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  1. 1. Human Behavior in Organization 1 st Semester 2011 Pangasinan State University Graduate School Urdaneta City
  2. 2. 1. Functions of Communication <ul><li>Control -communication performs a control function by controlling behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation -the formation of specific goals, feedback on progress toward the goals, and reinforcement of desired behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Expression -provid e a release of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Information -facilitates decision making. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2. The Communication Process <ul><li>The Sender -initiates the message </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding -the thought </li></ul><ul><li>The Message -actual physical product from the sender’s encoding </li></ul><ul><li>The Channel -the medium through which the message travels </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding -translation of the message into a form that can be understood </li></ul><ul><li>The Receiver -the object to whom the message is directed </li></ul><ul><li>Noise -communication barriers that distort clarity of message </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback -determines whether understanding is achieved </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3. Direction of Communication <ul><li>Downward Communication -Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level. </li></ul><ul><li>Upward Communication -Communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Communication -Communication that takes place among members of the same level. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4.Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Oral Communication -The chief means of conveying messages by utilizing speed and feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Written Communication -any device that is transmitted via written words or symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Communication -nonverbal component of a verbally given message such as body movements, intonations, facial expressions, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 5.Organizational Communication <ul><li>Formal Small-Group Networks: </li></ul>Criteria Chain Wheel All Channel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a leader Moderate High None Member Satisfaction Moderate Low High
  7. 7. 5.Organizational Communication <ul><li>The Grapevine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not controlled by management; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived as being more believable and reliable than formal communications issued by top management; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely used to serve the self-interests of people within it. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 6.Electronic Communications <ul><li>E-Mail -uses the Internet to transmit and receive computer-generated text and documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging/Text Messaging -electronic messages transmitted using desktop/laptop computers and cell phones or handheld devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Software -social networking websites composed of separate networks based on different sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Web Logs (Blogs)- Web sites about a single person or company that are usually updated daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing -an alternative to expensive and time-consuming travel by allowing conduct of meetings by using live audio and video of people not physically in the same location. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 7.Barriers to Effective Communication <ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Information Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Apprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><ul><li>“ Politically Correct” Communication </li></ul>
  10. 10. 8.Global Implications <ul><li>Cultural Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics : words mean different things to different people; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Connotations: words imply different things in different languages; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone Differences: in some cultures, the tone changes, depending on the context; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference among Perceptions: people who speak different languages view the world in different ways. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 8.Global Implications <ul><li>Cultural Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Context Cultures : rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-Context Cultures : rely essentially on words to convey meaning. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 8.Global Implications <ul><li>A Cultural Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume differences until similarity is proven; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice empathy; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SUMMARY: <ul><li>Paying close attention to communication effectiveness is all the more important given the ways in which communication technology has transformed the workplace. As managers, choosing the correct channel, being an effective listener, and using feedback, may make for more effective communication. Barriers to effective communication, such as gender and culture, when overcome, can increase our communication effectiveness. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reference: <ul><li>Organizational Behavior, 13 th Edition, Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge </li></ul><ul><li>Prentice Hall </li></ul>