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Reinventing Government in the Information Age
II.People’s Participation, Consensus Building, and Transparency through ICTs: Issues and Challenges for Governance in the Philippines
III. Shaping Organization Form Communication, Connection and Community
IV. ICTs and Employment: the Problem of Job Quality

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  1. 1. L/O/G/O www.themegallery.com DM Information Technology Management Presented to: Dr. Jo Bitonio Professor Presented by: Michael John D. Sison Master in Development Management (Public Management) Development Application & E-Governance September 14 & 21, 2013 Pangasinan State University (Urdaneta City Campus)
  2. 2. Topic Outline: I. Reinventing Government in the Information Age II. People‘s Participation, Consensus Building, and Transparency through ICTs: Issues and Challenges for Governance in the Philippines III. Shaping Organization Form Communication, Connection and Community IV. ICTs and Employment: the Problem of Job Quality
  3. 3. I. Reinventing Government in the Information Age • Reinventing government in the information age‘ means delivering of the ongoing reform components which are Increased efficiency, Decentralization, Increased accountability, Improved resource management and Mercerization) with a more overt role for information and with greater use of information technology (Heeks, Richard, 2001).
  4. 4. Reform components: • Efficiency Improvement – Processes and procedures modification to increase quality output, application of statistical quality control, implementation of citizen‘s satisfaction surveys, etc. • Decentralization - excellent decision assembly, knowledge in corporate and/or government directives and uniformity of policies and regulations. • Increased Performance & Resource Management - Clear policy emphasis on development and resource availability alterations, updated employee and management training, updated government materials, equipment and facilities.
  5. 5. Reform components: • Ability in Mercerization - Excellent market strategy, knowledge in e-Commerce, excellent planning and organizational strategy. • Accountability - Honest and true government service, service-oriented and prompt provision, courtesy and ownership towards citizens concern.
  6. 6. Definition of Terms • Public sector reform is generally defined as the change within public sector organizations that seeks to improve their performance. • ‗Information Age,’ is synonymous with emergence of an ‗information economy,‘ information society‘ or ‗post-industrial society.‘ • Information Technology (IT) defined as computing and telecommunications technologies that provide automatic means of handling information. • Information Systems (IS) defined as the systems of human and technology components that accept, store, process, output and transmit information.
  7. 7. General features of the information age: • the increasing importance of information, including the increasing visibility and value of information systems • the increasing use of information technology
  8. 8. Government Reinvention Reinventing government in the information age should mean two things that are different: • a much greater (i.e. more overt) role for information and information systems in the processes of change; and • a much greater (i.e. more widely employed) role for information technology in the processes of change.
  9. 9. Examples of information technology- supported reform IT does bring change and has three basic change potentials within reform: • Supplant – automatic existing human-executed processes which involve accepting, storing, processing, outputting or transmitting information (e.g. automation of existing clerical function). • Support – assist existing human-executed processes. For example, assisting existing processes of government decision making, communication and decision implementation. • Innovate – create new IT-executed processes or support new human –executed process. For example, creating new service delivery.
  10. 10. IT can bring four main benefits to the reform processes: • Cheaper – producing the same outputs at lower total cost. • More – producing more outputs at the same total cost. • Quicker – producing the same outputs at the same total cost in the same time, but to a higher quality standard. • For the first time – producing new outputs.
  11. 11. Proposed 2014 budget allows solons to use pork barrel for Internet access Malacañang has submitted to Congress a proposed P2.268- trillion budget for 2014 national budget which contains an option for legislators to provide free Internet access in public places using their Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF). CT Office (ICTO) is hoping to kick start the use TV White Space technologies – unused TV channels — to reach far-flung areas of the country. ICTO is looking at using the fund to conduct the pilot test of Cloud Top technology, which the agency is developing in collaboration with the DBM and Department of Education.
  12. 12. Pet Projects for 2014 worth P2.268-trillion Proposed 2014 budget allows solons to use pork barrel for Internet access
  13. 13. DOST bares P9-billion ‘Digital Empowerment Fund’ Unknown to many in the ICT industry, the national government has allocated P9 billion as budget for ―Digital Empowerment Fund‖ that can be tapped by public agencies to procure digital devices for their use. One of targeted beneficiaries of the fund, he said, are the public school teachers who can use their laptops or tablets to augment their teaching.
