DPA 102 Philippine Administrative System

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Lecture Presentation for Philippine Councilors League

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  • Hi, Dr. Bitonio. Your PAS ppt is very useful since i'm teaching this course for 13 years now. I hope to see you soon. Thanks for this and i'll give you credits in my presentation. Thanks!
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DPA 102 Philippine Administrative System

  1. 1. A Lecture – Presentation for Philippine Councilors’ League Prepared by: Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA LNU Graduate School
  2. 2. Is there a Philippine Public Administration or Better Still, for whom is Public Administration? Brillantes, Jr. and Fernandez:2008
  3. 3. There is . . . .  A Philippine Public Administration as far as there is an     American, French and Thai public administration. A Philippine public administration as far as there are institutions of public administration addressing specific sectoral concerns. A Philippine public administration as far as it being a field of study is concerned. A Philippine public administration considering the massive role of the bureaucracy in Philippine public administration. A Philippine public administration when we consider its major institutions in education, politics and government. Brillantes, Jr. and Fernandez:2008
  4. 4. Public Administration is a field with a rich heritage. To promote superior understanding of PAS and its relationship with the society it governs as well as to encourage public policies more responsive to social needs and institute managerial practice attuned to effectiveness, efficiency, and the deeper human requisites of the citizenry www.ginandjar.com
  5. 5. Interdisciplinary Interface of Public Administration Law LAW POLITICS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE LAW • DISCRETIONARY POWERS BUSINESS MANAGEMENT PUBLIC POLICY Rationale Responsive to citizens need and preferences ECONOMICS PUBLIC CHOICE Economic Man Man: The Decision Maker www.ginandjar.com 3s
  6. 6. Application of scientific process to the administrative process (1930s) Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick – POSDCORB planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.
  7. 7. Public Adminstration Occupation /Profession Academic Field Teaching Research
  8. 8. PRAXIS. From its beginning, the discipline has also enjoyed extensive interaction between those who practice it allowing more intensive experimentation than has been possible in some social sciences. www.ginandjar.com 3s
  9. 9. Public Administration Raul P. De Guzman -1993 -It is the process and contents of implementing public policies and programs. - It is cooperative human action whether within the public bureaucracy, the private sector, or in NGOs aimed at delivering services to the people.
  10. 10. Philippine Administrative System (PAS) PAS refers to a network of organizations with specific rules and goals, structures, resources and programs. It includes the internal processes of and the interaction between and among public organizations, which are constituted to implement, help formulate, monitor or assess public policies
  11. 11. Philippine Administrative System (PAS) Public PA socio-political and economic environment system covers the PA relationship with its immediate public in contact, as well as the PA’s reactions to or how it is affected by the greater socio-political and economic environment within which it operates
  12. 12. Public PA Socio-Political and Economic Environment System
  13. 13. Leonard D. White. His book, Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, is one of the most influential texts in public administration to date. One of his assumptions was that administration is still an art. He, however, recognized the ideal of transforming it into a science. emphasizing the managerial phase of administration.
  14. 14. Philippine Administrative System (PAS) PAS empowers people: 1) institutionalizes access to PAS services; 2) decentralizes & makes operations transparent; 3) listens and works with people; 4) procedures should be made simple and local language should be used.
  15. 15. Components of PAS • Public organization - legal mandates, major functions and structures, etc. • Internal procedures and interactive efforts - perform public functions thru defined rules and procedures internal to the org. • Responsible for implementing public policies – formulated jointly by the legislative and executive branches • Conscious of the different kinds of clientele that it deals with socio-political, economic environment – • PAS as part of the bigger social system with competing claims to limited resources and, institutions play a role in determining the utilization of resources
  16. 16. Sources of Power • Instrument of the state – government functions are exercised legitimately, supported by enabling state policies and authority • Enforcer and implementer of public policy – discretion in policy
  17. 17. Sources of Power • Service delivery system – discretion to determine quantity, quality, adequacy and timeliness of services it provides • Participant in policy formulation – advice is sought on legislation and policy-making
  18. 18. Sources of Power • Technical expertise –professional training of civil servants in areas of competence on policy issues • Nationwide presence – expansive reach to mobilize support for programs all over the country.
