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LO2 Elements of the Research Problem

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Social Research …

Social Research
PCL Lecture Oct 19-21, 2011
LNU Dagupan City

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  • Offshoot - branch
  • Ha alternative research

Transcript

  • 1.
    • Lo2 Elements of the Research Problem
    • The Research Problem
    • Variables
    • Hypothesis
    • Operational Definition
  • 2. Identifying Researchable Problem - be truly sensitive to what is happening in the environment -must identify and choose research problem that is not only worthy of time, money and effort but is academically significant as well Getting Started
  • 3. Where do research topics come from?
    • practical problems in the field
    • literature in your specific field
    • Office/classroom discussion
    • Technological and scientific
    • advancement
    • Offshoots of other researches
  • 4.
    • Subject – what problem situation or issue do I like to study?
    • Topic – what aspect of this problem/situation interest me most
    Where do research topics come from?
  • 5. Factors that Influence the Selection of a Problem Personal – interest and training cost and time External - Availability of related information Recency/importance of the issue Facilities and equipment
  • 6. Research is finding answers to a question through the use of scientific methods .
  • 7. Overview of the Research Process From Nachmias and Nachmias and Babbie, 2000 Theory Deductive phase Problem Hypothesis Research Design Measurement Data Collection Data Analysis Generalization Inductive phase
  • 8. Inductive – theory construction Deductive – theory testing
  • 9. The Research Problem DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION AND GOVERNANCE OF MUNICIPAL AND CITY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS IN PANGASINAN DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION AND GOVERNANCE OF MUNICIPAL AND CITY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS IN PANGASINAN DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION AND GOVERNANCE OF MUNICIPAL AND CITY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS IN PANGASINAN DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION AND GOVERNANCE OF MUNICIPAL AND CITY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS IN PANGASINAN DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION AND GOVERNANCE OF MUNICIPAL AND CITY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS IN PANGASINAN Development Orientation and Governance of Municipal and City Government in the Province of Pangasinan
  • 10. The Research Problem Essential Actions for Local Government Units Revenue Mobilization
  • 11. The Research Problem Strengthening The Local Government Units: Public Private Partnership
  • 12.
    • Must be definitive
    • Clear & Specific
    • Not to exceed 15 words
    • written in inverted pyramid
    The Research Problem
  • 13.
    • introduces the work to a reader
    • give impression that the contents are
    • desirable and deserve a deeper look
    • helps the reader to know whether the
    • contents are within his range of interest
    The Research Problem
  • 14. Variables (Anything that varies) Independent Variable (presumed cause) Dependent Variable (presumed effect V A R I A B L E S
  • 15. Variables Independent Variable (presumed cause) Dependent Variable (presumed effect Intervening Variable (Anything that may enhance or limit the effect of IV& DV)
  • 16. IV DV InV Variables Educational Attainment Income Position
  • 17. Hypothesis (intelligent Guess) Research (Ha) Null (Ho)
    • Difference and
    • Relationship
    • exist
    • No difference
    • No relationship
    • that exist
    Ha1 There is a relationship between educational attainment and income (Ha)
  • 18. Ha1 There is a relationship between educational attainment and income Ho 1 There is no relationship between educational attainment and income
  • 19. Operational Definition This section includes important or key terms used in this study. These are conceptually and operationally defined in order to facilitate understanding of the study and to avoid ambiguous meaning of terms which otherwise will be interpreted in different ways. Development Orientation. This constitutes the frame of reference of municipal and city government officials in assessing their behavior on variables such as change orientation, action propensity, commitment to economic development, concern for conflict avoidance and selflessness toward their governance in Pangsinan. Change Orientation. This features the municipal and city government officials’ willingness to develop and implement new and untried ways of acting and doing things. It is characterize by the introduction of innovation and reform in the existing political, economic and social modalities have to be introduced. Title: Development Orientation and Governance of Municipal and City Government in the Province of Pangasinan
  • 20. Title: Development Orientation and Governance of Municipal and City Government in the Province of Pangasinan
  • 21. Statement of Problem This study seeks to assess the development orientation and governance of the municipal and city government officials in Pangasinan. More specifically, the study will seek to answer the following problems: 1. What is the personal profile of the municipal and city government officials in terms of the following variables: a. age; b. gender; c. civil status; d. highest educational attainment; e. position, and f. length of service in the present position
  • 22. Statement of Problem 2. What is the development orientation of the municipal and city government officials along the following dimensions: a. change orientation; b. action propensity; c. commitment to economic development; d. concern for conflict avoidance; and e. selflessness? 3. What are the manifestations of governance among municipal and city government officials along the following aspects: a. accountability; b. participatory; c. predictability, and d. transparency?
  • 23. Hypotheses
    • The following research hypotheses will be stated in the null form and will be tested at the .05 level of significance.
    • There is a significant relationship between the development orientation and governance of the government officials.
    • 2. There is a significant difference in the development orientation and governance of the government officials across their personal profile variables.
  • 24. Significance of the Study Pursuing this study is considered significant, for it will provide some insights and information to the following: The Local Government Authorities. The results of this study will provide empirical data on the development orientation and governance of municipal and city government officials which will be the basis for planning programs for constructive assistance like human resource development strategies in the form of trainings, seminars, workshops to upgrade individual competences of government officials and for the councils on the whole to make them more equipped and responsive legislative bodies The Citizens. In the light of Local Government Code of 1991, local legislation is said to be effective only to the extent that it addresses the needs, problems and aspirations of the people through ordinances and aspirations of local application. The Respondents. This endeavor will stimulate municipal and city government officials to reflect on their capability and at the same time encourage them to keep abreast with development issues that may help them become more sensitive to needs and interest of the people they represent. .
  • 25. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT National/Local Policies and budget for Social Services (Health, Education, Social Welfare and Protection & Housing) Social facilities, Typhoon resistant , School building, hospitals, communication facilities Scholarship programs Training programs/ capacity building Livelihood/ financial assistance Legal instruments/ policies Infrastructure Support Facilities Health and Nutrition and Population programs /services
    • NGA-LGU Collaboration
    • LGU Support
    • Advocacy/IEC
    • Public – Private Partnership
    Job/Employment Opportunities Skilled/Competent Manpower Adaptive/Resilient Communities Road Network/Rural Service Centers Social Protection Schemes
  • 26.
    • Reference :
    • Dr Ruby Cruz - Lecture on Research & Statistics 2011 PSU, Urdaneta City, Pangasinan
    • Local Government in the Philippines
    • A Book of readings Volume 1
    • UP NCPAG, Diliman, Quezon City
    • 2001
    • 3. W. Lawrence Newman
    • Social Research Methods 6 th Ed
    • University of Wisconsin at Whitewater 2006
    • UP IMRI Manila
    • Lecture on Doing Research
    • PUNP, 2011
    • NEDA RO1`
    • Regional Development Plan 2011-2016
  • 27. The participants will be divided according to their group in the morning session. They will choose a topic from their list, formulate a statement of problem, hypothesis, significance of the study and identify the variables involved. 4:00-5:00 Presentation of workshop output Workshop