  14. 14. The government is currently implementing a host of IT projects under the iGov initiative, which is under e-Government masterplan (EGMP). A bigger S&T blueprint, Smarter Philippines, is also being rolled out by the DOST (http://newsbytes.ph/2013/07/05/dost- bares-p9b-digital-empowerment-fund/).
  15. 15. II. People’s participation, consensus building and transparency through ICTs: Issues and challenges for governance in the Philippines • Questions remain on whether Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can enable citizens to be better informed, more involved and participative in local governance. At the heart of every problem is the question of access. The idea of access refers to one‘s ability to reach or obtain something and it applies to both the physical and the virtual kind of access (Alampay, Erwin 2002).
  16. 16. ICT as a Basic Need, Basic Service The meaning of basic needs, range from the ―minimum physiological needs‖ (Carino as cited by Alampay, 2002) to a set of package identified by Misra and Plantilla (1983, Carino as cited by Alampay, 2002) which cover the following: • three basic necessities of life – food, water, clothing, etc. • needs which enhance the general welfare of the people • needs which improve access to the means of production and economic opportunities • needs which give a sense of security and freedom for decision making, such as human rights, political participation, social security, social defense and rule of law.
  17. 17. Access to ICTs At present, access to ICTs is seen as a means for promoting good governance (1) by increasing transparency, information and accountability; (2) by facilitating accurate decision-making and public participation; and (3) by enhancing the efficient delivery of goods and services (2001, Magno and Serafica as cited by Alampay in 2002).
  19. 19. The Participation Cycle Data Action/Plans/Services Information Data GOVERNMENT Information CITIZENS Feedback/Mobilization Access Assess Apply Act Act Apply Assess Access
  20. 20. Number of e-Government infrastructures in local government A study conducted by Llago in 2001 (cited by Alampay in 2002) shows that last July 2001, only 14% of provinces, 25% of cities and 1% of municipalities had an online presence in the Internet (refer to Table 1).
  21. 21. Table 1: Philippine Local Government Unit Official Websites Level Total # of LGUs LGUs w/ websites % Inaccessible/und er construction Province 79 11 13.9 5 City 113 28 24.8 10 Municipality 1, 496 14 0.93 3 Barangay 42, 000+ 0 0 3 TOTAL 53 It has been said that access remains one of the factors in slow adoption of Internet, however, availability of skilled personnel who could put the information on the web may be another issue to consider.
  22. 22. In terms of automation, however, some local governments were found to have achieved progress in real property tax administration, personnel management, administrative services, and even geographic information services.
  23. 23. By 2004, however, only three years after the implementation of the E-commerce Act, almost all local governments had an online presence (e-LGU project in 2004 as cited by Siar). Specifically, 97.5 percent of provinces (77 out of 79), 99 percent of cities (114 out of 115), and 99.7 percent of municipalities (1,496 out of 1,500) had websites. A major part of this development could be attributed to the enactment of the E-commerce Act and the implementation of subsequent programs to support the law‘s adoption by government agencies and LGUs.
  24. 24. Table 2: Distribution of City Government Websites by Region Region City websites (Total) Accessible (No.) Inaccessible (No.) Under construction (No.) Region 1 8 7 1 Region 2 3 3 0 Region 3 11 10 0 1 Region 4 12 9 2 1 Region 5 7 7 0 Region 6 16 13 3 Region 7 12 12 0 Region 8 4 3 1 Region 9 5 4 1 Region 10 8 8 0 Region 11 5 5 0 Region 12 5 5 0 Region 13 3 3 0
  25. 25. Table 2: Distribution of city government websites by region Region City websites (Total) Accessible (No.) Inaccessible (No.) Under construction (No.) ARMM 1 1 0 CAR 1 0 1 NCR 13 12 1 Total 114a 102 (89.47%) 10 (8.77%) 2 (1.75%) A The total number of Philippine city governments is 115 but one city (i.e. Palayan City) still had no website at the time of study (E- governance at the Local Government Level in the Philippines: An Assessment of City Government Websites by Siar, Sheila, Published in 2005).
  26. 26. EDSA I
  27. 27. EDSA II
  29. 29. ICT during Pres. Estrada’s time Websites such as www.halalan.com helped people understand the Philippine electoral process and inculcate in them the true meaning of suffrage. A mock election was also conducted online that simulated the electoral process including the giving the online voters an ―electronic‖ indelible ink on their ―virtual‖ right forefinger. Email and short message texting over mobile phones also became new mediums for educating and campaigning for (and against) candidates and programs. SMART telecom during the last national elections, developed an application wherein voters were able to determine their precinct numbers by texting through their cellular phones.
