New York City, financial center of the United States
A REPORT ON G8
G8Engr. Manuel A. Cabading Resource PersonME 210 Strategic Management in Engineering Enterprise PSU, Urdaneta City
Member factsG8-countries represent 8 of 13 top-ranked leading export countries.6 of 10 top-ranked countries with the largest gold reserves (USA, Germany,Italy, France, Russia and Japan.)6 of 10 largest major stock exchanges by traded value and marketcapitalization8 of 10 top-ranked economies (by nominal GDP) of the world, according tolatest (2011 data) International Monetary Funds statistics.5 of 20 top-ranked countries generating a nominal GDP per capita aboveUS$40,000 (Canada, USA, Japan, France, Germany), from the same 2011IMF data.5 countries with a sovereign wealth fund, administered by either anational or a state/provincial government (Russia, USA, France, Canada,Italy).8 of 30 top-ranked nations with large amounts of foreign –exchangereserves in their central banks4 out of 9 countries having nuclear weapons (France, Russia, UK, USA)
Member facts3 countries that have nuclear weapons sharing programs (Canada,Germany, Italy).3 of the worlds top-10 largest oil producers (Russia, USA andCanada)2 countries with the third and eighth largest oil reserves (Canadaand Russia respectively) are in the G87 of the 9 largest nuclear energy producers (USA, France, Japan,Russia, Germany, Canada, UK), even though Germany will weanitself from nuclear power by 2022. As with Japan, it shut down all ofits nuclear reactors because of the earthquake in 2011; the firsttime the nation has gone nuclear-free since 1970.the 7 largest donors to the UN budget for the 2011 annual fiscalyear (U.S., Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada.)
Economy of the United Kingdom Statistics $2.480 trillion (2011) (nominal; 7th) 7th (nominal) GDP / 8th (PPP) $2.253 trillion (2011)Rank (3rd and 2nd (PPP; 8th) in Europe -0.5% in Q2, 2012 (ONS) respectively) GDP growth 0.2% projected for 2012 Pound (IMF)Currency sterling (GBP) $39,600 (2011)(nom; 6 April – 5 20th)Fiscal year GDP per capita April $36,000 (2011)(PPP; EU, BCN, 17th)Trade OECD and agriculture: 0.7%,organisations WTO GDP by sector industry: 21%, services: 78% (2011 est.)
CPI:2.5%, RPI 2.9%% (AugustInflation (CPI) 2012,falling)Inflation has fell from a peak of 5.2% CPI in September 2011.Population 14% with household income below 60%below poverty line of UK median income (2006 est.)Gini coefficient 0.36 (2008)Labour force 31.7 million (2011 est.) (17th)Labour force agriculture: 1.4%, industry: 18%,by occupation services: 80% (2006 est.)Unemployment 8% (2.6 million)Average gross salary €4,108 / $5,546, monthly (2006)Average net salary €2,749 / $3,712, monthly (2006)Main industries List[show]Ease of Doing Business Rank 7th
ExternalExports £428.6 billion (2010) Manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, food stuffs, beverages, tobacco, clothes, cars, military equipment,Export goods entertainment, steel, computer software, finance, banking, electrical goods, electronics, machinery, pharmaceutical products United States 14.3%, Germany 10.5%, Netherlands 8.0%, France 7.2%, IrelandMain export partners 6.0%, Belgium and Luxembourg 5.1%, Spain 3.7%, Italy 3.3%, China 3.2% (2010, not including services)
Imports £477.9 billion (2010)Import goods manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs Germany 12.5%, China 8.4%, United States 7.6%, Netherlands 7.3%, France 6.0%, Norway 5.7%,Main import partners Belgium and Luxembourg 5.0%, Italy 3.9%, Ireland 3.4% (2010, not including services)FDI stock $1.169 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)Gross external debt $8.981 trillion (30 June 2010) (2nd)
Rank Country Population Date % of world population United Official 22 62,262,000 July 1, 2010 0.88% Kingdom estimate Prime Minister David Cameron
Economy of the United Kingdom Canary Wharf business district in London
