MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM -DISSERTATION ABSTRACT
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM ______________________ A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate School LYCEUM – NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Dagupan City _______________________________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement for the Degree Doctor in Public Administration By: MELITON G. DASSUN April 2010
CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEETThis thesis proposal entitled “MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ONPOVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTORPROGRAM”, prepared and submitted by MELITON G. DASSUN in partialfulfillment of the requirements for the degree DOCTOR IN PUBLICADMINISTRATION” has been prepared and submitted for oral defense. The reading committee found the thesis acceptable in accordancewith the requirements and standards in thesis writings. He isrecommended for Final Oral Examination on his thesis on March 2, 2010. Thesis Committee ROMANA O. FABREGAS, Ph.D. ChairmanJOSEPHILE T. FLORES, DPA JOSEFINA B. BITONIO, DPA Adviser Member JOSEFINA C. ARMAS, CPA, DBA Member
The Philippines as a member of the United Nations, is a signatory to theMillennium Declaration and has made the MDGs as the core of developmentagenda of its government. Thus, the formulation of the Medium Term PhilippineDevelopment Plan (MTPDP) 2004 -2010 had once again included the over-all goalto fight poverty and seek the attainment of the MDG and targets by 2015. ThePhilippines has consistently posted growth over the years, including last year whenit was one of the few countries that manages to grow despite the global economiccrisis. The Philippines grew by 0.9 per cent in 2009, avoiding a recession. Despitesustained growth over the years, the Philippines failed to reduce poverty incidencerate. Latest data from the National Statistics Office showed the proportion of poorpeople to the country’s total population stood at 33 percent as of 2006, up from 30percent in 2003 Pangasinan which is the setting of the study is no exception to the problemof poverty confronting the country or worldwide. The province is subdivided into44 municipalities and 4 cities comprising 1,364 barangays (which means“villages”) scattered within the six (6) political districts. The capital town isLingayen now a first class municipality based on 2007 income classification.According to a study conducted by the NSCB, Pangasinan has a poverty incidenceof 34.62 percent and rank 59th among the 81 provinces of the country. Theprovince itself has considerable number of 4th to 6th class municipalities which can
be an interesting study for the province’s poverty alleviation program. With the narrative presentations of the related issues and concerns includingthe manifestations of every government administrations to deal with it, still, theproblem of poverty persists to date. In fact, UP Professors Lichauco, an economistand Briones, a writer usually referred poverty as a chronic problem perpetuallydisturbing Philippine society. By sheer observation, poverty situation hadworsened over the years. Arguably, there had been various interventions introduced in the country toadvance its development since the post war era. This started with the warreparation and rehabilitation for the entire archipelago as a condition imposed uponby the United States of America to Japan to bring back or reactivate thePhilippines’ economy for the general welfare of its citizenry. The preponderance ofdevelopment advancement came with the development decade as propounded by aUniversity Professor and writer Briones, there is no doubt that the identified meansto develop or progress presented above have been in the forefront of developmentefforts by almost all administration since then. One document to prove this is theformulation of a development plan as basis of implementation to address theproblem of poverty for our country. It should be emphasized that almost alladministrations manifested their concern towards poverty alleviation especially inthe countryside over the past several years.