  30. 30. Usage of ICT to oust Pres. Estrada • Mass actions initiated via the Internet included the collection of one million signatures in 21 days through sites like www.eLAGDA.com.ph, which took advantage of the E-Commerce Act of Philippines allowing the electronic documents such as e-mails to be considered legal documents. Simultaneous to this, TV, radio and print media also kept close watch on impeachment trials.
  31. 31. EDSA III
  32. 32. Analyzing ICT during EDSA II & EDSA III (Based on Alampay, 2002) EDSA II EDSA III OLD, TRIED AND TESTED FORM OF ICT THAT HAVE BEEN USED IN EDSA I & II NEWEST FORM OF ICT COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF THE MIDDLE CLASS COMPOSED PRIMARILY THE ‘MASA’ OR POORER SEGMENTS OF THE SOCIETY GENERATION GAP (e.g. differences in attitudes, opinions, way of life, etc.) DIGITAL DIVIDE (i.e. ‘Have’ versus ‘Have not's SOCIAL DIVIDE (i.e. rich and poor, powerful and weak, etc.) Members of the middle class always can afford it, they have ways for connection and access. Result: SUCCESS Can the ‘MASA’ afford it? Do they have the technical know-how to access these? Result: FAILURE
  33. 33. Addressing Access to Information To bridge the digital divide and make participation broader, universal access to ICTs must be provided. There are four means in accessing the Internet: • Organizational access or LAN • Individual access such as connection to ISPs • Community access in public institutions and private internet cafes (Mansell and Steinmueller, as cited by Alampay in 2002) • Sustainable connections thru Private Organizations
  34. 34. Government’s access strategies e-Government efforts began in the late 1960s that resulted in the creation of the National Computer Center (NCC) in 1971 through Executive Order 322. In 1994, the government adopted the National Information Plan 2000 or NITP 2000 and created the National Information Technology Council as the central policy body or ICT matters in the country. This was done in 1994 through EO 190. In its Government Information Systems Plan (GISP), it stressed the need to address issues that continue hamper the more rapid growth and wider application of ICTs in the country. The Philippines‘ National Computer Center (NCC) considered low-cost, low-end technology solutions in order to provide poorer people with access to online data even through DOS-based browsers. Another option that the government looked in the past was to lease out its existing network of 672 public calling offices (PCOs) to existing carriers and transform them into multipurpose telecenters with Internet facilities. An example of local public access places is the public library in Naga City which was the first local government-owned library in the country to provide Internet access to its clients. The city of Naga (www.naga.gov.ph) , has also had an online presence as early as March 1996 (Robredo, as cited by Alamapay in 2002).
  35. 35. Government’s Access Strategies A more recent undertaking was initiated in 2000 with the Government Information System Plan or GISP, which adopted the slogan “Philippine government online.” It was followed by the establishment of the e-Government Fund of Php 1 billion annually through the General Appropriations Act of 2003. A five-year Philippine Digital Strategy (PDS) was launched in 2011 to employ ICT in the campaign to attain the government agenda and objectives contained in the ―social contract‖ with the people and the Philippine Development Plan for 2011- 2016. The 470-million-peso iGovPhil Project, launched on 28 June 2012, is one of the latest projects that seek to achieve a higher level of e-governance or the application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to rationalize government operations and improve the delivery of goods and services to the people. The Integrated Government Philippines (iGovPhil) Project is an essential element in the implementation of the e-Government Master Plan of 2013-2016, which aims to improve processes in government to provide better services to both citizens and businesses, as well as promote public participation. 'Smarter Philippines,' a new umbrella program maximizes the effect of Information Communications Technology (ICT) to improve the Filipinos' quality of life and spur economic growth, with its six core areas of Smarter Government, Smarter Economy, Smarter Environment, Smarter Mobility, Smarter Living and Smarter People that will address the nation's pressing needs.
  36. 36. Government’s Access Strategies • Alampay citing the work of Carino in 1983, said that: ―The access strategy is primarily the task of government but it cannot work without its public and private organizations‖. • The role of private and non-governmental organizations will go beyond the provision of physical needs to ICTs. They also have a role to play in processing the data, organizing the public and providing a platform from which consultations could be made. They could also serve as filters that make sure the right information goes to the right person.