  19. 19. Capability Building – refers to the “building of people-based structures and institutions which is the real essence of the concept. It means enabling people to organize themselves around common needs and to work together towards common ends. It is addressed to policy makers, program implementer, and program beneficiary”.
  20. 20. Capability Building Stages of CB Process Problem Identification Objective Setting Program planning Structure building
  21. 21. How the customer explained it How the Project Leader Understood it How the analyst designed it How the project was documented What operations were installed How the customer was billed How the programmer wrote it How it was supported How the business consultant described it What the customer really needed
  22. 22. Four Outputs of Capability Building  Effective self sustaining community organizations  Installation of community self management process  Partnership/linkage with outside structures  Community problem solving capability
  23. 23. Public Administrative System (PAS) Structure  Constitutional bodies: constitutional commissions – Civil Service Commission (CSC), Commission on Audit (COA), Commission on Elections (COMELEC);
  24. 24. Public Administrative System (PAS) Structure  constitutionally created/mandated special bodies Commission on Human Rights (CHR) and Ombudsman
  25. 25. Public Administrative System (PAS) Structure Executive Departments
  26. 26. Legislative Branch
  27. 27. Judicial Branch
  28. 28. Public Administrative System (PAS) Structure  Government Owned Companies or Corporations (GOCCs) (wholly-owned or at least 51%)  Chartered institutions (created by law)  LGUs
  29. 29. Constitution Legislature Executive /Government Public Administration Judiciary
  30. 30. THE PHILIPPINE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM EXECUTIVE BRANCH PRESIDENT VICE-PRESIDENT CONSTITUTIONAL OTHER EXECUTIVE OFFICES BODIES GENERAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE OFFICE OF THE PRESS SECRETARY DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC BUDGET AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY AGRICULTURE, AGRARIAN REFORM AND ENVIRONMENT SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS HEALTH AND WELFARE SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC ORDER AND SAFETY SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT DEFENSE SECTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SECTOR DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT OF OF NATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEFENSE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AUTONOMOUS REGION OF MUSLIM MINDANAO DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM EDUCATION, CULTURE AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT SECTOR ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION Source PA 208 by de Vera UP NCPAG
  31. 31. B. SPECIAL AGENCIES/OFFICES  Metro Manila Development Authority  National Anti-Poverty Commission  National Youth Commission (R.A. 8044 – Youth in Nation      Building Act) Council for the Welfare of Children (R.A. 8980 – ECCD Law – December 2000) – now with DSWD Office of Muslim Affairs (E.O. 122-A – June 30, 1987) National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (R.A. 8371 IPRA law – October 29, 1997) – attached to DAR National Nutrition Council (PD 491 – June 25, 1974)– attached to DSWD, then DA, then DOH Agno River Basin Development Commission (abolished by EO 357)
  32. 32. THE PHILIPPINE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM EXECUTIVE BRANCH PRESIDENT VICE-PRESIDENT CONSTITUTIONAL OTHER EXECUTIVE OFFICES BODIES GENERAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE OFFICE OF THE PRESS SECRETARY DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC BUDGET AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY AGRICULTURE, AGRARIAN REFORM AND ENVIRONMENT SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS HEALTH AND WELFARE SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC ORDER AND SAFETY SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SECTOR DEFENSE SECTOR DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT OF OF NATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEFENSE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AUTONOMOUS REGION OF MUSLIM MINDANAO DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM EDUCATION, CULTURE AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT SECTOR ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION Source PA 208 by de Vera UP NCPAG
  33. 33. D. LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS - TERRITORIAL AND POLITICAL SUBDIVISION OF THE STATE 1 Metropolitan Government B. Regions- AUTONOMOUS REGION OF MUSLIM MINDANAO ( Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, Basilan, Tawi-Tawi, and the city of Marawi) C. 1 Special Administration region A. D. Provinces (80+-) E. Cities (140) F. Municipalities (1,494) G. Barangays (42,027) For the purpose of administration and development planning, the Philippines is divided into 17 administrative regions. In each regional capital, the 26 departments of the national government have their regional offices. Number of current regions, provinces, municipalities, and cities in the Philippines as of 30 June 2012 (Wikipedia)
  34. 34. The following political units have been created:  Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA);  Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM); and  Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
  35. 35. Administrative Relationships If an office is under the supervision and control of another unit, it means that the higher office: – Has authority to act directly, whenever specific function is entrusted by law or regulation to a subordinate – Directs the performance of a duty – Restrains the commission of acts – Reviews, approves, reverses or modified acts or decision of subordinate officials and units – Determines priorities in executing plans and programs – Prescribes standards, guidelines, plans and programs
  36. 36. Administrative Supervision and Attachment Administrative Supervision: – Oversee the operations of such agencies to insure these are managed effectively, efficiently and economically; no interference in day to day activities – Require submission of reports; cause the conduct of mgt audit, performance evaluation and inspection to determine rectification of violations, abuses, etc. – Review and pass upon budget proposal of such agencies, but may not increase or add to them.