The economy of the United Kingdom is the seventh-largest nationaleconomy in the world measured by nominal GDP and eighth-largestmeasured by purchasing power parity (PPP), and the third-largest inEurope measured by nominal GDP (after Germany and France) and second-largest measured by PPP (after Germany). The UKs GDP per capita is the22nd highest in the world in nominal terms and the 22nd highest measuredby PPP. The British economy comprises (in descending order of size) theeconomies of the countries of England, Scotland, Wales and NorthernIreland.The UK has one of the worlds most globalised economies. London is theworlds largest financial centre alongside New York and has thelargest city GDP in Europe. As of December 2010 the UK had the third-largest stock of both inward and outward foreign direct investment (ineach case after the United States and France). The aerospace industryof the UK is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry,depending upon the method of measurement. The pharmaceuticalindustry plays an important role in the UK economy and the country hasthe third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D expenditures (afterthe United States and Japan). The British economy is boosted byNorth Sea oil and gas reserves, valued at an estimated £250 billion in2007.
Sectors Agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishingA combine harvester is use in Scotland Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs, with less than 1.6% of the labour force (535,000 workers). It contributes around 0.6% of British national value added. Around two-thirds of the production is devoted to livestock, one-third to arable crops. Agriculture is subsidised by the European Unions Common Agricultural Policy.
ManufacturingA Rolls-Royce Trent 900 aircraft jet engine The aerospace industry of the UK is the second- or third-largest aerospace industry in the world, depending upon the method of measurement. The industry employs around 113,000 people directly and around 276,000 indirectly and has an annual turnover of around £20 billion. British companies with a major presence in the industry include BAE Systems (the worlds second-largest defence contractor) and Rolls-Royce (the worlds second-largest aircraft engine maker). Foreign aerospace companies active in the UK include EADS and its Airbus subsidiary, which employs over 13,000 people in the UK.
Education, Health and Social WorkThe Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, a major NHS hospitalIn 2008 the education, health and social work sector had a total gross valueadded of around £170 billion, of which around £145 billion wascompensation to employees.In 2008 education had a gross value added of around £76 billion. In2007/08 higher education institutions in the UK had a total income of £23billion and employed a total of 169,995 staff. In 2007/08 there were2,306,000 higher education students in the UK (1,922,180 in England,210,180 in Scotland, 125,540 in Wales and 48,200 in Northern Ireland).
Financial and Business ServicesThe City of London is the worlds largest financial centre alongside New YorkThis industry added gross value of £86,145 million to the UK economy in2004. The UKs exports of financial and business services make asignificant positive contribution towards the countrys balance of payments.London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is oneof the three "command centres" of the global economy (alongside New YorkCity and Tokyo). There are over 500 banks with offices in London,and it is the leading international centre for banking, insurance, Eurobonds,foreign exchange trading and energy futures. Londons financial servicesindustry is primarily based in the City of London and Canary Wharf.
Real Estate and Renting Activities The UK property market boomed for the seven years up to 2008 and in some areas property trebled in value over that period. The increase in property prices had a number of causes: low interest rates, credit The Trafford Centre shopping complex in Manchester; it was sold growth, economic growth, rapidfor £1.6 billion in 2011 in the largest growth in buy to-let property property sale in British history investment, foreign property investment in London and planning restrictions on the supply of new housing.