  37. 37. The Role of Intermediaries • Intermediaries, are ―go-betweens‖ that will help bridge the so-called information divide. They may be real, and they may be also virtual. Their task will be to push and retrieve information originating from government and citizens and vice versa. Intermediaries such as NGOs, community groups and religious societies are potential links to information which government may want to push.
  38. 38. Traditional Intermediaries CBCP World, was launched as an Internet Service Provider (ISP) by the Church in the Philippines to maximize the opportunities of the Net to ―offer opportunities for evangelization, provide information dissemination and make possible an initial encounter with the Christian message especially among the youth‖ (Jimenez as cited by Alampay in 2002). The Social Intermediaries The use of radio in Quezon (Lucas as cited by Alampay in 2002) was utilized to educate communities on agriculture. Distance education is made interactive by having facilitators available to answer their queries.
  39. 39. • For any medium or ICT to be successful in encouraging people‘s participation, it must be able to reach its target audience, send messages rapidly and provide venues for discussions. As such, applications in cellular phones seem closer to approaching this, as compare to email and Internet. • Linking the use of ICTs with traditional methods of participation and organizing is important in order to prevent what Heeks (2001) refers to as ‗design- actuality gaps‘.
  40. 40. Crowdsourcing Act of 2013, soon in PH? Infographic courtesy of http://www.rappler.com/nation/32869-tg-guingona-crowdsourcing-bill-refiled
  41. 41. • The bill allows social media users to participate in the lawmaking process, from the filing of the bill, through the initial public consultations, the debates, and before the bill‘s approval. • The Crowdsourcing Act lets netizens comment on pending bills through e-mail and the Internet, and gives them access to copies of bills pending before the Senate and the House of Representatives. • It also lets people reach lawmakers during the period of interpellations and debates. Senator TG Guingona, who, first filed the bill in October 2012, soliciting suggestions via e-mail and social media to improve the measure.
  42. 42. While the Crowdsourcing Act is still a proposed measure, Sen Miriam Defensor Santiago has said that her Magna Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom (MCPIF) will become the first law to be created through crowdsourcing if passed. The MCPIF aims to establish a framework for information and communication technology (ICT) in the Philippines, and to repeal the anti-cybercrime law.
  43. 43. What is ‘Internet meme’? An Internet meme is an idea, style or action which spreads, often as mimicry, from person to person via the Internet , as with imitating the concept. Some notable examples include: replying to a joke by writing "LOL!", or posting a photo of people in public places lying down planking, or uploading a short video of people dancing to the Harlem Shake. A meme can be considered a mimicked theme, including simple phrases or gestures. An Internet meme may take the form of an image, hyperlink, video, picture, website, or hash tag. It may be just a word or phrase, including an intentional misspelling . These small movements tend to spread from person to person via social networks, blogs, etc. They may relate to various existing Internet cultures or subcultures. Fads and sensations tend to grow rapidly on the Internet, because the instant communication facilitates word-of- mouth transmission.
  44. 44. What is ‘Internet meme’? The word ―meme" was coined by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, as an attempt to explain the way cultural information spreads; Internet memes are a subset of this general meme concept specific to the culture and environment of the Internet. In 2013 Dawkins characterized an Internet meme as being a meme deliberately altered by human creativity.
  45. 45. ‘Internet meme’
  46. 46. Million People March Currently the biggest street rally created and organized thru the usage of social media, last August 26.
  47. 47. Conclusion Because of the digital divide, disparity between those who will have access to the information and services that can be delivered and provided through the Internet will remain. The experience in EDSA shows the potential pitfalls of relying solely form of ICT that has not been fully diffused in society, especially one where the division between the social classes is evident.
  48. 48. Conclusion LGUs can learn from what the church and universities are doing. There must be strategies to push the information to people to start the communication process. Intermediaries that can relay or broadcast the same information to citizens will remain crucial, especially if a true consensus is to be achieved.
  49. 49. Conclusion • The role of NGOs, religion and other areas where people converge, be it virtual or real, and the use of electronic (Anderson, et al, as cited by Alampay in 2002) and non-electronic media and process, have a role to play in models for improving consensus building and transparency. • Two important things to consider are: 1. Sustainability 2. Real Interactivity
  50. 50. Shaping Organization Form, Communication, Connection & Community Research as proposed that changes in communication technologies are tightly linked with changes in organizations. Three perspectives have arisen to explain the dynamic relationship of communication technology and organizational form.