  37. 37. Administrative Supervision and Attachment (Attached agencies or corporations) – Department represented in the board, as chair or member – Comply with periodic reporting – Department provides general policies thru its board representatives
  38. 38. Local Government Functions  Local governments have four major categories of functions:  Efficient service delivery;  Management of the environment;  Economic development; and  Poverty alleviation.
  39. 39. Workshop 1 Local Government Administration and the Challenges of Rural Development” Local Governance serves its big importance for the development of a certain country as it is considered as the basic governing entity.
  40. 40. Discuss the strengths, weaknesses, innovations, best practices of the administrative system of the LGUs in terms of the implementation of the following: Devolved Services • DSWD, DOH, DA, DENR, DPWH, DepEd, DOT, DOTC Regulatory Powers • DAR, DENR, DOH, DA-NMIC, DPWH, DORC – LTFRB, HLURB, PGFC Governmental and Corporate Powers • Management of economic enterprise • Domestic and foreign grants NGO-LGU Role in Governance • Participation to LDG, LSB, LHB • BOT/BT Human Resource Development • OS, staffing pattern • Capability building
  41. 41. Four Types of Accountability Types of Accountability Individual Accountability Accountability of Administrators Political Accountability Accountability of National Leaders
  42. 42. Four Types of Accountability  Individual accountability – public employees are answerable for the responsible, efficient and effective performance of their tasks.  Accountability of administrators – for their stewardship of the administrative authority, resources and information placed at their disposal as leaders of public organization.
  43. 43. Four Types of Accountability  Political accountability – of institutions that must answer for their organizational mandate and functions, particularly as they form part of the incumbent government strategy for national development.  Accountability of national leaders – elected national leadership must answer for the performance in pursuing their programs of government and their use of national resources, given the authority, power and resources vested in them by their constituency
  44. 44. Government Reorganization - planned deliberate efforts to systematically alter the existing organizational structure usually for the purpose of achieving government objectives with more economy, efficiency and effectiveness
  45. 45. Government Reorganization Pre planning or Reorganization Government Preparation of Reorganization proposals Final Stage There are 3 phases of government reorganization of law
  46. 46. 1. Pre-planning or reorganization: 1) how reorganization is initiated; 2) who is the authority vested with reorganization; 3) setting goals and tasks; 4) defining the powers to reorganize & outline the scope; 5) setting resources
  47. 47. 2. Preparation of reorganization proposals: 1) constituting the reorganization body; 2) preparing the reorganization proposals; 3) recruiting support and staff; 4)creating information base for preparation of proposals
  48. 48. 3. Final stage - is the passage of a law that grants the authority to implement the reorganization process
  49. 49. THE BUDGET CYCLE 1. The Budget Cycle Budget Preparation (DBCC, agencies) 2. Budget Approval Accountability (Congress)(agencies, COA) 3. Budget Process Budget Execution (agencies)
  50. 50. Budget Process Budget Preparation (DBCC, agencies) Budget Accountability (agencies, COA) Budget Process Budget Execution (agencies) Budget Approval (Congress)
  51. 51. 1. Budget Preparation Budgetary parameters is determined by the Department Budget Coordination Committee (DBCC) composed of DBM, NEDA, DOF, BSP and OP
  52. 52. 1. Budget Preparation DBCC recommends: – level of annual government expenditure program and ceiling for government spending for economic and social development, national defense, general government and debt service – proper allocation of expenditures for each development activity between current operating expenditures and capital outlay – amount set to be allocated for capital outlay under each developments activity for the various capital or infra projects. Sets budget ceiling consistent with macro-economic targets as presented in the MTPDP
  53. 53. Budget Preparation  After budget parameters are approved, DBM issues the budget call (National Budget Circular), defining the budget framework. Budget hearings. Upon receipt of the budget call, agencies issue their own internal office guidelines to prepare budgetary estimates along the broad framework of the policy guidelines. Budget review and consolidation. After agency hearings, modifications and revisions of agency budget proposals may be made. DBM consolidates results of these changes and clears with the President thru DBCC. President then authorized DBM to estimate total expenditures & reconcile with revenue estimates.