The MTPDP 2004 - 2010 also includes 13 key issues that will guide theMacapagal administration in its development and peace efforts, such as: 1.ensuringsustained growth with equity and macroeconomic stability; 2.Promoting full,decent and productive employment; 3.enhancing capacities through health,education and housing; 4.protecting vulnerable groups; 5.acceleratingcomprehensive rural development; 6. gearing for international competitiveness inindustry and services; 7. putting the Philippines in the international tourism map; 8.strengthening private-public partnership in infrastructure development; 9.bridgingthe digital divide, information and communication technology; 10.reducing theregional disparities and spatial development; 11.creating competitive and livablecities and urban areas; 12. Pursuing sustained peace and development in Mindanao,and 13. Improving the quality of life through good governance. The four primary strategies concomitant to the solving of poverty are:1) Macroeconomic stability and equitable growth, using sound fiscal and monetarypolicies to keep inflation low and avoid surges in unemployment; modernize allsectors through HR development and technology; 2) Comprehensive HRdevelopment, basic education, health, shelter, water, electricity; safety nets formost vulnerable sectors; encouraging poor to participate in governance;3) Modernization of agricultural sector with social equity; agrarian reform,improving rural infrastructure, implementing land reform; and 4) Effective
governance through transparency, reducing graft and corruption, strengtheningpartnerships with civil society and the private sector. Poverty is conceptualized broadly, taking into account not only income butits impact in terms of human deprivation, development, and quality of life.Likewise, in her inaugural address she delivered on June 30, 2004, PresidentGloria Macapagal Arroyo unveiled her administration’s Ten-Point Agenda fordevelopment, as follows: 1. Create 6 to tem millions jobs until 2010; 2. Educationfor all children in computer-equipped schools; 3. Balanced budget by 2009;4. Connecting the country through transportation networks and technology;5. Providing power and water to every part of the archipelago; 6. Reducecongestion in Metro-Manila by creating government centers in Luzon, Visayas andMindanao; 7. Develop Subic and Clark into service and logistics centers inSoutheast Asia; 8. Automation of the electoral process; 9. Reach just conclusionto separate peace processes with the communists and Muslim rebels; 10. Reach“just” closure of the divisive issues generated by the people power of 1986 and2000.Statement of the Problem This study assessed the implementation of the millennium development goalon poverty alleviation in Pangasinan specifically under the agriculture sectorprogram of government.
Specifically, the study sought to answer the hereunder sub-problems:1. What is the status of the province of Pangasinan relative to the Millennium Development Goal on poverty alleviation in terms of: a. Survival Indicators 1. Access to food 2. Water 3. Health services b. Livelihood 1. Education 2. Income 3. Access to electricity2. What are the programs and projects being implemented by the Provincial Government of Pangasinan to alleviate poverty and hunger along the aforecited indicators?3. What are the strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of the programs and projects by the province of Pangasinan as perceived by the following respondents viz: government organizations, private sectors and civil societies? 3.1 Is there a significant difference among the perceptions of the three (3) groups of respondents regarding the strengths and
weaknesses in the implementation of the programs and projects in the province of Pangasinan? 4. What are the policy reforms which can be proposed to ensure sustainability of the implementation of the programs and projects to alleviate poverty and hunger? Figure 1. Paradigm Showing the Schematic Relationship of the Variables in the Study The descriptive research method was utilized in the study. Documentaryanalysis was conducted based on the data or information contained in the annualreports of current years 2004 to 2009 being submitted by the Provincial
Government of Pangasinan to the National Economic and Development Authority,Regional Office I, San Fernando, City, La Union. Pangasinan is composed of four (4) cities (1 independent component city and 3 component cities, and forty four (44) municipalities. It ranks 3rd in terms of population and 14th in terms of area among the provinces Only the 4th to 6th classmunicipalities are selected for purposes of the study. This is because the mentioned lower class municipalities are considered to have a higher degree of poverty andhunger incidence that those developed or progressive municipalities with the four cities of Pangasinan. The study will involve five hundred ten (510) respondents equally distributed with ten (10) respondents per sector viz: government organizations (GOs), private sector (PS) and civil society organizations (CSOs) Summary of Findings Millennium Development Goals. The study revealed that the top five (5)disbursements made relative to the implemented MDGs for the six (6 year) periodincludes the construction, repair and maintenance of provincial, municipal andbarangays roads in the province; construction of new school buildings, repair andmaintenance of old and dilapidated ones; provision for skills training or thePangulong Gloria Scholarship Program; maintenance; construction of multi-purpose buildings, repair and maintenance of dilapidated ones; and enrolment ofindigents to the health insurance program of the government.