  51. 51. • Technological perspective – emphasizes ways in which communication have been shown to enable changes in forms (e.g. telephones, telegraph and mail systems enabled distributed forms of organization and interorganizational communication • Organizational perspective – emphasizes how new communication technologies are designed or customized the match organizational forms. • Emergent perspective – combines technological and organizational views to focus on communication technologies as ―occasions‖ for structuring, because technology causes new options for organization design.
  52. 52. Trends in Communication Technology and in Organizational Form Communication Technology Features of new communication technologies offer important advancements for organizations. (i.e. main benefits of ICT as it‘s cheaper, quicker and can produce new outputs). FROM ‘PAPER’ TO ‘PAPERLESS’
  53. 53. Many organizations actively design and implement unique electronic communication systems rather than simply absorb available technology from their internal and external coordination needs, organizational form influences electronic communication technology. FROM SNAIL MAIL TO EMAIL Organizational Form
  54. 54. PCARI The ICTO appears to be taking the same successful tack taken by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) last year when it was able to convince Congress to approve a massive P1.7-billion funding for the Philippine-California Advanced Research Institutes (PCARI), which was classified under CHED‘s locally-funded projects. The project is said to be patterned after many partnerships seen in neighboring countries such as those between the National University of Singapore and Duke University; or Hong Kong University of Science and Technology with University of California, Berkeley and Stanford University.
  55. 55. PCARI‘s vision is to develop and create a critical pool of scientists and research, address pressing issues and market technologies to other countries. Under the program, two institutions will be formed: the Institute for Information Infrastructure Development which will focus on e-government and e-learning and the Institute for Health, Innovation and Translational Medicine which will focus on advancing health care in the Philippines (http://newsbytes.ph/2013/08/11/2014-budget-to-allow-solons- to-use-pork-barrel-for-net-access/).
  56. 56. Cloud provider Data One Asia has urged local businesses to tap cloud technology to address the challenge of high IT staff turnover, particularly an off-site IT infrastructure that can be managed remotely. Local recruiters agree that companies lose highly-skilled IT employees from time to time to bigger competitors both here and abroad, which offer more attractive pay packages and better growth opportunities. Cloud outsourcing seen as answer to high IT staff turnover
  57. 57. Data One Asia Philippines said companies are becoming dependent on their IT employees now that most operational procedures require the use of computers and various technologies for efficiency and heightened productivity. However, a single IT staff‘s resignation spells disruption within the company. In a cloud computing environment, the lack of an IT staff due to turnover wouldn‘t be a headache for a company. IT applications such as email, desktop office applications, and data storage can be easily outsourced to a third-party provider like Data One. All the client company needs is an Internet connection so they can access the applications they need. The server hardware are all stored and maintained by the IT infrastructure provider.
  58. 58. Such cloud computing services also save the company from obsolescence. Cloud service providers which employ best practices such as Data One will entirely be responsible for the upkeep and the upgrade of the hardware and software being used by their clients. CloudSecure, DataOne‘s cloud offering for Enterprises, has been helping numerous customers manage their high IT turnover with its cloud-based off-site IT infrastructure (http://newsbytes.ph/2013/08/16/cloud-outsourcing-seen-as-answer- to-high-it-staff-turnover/).
  59. 59. ICTs and Employment: The problem of job quality
  60. 60. ‘Job Quality’ in ICT Before the impact of ICTs on job quality is discussed, the term ―job quality‖ must first be defined. Job quality can only be achieved if the four strategic objectives of the decent work program are pursued: it must be supported by labor standards, employment opportunities, social protection and social dialogues.
  61. 61. ‘Next Wave Cities’ Road show in Naga Naga City, the Bicol region‘s foremost city, launched this year‘s version of the ―Next Wave Cities‖ (NWCs) road show last August 15 and 16. The NWCs are alternative outsourcing destinations outside Metro Manila and Cebu. Naga City is one of the top 10 NWCs in 2012.
  62. 62. Speakers from various IT-BPM organizations such as the Animation Council of the Philippines (ACPI), Contact Center Association of the Philippines (CCAP), Game Developers Association of the Philippines (GDAP), Philippine Software Industry Association of the Philippines (PSIA) and the Healthcare Information Management Outsourcing Association of the Philippines (HIMOAP), addressed an audience composed of different stakeholders and influencers and mostly of college students on the career opportunities available to them in the IT-BPM industry, particularly in their own locality.