  54. 54. 2. Budget validation & confirmation After consolidation into a national budget, this is subjected to further evaluation/validation, by DBM thru comprehensive policy review of all agency and special purpose fund budgets, then to DBCC for examination. Approval by the President and Cabinet. The approved budget is forwarded to Congress, together with the President’s budget message and other documents, i.e. Budget of Expenditure and Sources of Financing, the National Expenditure Program, and the Regional Expenditure Program.
  55. 55. 3. Budget Approval: Execution & Accountability  Budget approval Converting budget proposal into law – the General Appropriations Act (GAA) Budget Execution: Allotment and cash release program based on the GAA. Agency submits to DBM its Agency Budget Matrix (ABM). DBM issues the Special Allotment Release Order (SARO) and Notice of Cash Allocation (NCA) Budget Accountability. Establishes accountability of government agencies that received public funds, thru system of monitoring agency performance vis-à-vis approved work targets.
  56. 56. 2.265 trillion
  57. 57. 2014 2.265 trillion The 2014 GAA is Php 2.265 trillion, 13 percent higher than the 2013 GAA. This budget embodies the Aquino administration’s thrust for inclusive development. Its markedly higher allocations for social and economic services will be invested in empowering the people and creating more economic opportunities for them. With this Budget, the Aquino administration further deepens reforms in governance, particularly in the management of public funds.
  58. 58. http://www.pinoyexchange.com/ http://www.pinoyexchange.com/
  59. 59. Top 10 Departments
  60. 60. Inventory of Government Personnel 360,000 employed in 1960. In 1970, the ratio of government personnel to the total population is 1:90. By 1990, the ratio stood at 1:52. Since 1992, growth in size has been arrested due to the combined effects of a number of right-sizing initiatives which include: the 5-year effectivity of RA 7041 or the Attrition Law; agency-specific streamlining programs; changes in budgetary allotments which funded only the filled positions; and to some extent, the exit of positions in the disposed or privatized units of government.
  61. 61. In the last four years, increases in number of personnel have been attributed to the population-based personnel teachers and policemen and to the local government units, the last due to devolution by the national government of certain functions and activities. Outside of those classes of personnel, the increase in national employees (NGAs) and those employed by governmentowned or controlled corporations (GOCCs) has switched into a decelerating mode
  62. 62. Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) Survey (2010) Ranking 12 key countries and territories on a scale from one to 10, with 10 as the worst possible score, the business executives in the survey rated India as having the region's most inefficient bureaucracy.
  63. 63. Number of Government Personnel by Region: 2008 Region Government Personnel Philippines 1,313,538 1 66,122 2 23,258 3 104,354 4 100,758 5 66,497 6 60,589 7 59,902 8 66,455 9 52,131 10 10 27,405 11 26,599 12 12 41,684 NCR 506,103 CAR 37,819 CARAGA 23,186 ARMM 50,676 2008 Inventory of Government Personnel by CSC
  64. 64. Size of the Bureaucracy: 1st Quarter of 2010 No. of Government Personnel As of 1st Quarter, 2010 As of 1st quarter of 2010, the estimated number of government personnel reached 29% is 1,313,770. Of this figure, 835,152 or 63.6% are employed by the different National Government Agencies (NGAs) (including State Universities and Colleges). Employees at the Local Government Units (LGUs) totaled 383,805 or 29.2%, while the personnel complement at the Government Owned and Controlled Corporations (GOCCs) totaled 94,813 or 7.2% 7% 64% NGAs LGUs Source: http://excell.csc.gov.ph/cscweb/IGP2Q2010.pdf
  65. 65. Reference:  Alfiler Ma. Concepcion P. Philippine Administrative System (PAS)., UP Open University, Diliman Quezon City  Rubico, Naty. Philippine Administrative System UP NCPAG 2010
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