Transport, Storage and The UK has a radial road network of 46,904 communication kilometres (29,145 mi) of main roads, with a motorway network of 3,497 kilometres (2,173 mi). There are a further 213,750 kilometres (132,818 mi) of paved roads. There is a railway infrastructure company Network Rail, with train operating companies including foreign state owned companies including Deutsche Bahn AG of 16,116 km (10,014 mi) in Great Britain and 303 route km (189 route mi) in Northern Ireland run by Northern Ireland Railways, which carries over 18,000 passenger trains and 1,000 freight trains per day. Urban railHeathrow Terminal 5 building. London networks are well developed in Glasgow, Heathrow Airport has the most Liverpool and London as well as other cities.international passenger traffic of any Plans are now being considered to build new airport in the world. high speed lines by 2025. 0
Rank 3rd Economy of JapanCurrency Japanese Yen (JPY)Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March APEC, WTO, OECD,Trade organisations G-20, G8 and others Statistics Statistics $5.869 trillion (2011 est.) (nominal; GDP 3rd) $4.440 trillion (2011 est.) (PPP; 4th) GDP growth 1.4% ( Q2 2012) $45,920 (2011 est.) (nominal; 18th) GDP per capita $34,740 (2011 est.) (PPP; 24th) agriculture: 1.2%, industry: 27.3%, GDP by sector services: 71.6% (2011 est.)
Economy of JapanInflation (CPI) 0.3% (April 2011)Population 15.7%below poverty lineGini coefficient 38.1 (2002)Labour force 65.93 million (2011 est.)Labour force agriculture: 3.9%, industry: 26.2%,by occupation services: 69.8% (2010 est.)Unemployment 4.6% (2011 est.) among worlds largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment,Main industries machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foodsEase of Doing Business Rank 20th
Economy of Japan ExternalExports $788 billion (2011 est.) motor vehicles 13.6%; semiconductors 6.2%; iron and steel products 5.5%; autoExport goods parts 4.6%; plastic materials 3.5%; power generating machinery 3.5% China 19.7%, US 15.5%, South Korea 8%,Main export partners Hong Kong 5.2%, Thailand 4.6% (2011)Imports $808.4 billion (2011 est.) petroleum 15.5%; liquid natural gas 5.7%;Import goods clothing 3.9%; semiconductors 3.5%; coal 3.5%; audio and visual apparatus 2.7% China 21.5%, US 8.9%, Australia 6.6%,Main import partners Saudi Arabia 5.9%, UAE 5%, South Korea 4.7% (2011)FDI stock $161.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Gross external debt $2.719 trillion (30 June 2011) Main data source: CIA World Fact Book All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars
Economy of Japan Rank Country Population Date % of world population Sept. 1, Official 10 Japan 127,520,000 1.81% 2012 Estimate Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda
The economy of Japan is the third largest national economy in the world after the United States and the Peoples Republic of China and is theworlds second largest developed economy  According to theInternational Monetary Fund, the countrys per capita GDP (PPP) was at$34,739 or the 25th highest in 2011. Japan is a member of Group of Eight.Japanese economy can be fore-casted by Quarterly Tankan survey ofbusiness sentiment by the Bank of Japan.Japan is the worlds 3rd largest automobile manufacturing country, hasthe largest electronics goods industry, and is often ranked among theworlds most innovative countries leading several measures of globalpatent filings. Facing increasing competition from China and SouthKorea, manufacturing in Japan today now focuses primarily on high-techand precision goods, such as optical equipment, hybrid cars, and robotics.Japan is the worlds largest creditor nation, generally running anannual trade surplus and having a considerable net internationalinvestment surplus. As of 2010, Japan possesses 13.7% of the worldsprivate financial assets (the 2nd largest in the world) at an estimated$14.6 trillion. As of 2011, 68 of the Fortune 500 companies are basedin Japan.
Infrastructure Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; for instance, 7 JR enterprises, Kintetsu Corporation, Seibu Railway, and Keio Corporation. Often, strategies of these enterprises contain realShinkansen N700 Series (240-300 km/h) estate or department stores next to stations. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities. All trains are known for punctuality.