  63. 63. DOST-ICT Office executive director Louis Casambre said the NWCs program is a key component of DOST‘s inclusive development agenda called Smarter Philippines. This lets ICT‘s to enable the Filipinos to work abroad without leaving home either as workers in the IT-BPM industry or doing work from home through micro sourcing. The Next Wave Cities Road show helps bring about awareness about the IT-BPM industry, especially the non-voice sector where the Filipino can stand out‖. The road show also aims to promote IT preneurship to participants at the event.
  64. 64. The nine other cities included in this year‘s NWC Road Show are Baguio, Laoag, Tacloban, Butuan, Puerto Princessa, Cagayan De Oro, Tarlac, Iloilo and Rizal and will run from August to November this year (http://newsbytes.ph/2013/08/13/ next-wave-cities-roadshow-to- kick-off-in-naga/).
  65. 65. ICT, Job generation or job loss? The use of ICTs are associated with new patterns of job creation and job loss. Indications to put forward jobs could be lost through: 1. Automation 2. Obsolescence 3. Disintermediation ICT replaces old tasks and occupations through automation, such as the telephone switchboard operator. But the technologies also create new tasks and occupations, such as Webpage designers or call-centre workers or a variety of new intermediaries . Source: http://www.slideshare.net/afcab/e-governance-presentation
  66. 66. The creation of entirely new industries such as the 1. Application software 2. Computer Systems 3. Micro-electronic products 4. GSM industries etc. has brought about new employment opportunities, which employ a substantial number of people. Others include: BPO ( Business Processing Outsource ) - Call Center - Virtual Assistance SEO (Search Engine Optimization) - Remote Assistance Corporate and Business Analyst, Programmers, Web Designers, Graphic Artists, Application Software creators, Health Technicians, Surveillance Administrator, High-end Climatologist and Weather observers, Factory & Food Production Technician, Networks and Communications Engineers. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/afcab/e-governance-presentation
  67. 67. Concluding Remarks The pessimistic scenarios concerning ICTs tend to obscure the many benefits which can be derived from the application of new technologies, the literature associated with the more optimistic scenarios often makes the assumption that the beneficial effects will arise automatically, provided that ICTs are embraced enthusiastically and without barriers.
  68. 68. References: • DeSanctis, Geraldine & Fulk, Janet: Shaping Organization Form (Communication, Connection and Community) • Grimshaw, Damian & Rubbery, Jill: ICTs and employment (The problem of job quality) 2001 • Heeks, Richard: Reinventing government in the information age • Heeks, Richard: Understanding e-Government for Development 2001 • Alampay, Erwin A.: People‘s participation, consensus building and transparency through the ICTs (issues and challenges for governance in the Philippines 2002
  69. 69. References: Online: • http://www.slideshare.net/afcab/e-governance-presentation • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Government •http://ph.search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A2oKmKbtMQhStkgALiCzRwx.?p=Develo pment+and+Application+of+E-Governance&fr2=sb-top&fr=yfp-t-711- s&type_param=&rd=r1 • http://i.gov.ph/?page_id=2113 • http://balita.ph/2013/06/10/dost-launches-igovphil-a-new-ict-application- program/ • http://ph.news.yahoo.com/smarter-philippines-program-comes-094617576-- finance.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_meme • http://www.rappler.com/move-ph/ispeak/38594-millionpeoplemarch-from- candy-crush-land-to-luneta • http://www.rappler.com/nation/32869-tg-guingona-crowdsourcing-bill-refiled • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Government •http://ph.search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A2oKmKbtMQhStkgALiCzRwx.?p=Develo pment+and+Application+of+E-Governance&fr2=sb-top&fr=yfp-t-711- s&type_param=&rd=r1
  70. 70. PDF: •http://unpan.org/publications/featured_titles/e-gov_survey_2012.html •e-Governance Insights for Policy Making http://www.journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/kasarinlan/article/view/707/799 •E-governance at the Local Government Level in the Philippines: An Assessment of City Government Websites Author: Sheila V. Siar © Philippine Institute for Development Studies, 2005 http://www.journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/kasarinlan/article/view/707/799 • e-Governance in the Philippines http://www.slideshare.net/afcab/e-governance-presentation • The Philippine Digital Strategy http://www.slideshare.net/jimayson/philippine-digital-strategy-20112016- 8471076 •Governance Initiatives Governance – e in the Philippine http://gepcset.dof.gov.ph/media/docs/E- GOV%20Initiatives.pdf Disclaimer: The author claims no copyright ownership of all the photos or graphics used in this presentation.