANIZATION• Principle of Objective – must be known, it serves as the guide to future planning and action. It integrates policies, projects and programs and it enables every member to act consistently according to common goal.• Analysis – study as the work could be finished at the right time.
ORGANIZATION• Simplicity – The simplest organization that will serve to attain the desired objective is considered the best. All activities which are not absolutely necessary should be eliminated, and those retained should be handled in the simplest practical way.• Functionalism – The organization should be built around the main functions and not around the individuals.
ORGANIZATION• Departmentalization – In a big organization, the scope of operation can be very broad, necessitating departmentalization to achieve a flow of operations• Centralization of Authority and Responsibility - in every organization there should be centralized executive control or command authority• Limited Span of Control – The number of subordinates an executive can manage effectively.
MANAGEMENT• According to Kast, 1974, management involves the coordination human and material resources toward the attainment of the organization’s goal.• Management is a process – it is the process of directing and facilitating the work of people who are organized for a common purpose. It is the process of combining the efforts and resources of individuals with a common interest to achieve a desired objective.
MANAGEMENT• According to Stoner and freeman, 1989, the processes includes:1. Planning – process of establishing objectives and appropriate courses of action before taking action2. Organizing – arranging an organization’s structure3. Leading – directing and inspiring the personnel to perform their functions.4. Controlling – process of motivating actual organization activities to ensure to move toward its objective
MANAGEMENT• Management is a function – it is an art of handling people. It is the function of getting things done through the efforts of others.
Management Concept1. Management to be effective must be systematic – Things can be done better by means of plan of action. The plan is a step by step outline of what is to be done and who does what.2. Management to be successful must be scientific – analysis of the operation or work.3. Management must be humanistic – Application of good human relations “pays off” through cooperation and coordination leading toward the goal and objective.
MANAGEMENT• Managers – According to Kast, 1974, people who are responsible for integrating, coordinating and directing activities of others.
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 1. Organization Development – is an approach to planned organizational change. It is a long term planning and it require a higher level of functioning. 2. Management and Information System (MIS) – Computer-based information system that provides accurate and timely information. It is highly important for the effective performance of the managerial functions.
O AND M STUDIES IN THE PHILIPPINES • The formal introduction of PA study and the establishment of the institute, now college of PA in the Philippines in 1952. The studies of O and M in the Philippine government began on a descriptive and prescriptive note. • According to Reyes (1995), the urgency to address exigent administrative concern confronting the govt during the years following WWII. This was the period when the Philippine government faced tremendous administrative, political, economic, and social problems and issues.
O AND M STUDIES IN THE PHILIPPINES • Generally speaking, the studies made by the institute during those years were “characteristically inward-oriented” and focused on organization structures, functions, processes and procedures.
O AND M STUDIES IN THE PHILIPPINES • The studies dealt with wide ranging practical issues concerning the following: - internal structure - building space - work simplification - salary scale - employee morale - line of authority - line and staff functions