Other Elements of the Research Problem <ul><li>Level of Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Theoret...
Level of Measurements of Variables Level of Measurements 1.  Nominal -  Simply naming like sex, color, rank but not cardin...
Summary on the Research Questions, Data Source, Response Type, Data Type and Analysis Plan Research Question Data Source R...
Developing Indicators - Descending the ladder of abstraction- process of moving from abstract concepts to the point where ...
Problems to deal in developing indicators -  how many indicators to use -  how to develop the indicators - how to form ite...
1.When there is no agreed way of measuring a concept, it may be helpful to develop indicators for a range of definitions a...
<ul><li>How to Develop Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Use measures developed in previous research. </li></ul><ul><li>Use les...
3. Ensure that the key concepts are thoroughly measured. 4. Typically attitudes and opinions are complex and are best meas...
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative research  is used to answer questions about relationships among  m...
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative research  seeks  explanations  and  predictions  for purposes of  ...
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Parts equal the whole Whole is greater than the parts Tests Theory Develops the...
 
-  Should not be viewed as mutually exclusive -  Quantitative research has intrinsic qualitative aspects -  Qualitative as...
Reference: Paul D. Leddy and Jenne Ellis Ormond. 2001.  Linking Data and Research Methodology , in  Practical Research Pla...
Indicators <ul><li>variables are complex and cannot be adequately measured by just one operational definition, indicators ...
Indicators   –  measure/variables /concepts that represent a particular item/category of a variable -  Operationalization ...
Theoretical Framework Theories are used to support/contradict findings of study w/c later may use to improve the theory
Conceptual Framework -  A written or visual presentation that explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main ...
What are the general forms of a  conceptual framework? Set out the stages through which an action moves from initiation to...
<ul><li>Content frameworks  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set out the variables, and  relationship (with relative strengths) betwe...
<ul><ul><li>The ability to move beyond descriptions of ‘what’ to explanations of ‘why’ and ‘how’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
2.  LAURIE S. RAMIRO, Ph.D. Doing Research Department of Behavioural Sciences College of Arts and Sciences University of t...
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Lo3 Other Elements of Research

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Lo3 Other Elements of Research