InfrastructureJapans road spending has been large. The 1.2 million kilometers ofpaved road are the main means of transportation. Japan has left-handtraffic. A single network of speed, divided, limited-access toll roadsconnects major cities and are operated by toll-collecting enterprises. Newand used cars are inexpensive. Car ownership fees and fuel levies are usedto promote energy-efficiency.There are 176 airports and flying is a popular way to travel between cities.The largest domestic airport, Tokyo International Airport, is Asias secondbusiest airport. The largest international gateways are Narita InternationalAirport (Tokyo area), Kansai International Airport (Osaka/Kobe/Kyotoarea), and Chūbu Centrair International Airport(Nagoya area). The largestports include Nagoya Port
ServicesJapan Airlines, though faced with massive debts as of 2010, is considered one ofthe largest airlines in the world.Japans service sector accounts for about three-quarters of its total economicoutput. Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, andtelecommunications are all major industries such as Mitsubishi UFJ, Mizuho, NTT,TEPCO, Nomura, Mitsubishi Estate, Tokio Marine, Mitsui Sumitomo, JR East, Seven& I, and Japan Airlines counting as one of the largest companies in the world. TheKoizumi government set Japan Post, one of the countrys largest providers ofsavings and insurance services for privatization by 2014. The six major keiretsus arethe Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuyo, Mitsui, Dai-Ichi Kangyo and Sanwa Groups. Japanis home to 326 companies from the Forbes Global 2000 or 16.3% (as of 2006).
IndustryLexus LS. The rapid growth and success of Toyotas Lexus and other Japaneseautomakers reflects Japans strength and global dominance in the automobileindustry. Japanese manufacturing is very diversified, with a variety of advancedindustries that are highly successful.Industry is concentrated in several regions, in the following order of importance:the Kantō region surrounding Tokyo, especially the prefectures of Chiba,Kanagawa, Saitama and Tokyo (the Keihin industrial region); the Tōkai region,including Aichi, Gifu, Mie, and Shizuoka prefectures (the Chukyo-Tokai industrialregion); Kinki (Kansai), including Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, (the Hanshin industrialregion); the southwestern part of Honshū and northern Shikoku around the SetoInland Sea (the Setouchi industrial region); and the northern part of Kyūshū(Kitakyūshū). In addition, a long narrow belt of industrial centers is foundbetween Tokyo and Fukuoka, established by particular industries, that havedeveloped as mill towns.
AgricultureRice is a very important crop in Japan as shown here in a rice paddy in Kurihara,Miyagi.Only 12% of Japans land is suitable for cultivation. Due to this lack of arableland, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. This results in one ofthe worlds highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an overallagricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% on fewer than 56,000 km² (14million acres) cultivated.Japans small agricultural sector, however, is also highly subsidized andprotected, with government regulations that favor small-scale cultivationinstead of large-scale agriculture as practiced in North America.
