MOTIVATIONA word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals.
Motivation is important to an individual as:a. Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals.b. If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction.c. Motivation will help in self- development of individual.d. An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team.
Motivation is important to a business or company as: a. The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is. b. The more is the team work and individual employee contribution, more profitable and successful is the business. c. During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and creativity. d. Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at work place.
IMPLICATIONOne of the most important functions of management is to create willingness amongst the employees to perform in the best of their abilities. Therefore the role of a leader is to arouse interest in the performance of employees in their jobs.
Need Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model Source: http://intuitiontellsmeso.wordpress.com
Implication of Maslow’s Theoryof Motivation of Motivation• HRM policies and practices should pay attention to all of these needs – ranging from the most basic to the highest in order to achieve the overall goals of the organization.• It is not enough that the individual employees are provided with their basic physiological and psychological needs but they have to be given the opportunity to participate in decision making processes in such a way that will be able to realize their own growth, development, and potential.
Need Theories of Motivation Alderfer’s ERG Theory of MotivationSource:http://www.managementstudyguide.com/erg-theory- motivation.htm
a. Existence needs - include need for basic material necessities or it include an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs.b. Relatedness needs - include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships, getting public fame and recognition. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need.c. Growth needs - include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.
Implications of the ERG• Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time.• According to the ERG theory, if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time, this will not effectively motivate the employee.
Need Theories of MotivationMcClelland’s Theory of Needs / Achievement Motivation TheorySource: projectperfect.com.au
McClelland’s Theory of Needs /Achievement Motivation Theory David McClelland and his associates proposed this theory states that human behavior is affected by three needs: a. Need for achievement is the urge to excel, to accomplish in relation to a set of standards, to struggle to achieve success.
McClelland’s Theory of Needs /Achievement Motivation Theoryb. Need for power is the desire to influence other individual’s behavior as per your wish. In other words, it is the desire to have control over others and to be influential.c. Need for affiliation is a need for open and sociable interpersonal relationships. In other words, it is a desire for relationship based on co-operation and mutual Source:seanverret.com understanding.
Implication of McClelland’sTheory for HRMIn designing and managing HR policies and practices, the HR practitioner should assume that all personnel have the potential for growth and development. Therefore, the agency must always provide the employees with ample opportunities for training and education, for promotion, and other personnel development.
Implication of McClelland’sTheory for HRM • Supervisors, directors, or managers with a strong drive for power should have training in effective interpersonal and group skills so that their leadership skills will be used for enhancing the spirit of teamwork rather than for dominating or stifling creativity among subordinates.
Management Theories of MotivationTheory X presents a pessimistic view of employees’ nature and behavior at work Assumptions of Theory X•An average employee intrinsically does not likework and tries to escape it whenever possible.•Since the employee does not want to work, he mustbe persuaded, compelled, or warned withpunishment so as to achieve organizational goals. Aclose supervision is required on part of managers.The managers adopt a more dictatorial style.
Management Theories of Motivation Assumptions of Theory X•Many employees rank job security on top,and they have little or no aspiration/ ambition.•Employees generally dislike responsibilities.•Employees resist change.•An average employee needs formal direction.
Management Theories of Motivation Theory Y presents an optimistic view of the employees’ nature and behavior at work Assumptions of Theory Y•Employees can perceive their job as relaxing andnormal. They exercise their physical and mentalefforts in an inherent manner in their jobs.•Employees may not require only threat, externalcontrol and coercion to work, but they can use self-direction and self-control if they are dedicated andsincere to achieve the organizational objectives.
Management Theories of Motivation• If the job is rewarding and satisfying, then it will result in employees’ loyalty and commitment to organization.• An average employee can learn to admit and recognize the responsibility. In fact, he can even learn to obtain responsibility.• The employees have skills and capabilities. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized. In other words, the creativity, resourcefulness and innovative potentiality of the employees can be utilized to solve organizational problems.
Implications of Theory X and Theory Y Theory X encourages use of tight control and supervision. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Thus, it does not encourage innovation.
Implications of Theory X and Theory YTheory Y implies that the managers shouldcreate and encourage a work environmentwhich provides opportunities to employees totake initiative and self-direction. Employeesshould be given opportunities to contribute toorganizational well-being. Theory Yencourages decentralization of authority,teamwork and participative decision makingin an organization.
Other Theories of Motivation• Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, abehavioral scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. There are some job factorsthat result in satisfaction while thereare other job factors that preventdissatisfaction. According toHerzberg, the opposite of“Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction”and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction”is “No Dissatisfaction”.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of MotivationSource:http://www.managementstudyguide.com/herzbergs-theory-motivation
Hygiene factors - job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Source:learn.lawline.com
• Motivational factors - hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. The motivational factors yield m• positive satisfaction. These factors are inherent to work. These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance. The motivators symbolized the psychological Source: drtareksweedan.blogspot needs that were perceived as an additional benefit. drtareksweedan.blogspot.com
Implication of Herzberg’s TheoryManagers must stress upon guaranteeing the adequacy ofthe hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction.Also, the managers must make sure that the work isstimulating and rewarding so that the employees aremotivated to work and perform harder and better. Thistheory emphasize upon job-enrichment so as to motivatethe employees. The job must utilize the employee’s skillsand competencies to the maximum. Focusing on themotivational factors can improve work-quality.
Other Theories of MotivationGoal-Setting Theory of Motivation In 1960’s, Edwin Locke putforward the Goal-setting theory ofmotivation. This theory states thatgoal setting is essentially linked totask performance. It states thatspecific and challenging goals alongwith appropriate feedback contributeto higher and better taskperformance. In simple words, goalsindicate and give direction to anemployee about what needs to be Source: gostrengths.comdone and how much efforts arerequired to be put in.
Implication of Goal Setting Theory Managers must emphasize to their employees the goal/s of the company so as to make clear what theSource:paulkeetch.com employees are expected to do. The managers must also know how to raise incentives for employees to complete work quickly and effectively.
Other Theories of Motivation Reinforcement Theory of Motivation This was proposed by BF Skinner and hisassociates. It states that individual’s behavior is afunction of its consequences. It is based on “lawof effect”, i.e, individual’s behavior with positiveconsequences tends to be repeated, butindividual’s behavior with negative consequencestends not to be repeated.
Implication of Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behavior. Managers who are making attempt to motivate the employees must ensure that they do not reward all employees simultaneously. They must tell the employees what they are not doing correct. They must tell the employees how they can achieve positive reinforcement.
Other Theories of Motivation Equity Theory The core of the equity theory is the principle ofbalance or equity. As per this motivation theory, anindividual’s motivation level is correlated to his perception ofequity, fairness and justice practiced by the management.
Implication of Equity Theory Managers must know how to treat theiremployees with all fairness and justice, notonly to attain the goals of the company, butalso to boost the morale of each of theemployees.
SUMMARY Motivation is an internal feeling whichcan be understood only by manager since heis in close contact with the employees. Needs,wants and desires are inter-related and theyare the driving force to act. These needs canbe understood by the manager and he canframe motivation plans accordingly.
SUMMARY Motivation therefore is acontinuous process since motivationprocess is based on needs which areunlimited. The process has to becontinued throughout.
ReferenceLegaspi, Perla. Human Resource DevelopmentOpen University UP Diliman Quezon City 2002