  1. 1. Other Elements of the Research Problem <ul><li>Level of Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual </li></ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul>
  2. 2. Level of Measurements of Variables Level of Measurements 1. Nominal - Simply naming like sex, color, rank but not cardinal <ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul>- Categorized & rank (birth order: 1st, 2 nd , etc) <ul><li>Interval </li></ul>- Categorized/ rank by distinguishing the distance of 1 point to another Ex. IQ 85%, 86% 4. Ratio <ul><li>categorized, rank, know the distance i.e true value of zero </li></ul><ul><li>(experimental research) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Summary on the Research Questions, Data Source, Response Type, Data Type and Analysis Plan Research Question Data Source Response Type Data Type Analysis Plan 1.Extent of the cooperative’s collective action in terms of steering capability, consensus building, resource mobilization, utilization and cooperation Officers/staff responses Likert Scale Interval Frequency, percentage, average weighted mean 2.level of governance being practiced by cooperatives along: transparency, accountability, predictability and participation Officers/staff responses Likert Scale Interval Frequency, percentage, average weighted mean 3.performance management indicators: norms, resource management, organizational capability, capability building and institutional mechanism Officers/staff responses Likert Scale Interval The following is the assumed formula for the measurement of the management performance of the Cooperative: P c = N (R+O+C+I)+G Whereas: P c = Performance of the Cooperative N= Norms R= Resources O= Organizational Capability C=Capability building I= Institutional Mechanism G= Good Governance Note: N is multiplied to R-O-C-I because important norms must be present in all Cooperative’s aspects. Norm formation is a critical aspect before the start of membership in Cooperatives. Upon their membership, members must already understand the norms (cognitive and behavioral) of the Cooperatives in order to adapt to the challenges and culture of the organization. Research Question Data Source Response Type Data Type Analysis Plan 1.Extent of the cooperative’s collective action in terms of steering capability, consensus building, resource mobilization, utilization and cooperation Officers/staff responses Likert Scale Interval Frequency, percentage, average weighted mean 2.level of governance being practiced by cooperatives along: transparency, accountability, predictability and participation Officers/staff responses Likert Scale Interval Frequency, percentage, average weighted mean
  4. 4. Developing Indicators - Descending the ladder of abstraction- process of moving from abstract concepts to the point where we can develop questionnaire items to tap the concept. -moving from the broad to the specific, from the abstract to the concrete.
  5. 5. Problems to deal in developing indicators - how many indicators to use - how to develop the indicators - how to form items into a questionnaire
  6. 6. 1.When there is no agreed way of measuring a concept, it may be helpful to develop indicators for a range of definitions and see what difference this makes to the results and interpretations. 2. If the concept is multidimensional, consider whether you are really interested in all dimensions. How many indicators to use?
  7. 7. <ul><li>How to Develop Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Use measures developed in previous research. </li></ul><ul><li>Use less structured approach to data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Use informants from the group to be surveyed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Ensure that the key concepts are thoroughly measured. 4. Typically attitudes and opinions are complex and are best measured with a number of questions to capture the scope of the concept. 5. Pilot testing indicators is a way of eliminating unnecessary questions.
  9. 9. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative research is used to answer questions about relationships among measured variables with the purpose of explaining, predicting and controlling phenomenon. Qualitative research answers questions about the complex nature of phenomena , with the purpose of describing and understanding the phenomena from the participants’ point of view ( emic)... also referred to as the interpretive , constructivist , or post-positivist approach
  10. 10. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative research seeks explanations and predictions for purposes of generalization to other persons or places Qualitative research seeks a better understanding of complex situations, often exploratory in nature, and may use their observations to build from the ground up
  11. 11. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Parts equal the whole Whole is greater than the parts Tests Theory Develops theory Instruments Communication and observation Basic Element of analysis (number) Basic Element of analysis (word) Report statistical analyses Report rich narrative, individual interpretation Generalization Uniqueness Researcher separate Researcher part of research process Subjects Participants Context free Context dependent
  12. 13. - Should not be viewed as mutually exclusive - Quantitative research has intrinsic qualitative aspects - Qualitative assessments may be needed to explain or make full use of quantitative work Quantitative and Qualitative Research
  13. 14. Reference: Paul D. Leddy and Jenne Ellis Ormond. 2001. Linking Data and Research Methodology , in Practical Research Planning and Design . <ul><li>Literary, narrative writing </li></ul><ul><li>attention to detail </li></ul><ul><li>Technical scientific writing </li></ul>8. Your writing skills are strong in the area of: <ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul>7. You have skills in areas of: <ul><li>Low </li></ul><ul><li>High </li></ul>6. Your desire for structure is: <ul><li>High work with people </li></ul><ul><li>Medium or low </li></ul>5. Your ability and desire to work with people is: <ul><li>Involves in-depth </li></ul><ul><li>Covers a lot of breadth </li></ul>4. Your research focus: <ul><li>Relatively long </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively short </li></ul>3. The available literature is: <ul><li>Exploratory interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory/predictive </li></ul>2. Your research question is: <ul><li>There are multiple Possible realities constructed by different individuals </li></ul><ul><li>There is an objective reality that can be measured. </li></ul>1. If you believe that: Qualitative Quantitative Use this approach if :
  14. 15. Indicators <ul><li>variables are complex and cannot be adequately measured by just one operational definition, indicators are formulated </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators are attributed or properties that characterize a complex variable </li></ul>
  15. 16. Indicators – measure/variables /concepts that represent a particular item/category of a variable - Operationalization of a concept to come up with an indicator Ex: Elements of Governance Transparency (financial & social)
  16. 17. Theoretical Framework Theories are used to support/contradict findings of study w/c later may use to improve the theory
  17. 18. Conceptual Framework - A written or visual presentation that explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main things to be studied – the key factors, concepts or variables and the presumed relationships among them (UP IMRI, 2011)
  18. 19. What are the general forms of a conceptual framework? Set out the stages through which an action moves from initiation to conclusion. These relate to the ‘how?’ question <ul><li>Framework </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Content frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set out the variables, and relationship (with relative strengths) between them, that together answer the ‘what and why?’ questions. </li></ul></ul>What are the general forms of a conceptual framework?
  20. 21. <ul><ul><li>The ability to move beyond descriptions of ‘what’ to explanations of ‘why’ and ‘how’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A means of explaining the data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A filtering tool for selecting appropriate research questions and related data collection methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reference structure for the discussion of results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boundaries of the work. </li></ul></ul>Why are conceptual frameworks useful?
  21. 22. 2. LAURIE S. RAMIRO, Ph.D. Doing Research Department of Behavioural Sciences College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines Manila References <ul><li>Dr. Ruby Cruz - Lecture on Research & Statistics 2011 PSU, Urdaneta City, Pangasinan </li></ul>

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