Economy of the United States of America 1st(nominal) /Rank 1st(PPP)Currency US$ (USD) Statistics October 1 –Fiscal year $15.586 trillion September 30 GDP (June 2012) 2.1% (June 2011– GDP growth June 2012)  $48,450 (2011) GDP per capita (14th, nominal; 6th, PPP) agriculture: 1.2%, industry: 19.2%, GDP by sector services: 79.6% (2011 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 1.7% (August 2011–August 2012) Population 15.1% (2010)below poverty lineGini coefficient 0.468 (List of countries)  154.6 million (includes 12.544 mil.Labor force unemployed, August 2012) farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% manufacturing, extraction, transportation,Labor force and crafts: 20.3% managerial, professional,by occupation and technical: 37.3% sales and office: 24.2% other services: 17.6% note: figures exclude the unemployed (2009)Unemployment 8.1% (August 2012) (-0.2%)Average gross salary $4003 monthly (2011) highly diversified, world leading, high- technology innovator, second largest industrial output in world; petroleum, steel,Main industries motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, miningEase of Doing Business Rank 4th
Rank Country Population Date % of world population United Official 3 States of 314,497,000 Oct. 2, 2012 4.47% Population America Clock President Barack Obama President of the G8 for 2012
Economy of the United States of AmericaNew York City, financial center of the United States
Economy of the United States of AmericaThe economy of the United States is the worlds largest national economy. Itsnominal GDP was estimated to be over $15 trillion in 2011,approximately aquarter of nominal global GDP. Its GDP at purchasing power parity is thelargest in the world, approximately a fifth of global GDP at purchasing powerparity. The U.S. economy also maintains a very high level of output. TheU.S. is one of the worlds wealthiest nations with per capita GDP (PPP) of$48,450, the 6th highest in the world. The U.S. is the largest trading nationin the world. Its four largest export trading partners are as of 2010: Canada,Mexico, China, and Japan.The economy of the United States is a mixed economy and hasmaintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, a moderate unemployment rate,and high levels of research and capital investment. It has been the worldslargest national economy (not including colonial empires) since at least the1890s. Most of the economy is classified as services. As of 2012, the countryremains the worlds largest manufacturer, representing a fifth of the globalmanufacturing output. Of the worlds 500 largest companies, 133 areheadquartered in the United States. This is twice the total of any other country.
EmploymentThere are 4,352 colleges, universities, and junior colleges in the United States. In 2007, Americans stood second only to Canada in the percentage of 35 to64 year olds holding at least two-year degrees. Among 25 to 34 year olds, thetwo-year degree rate is the tenth highest. In 2003 a Supreme Court decisionconcerning affirmative action in universities allowed educational institutionsto consider race as a factor in admitting students. The labour market in theUnited States has attracted immigrants from all over the world and its netmigration rate is among the highest in the world.For example, the brain drain from Europe to the United States means thatsome 400,000 European science and technology graduates now live in theU.S. Nearly 14 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to2010. More than 40 percent of the 2010 Fortune 500 companies werefounded by immigrants or their children. They founded seven of the ten mostvaluable brands in the world.
There are approximately 154.4 million employed individuals in the US. Government isthe largest employment sector with 22 million. Small businesses are the largestemployer in the country representing 53% of US workers. The second largest share ofemployment belongs to large businesses that employ 38% of the US workforce. Theprivate sector employs 91% of Americans. Government accounts for 8% of all USworkers. Over 99% of all employing organizations in the US are small businesses. The 30million small businesses in the U.S. account for 64% of newly created jobs (thosecreated minus those lost). Jobs in small businesses accounted for 70% of those createdin the last decade. The proportion of Americans employed by small business versuslarge business has remained relatively the same year by year as some small businessesbecome large businesses and just over half of small businesses survive more than 5years.[ Amongst large businesses, several of the largest companies and employers in theworld are American companies. Amongst them are Walmart, the largest company andthe largest private sector employer in the world, which employs 2.1 million peopleworld-wide and 1.4 million in the US alone.In April 2010, the official unemployment rate was 9.9%, but the government’s broaderU-6 unemployment rate was 17.1%.In the period between February 2008 and February2010, the number of people working part-time for economic reasons has increased by 4million to 8.8 million, an 83% increase in part-time workers during the two-year period.
Research, Development, and entrepreneurship The late Steve Jobs and Bill Gates were two of the best-known American entrepreneurs.Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, which can be defined as "onewho undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transforminnovations into economic goods". This may result in new organizations or may bepart of revitalizing mature organizations in response to a perceived opportunity. Themost obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting new businesses (referredas Startup Company); however, in recent years, the term has been extended toinclude social and political forms of entrepreneurial activity. When entrepreneurshipis describing activities within a firm or large organization it is referred to as intra-preneurship and may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin-offorganizations.
