Rogelio R. Corpuz M.M.E IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION Prof. Jo B. Bitonio ME 217 Strategic Management …….. Loading
Implementation This phase of the planning process answers the following queries: “How do we execute the plan?”Who is responsible with which activity?”How do we determine whether plans are implemented as planned?” Implementation is the act of carrying out the plans, programs and projects in accordance with the strategic plan in order to attain the set of goals and objectives.
It is in this context that Strategic Quality Management (SQM) is ushered in to cause these changes to happen and be implemented. It is to be recalled that SQM is the process by which an organization formulates plans, objectives and strategies (strategic planning), allocates resources for plans, programs and projects (organizational resources), and identifies accountable entities, managers and front-line workers (organizational structure),in the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of said plans and programs (strategic control).
More particularly therefore, the component on strategic control has to be mobilized to implement the formulated strategic plan. The suggested contents of this phase of the planning process are:
Structure and Governance Institutional and Individual Accountability Plan Financing Plan Execution a. Preparation of Annual Plans and Annual Budget Estimates b. Monitoring of Programs and Projects
Structure and Governance For any organization to be able to operate and attain the purposes for which it was created, it has to have its formal structure. Formal structure is the established patterns of relationships among the component units of the organization. The structure of an organization serves three basic functions.
First, structure designates formal reporting relationships including the number of levels in the hierarchy and the span of control of managers and supervisors. Second, structure identifies the grouping together of individuals into departments and of the different departments into the total organization. Third, structure includes the design of systems to ensure effective communications, coordination and integration of efforts across departments.
Formal structure, therefore, governs the component parts of the organization be the individuals, units, sections, departments and divisions. These relationships are clearly depicted in the organizational chart of the organization. The organizational chart, in printed illustration of boxes of positions and functions, is the typical way of showing the formal structure and communication network n the organization.
To ascertain the efficient and effective implementation of the plan, programs and projects and strong and effective governance of the entire university or college, an operating and functional chart should be in place and duly approved by the Board. To underscore who is responsible with what activities, function and responsibilities of top executives and staff officials should be explicitly spelled out. This would avoid ambiguity, conflict and buck-passing.
Institutional and Individual Accountability The major structures that implement the various programs and projects in the plan are the component colleges, academic units, divisions, institutes, centers and other units in the university or college. Accountable academic executives, managers and administrative officers of major programs and projects should be so identified and their functions and responsibilities specified.
Mention should be made of the role of the faculty members and support staff in these activities. Every faculty member should be accounted for in this respect so presenting their profile, gender, education and training and academic ranks would help. The same is true of the support staff as to their number, gender, education and training and ratio with the faculty.
Significant issues and problems that affect future operations and management of programs and projects should be earlier mentioned. This would give appropriate warning signals to accountable and responsible officials and implementers of said programs and projects to devise corrective if not alternative solutions and strategies to minimize if not totally overcome said problems.
Plan Financing Financial requirements of strategic plan, whether this is a five-year or ten-year plan, should be included in this section. It should indicate in summary table the projected amounts by calendar or academic year broken down into Current Operating expenses and Capital Outlay. If data are available for Personal services and Maintenance and Other Operating Expenditures including them would give implanters the wide perspective of proposed budgets.
Plan Execution The organizational structure through the organizational chart delineates relationships between individuals in the organization and identifies which positions have power in which decisions are made and in which the organizational activities are carried out. Resources in terms of manpower and projected budgets are allocated for each program and project in the plan. Having spelled out all of this, the next logical step is the implementation of the plan.
Plan execution requires the preparation of annual actual plans and their corresponding annual budget estimates, and the monitoring of programs and projects.
Preparation of Annual Action Plans and Budget Estimates The implementation of a long-term plan requires the preparation of Annual Action Plans and its corresponding Annual Budget Estimates for every beginning and operating year of the entire coverage of the long term plan.
Monitoring of Programs and Projects Monitoring is the process of reporting system directed to gather information on the utilization of project inputs, on the unfolding of project activities, on timely generation of project outputs and on circumstances that are crucial to the efficient and effective implementation of the plan. This would provide feedback and devise corrective measures which can be executed at the right time by project managers and implementers.
Major objectives of monitoring Determine whether project inputs are efficiently used, whether processes are moving smoothly and whether outputs are approximating the goals and objectives. Determine whether actual project operation and implementation are preceding as planned. Effect immediate corrective measure when project implementation is not moving as originally planned. Give feedback to project managers and implementers with the end in view of improving project implementation further.
Evaluation and Plan Update This is the final phase of the strategic planning process. It seeks to answer the following questions. “How do we determine whether our goals and objectives are achieved?” Are they measurable and attainable?” A good strategic plan would not be complete if it does not have a framework for its own evaluation. Evaluation as a component of the strategic plan provides linchpin that makes strategic planning a cyclical and continuous process.
This demonstrated by the program and project outputs and outcomes in terms of effects and impacts which are all recycled as inputs in the planning process. Evaluation is the process of analyzing program and project inputs, transformation processes and the effect and impact of outputs and outcomes against explicitly stated goals and objectives. It seeks to identify the factors which are related to the performance and effectiveness of specific program and project to determine their feasibility,
to develop solution to problems in implementation and into develop more effective program or project in the future. What distinguishes evaluation from monitoring is that it goes beyond collection of data on relationship between program inputs and outputs but rather seeks to determine the effects and impact of the program or project
The major objectives of evaluation are: Determine the extent to which project goals, objectives and targets are achieved or not; Determine whom to attribute to any effects and changes that are discovered in the implementation and evaluation; Delineate conditions under which the project or program is effective or not; Determine any unanticipated consequences or side-effects of the project; and Determine whether a program or project should be modified, enriched or totally scrapped