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  1. 1. COMMUNICATION Reported by: ART C. EMA JR. 08/27/11 Communication Professor: Jo B. Bitonio - HBO
  2. 2. <ul><li>COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Must include both the “TRANSFERENCE” and </li></ul><ul><li>“ UNDERSTANDING” of meaning. </li></ul>Sender Receiver (Understanding) 08/27/11 Communication
  3. 3. <ul><li>Functions of COMMUNICATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>08/27/11 Communication
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Communication Process </li></ul>Source Encoding Channel Decoding Message Feedback Message Message Message 08/27/11 Communication Receiver
  5. 5. Directions of Communication Downward Communication : Communication that flows from one level of the group down to the lower level. 08/27/11 Communication President Manager Manager Staff Staff Staff
  6. 6. Directions of Communication Upward Communication : Communication that flows from lower level up to the higher level. 08/27/11 Communication President Manager Manager Staff Staff Staff
  7. 7. Directions of Communication Lateral Communication : Communication among members of the same group or levels. Message Message Message Message Message Message Message Message Message 08/27/11 Communication President Manager Manager Staff Staff Staff
  8. 8. <ul><li>INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul>Oral Communication Speeches, formal one-on-one and group discussions, and the informal rumor or grapevine are popular forms of oral communication. Written Communication Includes memos, letter, electronic mails, fax transmissions, etc. Non-Verbal Communication It refers to gestures, facial configurations, and other body movements. 08/27/11 Communication
  9. 9. <ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Small-Group Networks </li></ul> CHAIN WHEEL ALL CHANNEL 08/27/11 Communication
  10. 10. <ul><li>Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria </li></ul> NETWORKS Criteria Chain Wheel All Channel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a Leader Moderate High None Satisfaction Moderate Low High 08/27/11 Communication
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Three (3) characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is not controlled by management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is perceived by most employees as more believable and reliable than formal communiques issued by top management. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is largely used and served the interests of the people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer-Aided Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intranet and Extranet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul></ul></ul>08/27/11 Communication
  12. 12. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Not conveying the whole details of an information. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Selective way of conveying information based on what might be favorable to the receiver or to the sender; It is also based on needs, motivation, expression, background, Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to process/use certain information. </li></ul>08/27/11 Communication
  13. 13. <ul><li>Gender Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Both sexes (male/female) has different motivation and needs when it comes to communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings or moods affects interpretation of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Words means different things to different people. Age, education, and cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words. </li></ul>08/27/11 Communication
  14. 14. CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Cultural Context </li></ul>08/27/11 Communication Chinese Korean Vietnamese Arab Greek Spanish Italian English North American Scandinavian Swiss German HIGH CONTEXT LOW CONTEXT
  15. 15. <ul><li>Cultural Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assume differences until similarity is proved. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice empathy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis. </li></ul></ul></ul>08/27/11 Communication
  16. 16. What managers can do to minimize problems and attempts to overcome those barriers? <ul><li>Use Multiple Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Use Feedback </li></ul>08/27/11 Communication <ul><li>Improving Performance Feedback Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Specific behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Keep feedback impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Keep feedback goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Make feedback well timed </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Direct negative feedback toward behavior that is controllable by the recipient. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Simplify Language </li></ul><ul><li>Listen Actively </li></ul><ul><li>Constrain Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Grapevine </li></ul>08/27/11 Communication <ul><li>Improving Active Listening Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid distracting actions or gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid interrupting the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overtalk </li></ul>
  18. 18. THANK YOU !!! 08/27/11 Communication