Composition Boeing 747-8 wing-fuselage sections during final assembly.The United States is the worlds largest manufacturer, with a 2009 industrial output ofUS$2.33 trillion. Its manufacturing output is greater than of Germany, France, India,and Brazil combined. Main industries include petroleum, steel, automobiles,construction machinery, aerospace, agricultural machinery, telecommunications,chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, and mining. The USleads the world in airplane manufacturing, which represents a large portion of USindustrial output. American companies such as Boeing, Cessna (see: Textron),Lockheed Martin (see: Skunk Works), and General Dynamics produce a vast majorityof the worlds civilian and military aircraft in factories stretching across the UnitedStates.
Notable Companies and Markets A typical Walmart discountdepartment store (location: Laredo, In 2011, the 20 largest U.S.-based Texas). companies by revenue were Walmart, ExxonMobil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Fannie Mae, General Electric, Berkshire Hathaway, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and Hewlett- Packard, AT&T, Cargill, McKesson Corporation, Bank of America, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, Apple Inc., Verizon, JPMorgan Chase, and Cardinal Health.
In 2011, four of the worlds ten largest companies by market capitalization wereAmerican: Exxon Mobil, Apple Inc., Chevron Corporation, and Microsoft.According to Fortune Global 500 2011, the ten largest U.S. employers were Walmart,U.S. Postal Service, IBM, UPS, McDonalds, Target Corporation, Kroger, Home Depot,General Electric, and Sears Holdings.Apple, Google, IBM, McDonalds, and Microsoft are the worlds five most valuablebrands in an index published by Millward Brown.A 2012 Deloitte report published in STORES magazine indicated that of the worldstop 250 largest retailers by retail sales revenue in fiscal year 2010, 32% of thoseretailers were based in the United States, and those 32% accounted for 41% of thetotal retail sales revenue of the top 250.Amazon.com is the worlds largest onlineretailer.Half of the worlds 20 largest semiconductor manufacturers by sales were American-origin in 2011.Most of the worlds largest charitable foundations were founded by Americans.American producers create nearly all of the worlds highest-grossing films. Many ofthe worlds best-selling music artists are based in the United States. U.S. tourismsector welcomes approximately 60 million international visitors every year.
Energy, Transportation, and Telecommunications Port of Houston, one of the largest ports in the United States.
The United States is the second largest energy consumer in total use The U.S. ranksseventh in energy consumption per-capita after Canada and a number of othercountries The majority of this energy is derived from fossil fuels: in 2005, it wasestimated that 40% of the nations energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and23% from natural gas. Nuclear power supplied 8.4% and renewable energy supplied6.8%, which was mainly from hydroelectric dams although other renewables areincluded American dependence on oil imports grew from 24% in 1970 to 65% by theend of 2005. At that rate of unchecked import growth, the US would have been 70%to 75% reliant on foreign oil by about 2015.] Transportation has the highestconsumption rates, accounting for approximately 68.9% of the oil used in the UnitedStates in 2006, and 55% of oil use worldwide as documented in the Hirsch report.In 2011, the United States imported 3,324 million barrels of crude oil, compared to3,377 million barrels in 2010. While the U.S. is the largest importer of fuel, the WallStreet Journal reported in 2011 that the country was about to become a net fuelexporter for the first time in 62 years. The paper reported expectations that thiswould continue until 2020. In fact, petroleum was the major export from the countryin 2011.Internet was developed in the U.S. and the country hosts many of the worlds largesthubs.
Finance Measured by value of its listed companies securities, the New York Stock Exchange is more than three times larger than any other stock exchange in the world. As of October 2008, the combined capitalization of all domestic NYSE listed companies was US$10.1 trillion. NASDAQ is another American stock exchange and the worlds 3rd largest exchange after the New York Stock Exchange and Japans Tokyo Stock Exchange. However NASDAQs trade value is larger than Japans TSE. NASDAQ is the largest electronic screen-based equity securities trading market in the U.S. With approximately 3,800 companies and corporations, it has The New York Stock more trading volume per hour than any other stockExchange is the largest exchange.stock exchange in the world.
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