Indicators of the Study. In terms of the disbursements made relative withthe indicators of the study arranged from the highest to the lowest are access toeducation -P272,755,092.63; access to food – P176,533,754.13; access to health –P113,647,122.75; access to income – P11,299,500.00 and access to water –P11,254,131.53 and zero to access to electricity. The total disbursement madereflected above is P539,600,403.48 out of the total disbursement ofP950,647,329.96 for all implemented MDGs in the province. Areas Covered. In terms of the areas covered during the three year periodof the study, the top five (5) disbursement made in the order from highest to lowestwas given to Lingayen – P44,241,764.00; Asingan – P37,524,606.00; DagupanCity – P36,500,000.00; Urdaneta City – P27,248,492.00; and Binalonan –P9,025,740.00. On the other hand, the municipalities of Agno, San Fabian,Bautista, Sto. Tomas and Villasis during the three year period also had not receivedany disbursement relative to the implemented MDGs in the province. Note here,that no one among those which received the highest disbursement belongs to the 4thto 6th class municipalities. The total disbursement made determinable for the three year period in the 4 thto 6th class municipalities is P92,853,485.00 only. The disbursement made does notnecessarily relate with the indicators of the study. The largest amount thereforewas disbursed to the four (4) cities and 1st to 3rd class municipalities of the
province. Corollary to this, the top five municipalities belonging to the 4 th to 6thclass municipalities in the order from largest to the smallest disbursement areDasol (P13,242,526.94 -15.85%), Balungao (12,244,511.00 – 14.71%), Mabini(11,415,043.00 – 13.68%), Infanta (9,418,659.00 – 10.95%) and Burgos(P9,083,635.00 – 10.88%) while the lowest in the ascending order are Sto. Tomas(0), Bautista (0), Agno (0), San Quintin (P901,444.00 – 1.07% and Anda(P1,500,00.00 – 1.80%). Status of Implementation. Most of the implemented MDGs wereundertaken for several months by contract or direct implementation and some tookmore than a year for their completion. Strength and Weaknesses. In terms of the strength and weaknesses thestudy revealed that the three groups of respondents (GOs, PS, and CS) had anoverall average weighted point of “3.52” for the strengths with a descriptive valueof “moderately agree” while the average weighted point for weaknesses is 2.76with the same descriptive value of “moderately agree” to that of strengths. Conclusions On the basis of the summary of finding in the study, the followingconclusions were made. Millennium Development Goals. The disbursement for the implementedMDGs were mostly related to infrastructure, social and economic development, all
of which are related to the indicators of the study but to certain degree the top fivedisbursement do not include access to food, access to water and access toelectricity. Indicators of the study. On the indicators of the study, the provincialleaderships concentrated to the disbursement for the top three related povertyalleviation programs such as education, food and health. A smaller amount ofdisbursement related to the indicators of the study was given to water and income. Areas Covered. In terms of areas covered the implemented MDGs relateddisbursements during the three year period embraces all the cities andmunicipalities but the 4th to 6th municipalities got a much smaller disbursementsthan the cities and the 1st to 3rd municipalities in the province. Status of Implementation. In terms of the status of implementation, mostof the projects undertaken were accomplished through contracting and some arenot. There are similar projects which took a longer period of completion while theothers are updated in their contract commitment. Strength and Weaknesses. In terms of strengths and weaknesses, there isan appreciation by the three groups of respondents that the strength andweaknesses are just moderate. The three groups of respondents had not indicated aso much difference in their rating as shown by the descriptive value of “moderatelyagree.
Recommendations On the basis of the summary of findings and conclusions, the following arethe recommendations. 1. There should be a proportionate distribution in the allocation of fundsin the disbursement in terms of projects and activities being for the povertyalleviation program as called for in the commitment for the MDGs. 2. Since food problems affect every sector of the society, it should havea larger share in fund allocations, followed by education, health, water and income.Maintain the non-allocation and disbursement related with access to electricity tothe power sector. 3. Strict implementation of the period required for undertaking projectsand activities should be observed. 4. The policy reforms arrived at in the analysis should be adopted tostrength and improved the implementation of MDGs in the province. Policy Reforms Hereunder are the policy reforms proposed to ensure sustainability of theimplementation of the programs and projects to alleviate poverty and hunger. 1. More financial resources should be allotted for the 4th to 6th classmunicipalities to support the delivery of the minimum basic needs of themarginalized members of the society.
2. Create more jobs by encouraging the business community to establishtheir business in the province to allow job seekers the opportunity to improve theirliving conditions. 3. Institutionalization of lending assistance to micro enterprises such aswomen’s clubs, associations, cooperatives and small medium scale enterprises. 4. Proportionate allocation of resources on a mandatory basis based onthe classification of the 4th to 6th class municipalities.