1. Pollution as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biologicalcharacteristics of air, water and soil which affects human life.Sources of Pollution. Solid wastes( Industrial , Domestic, Agricultural wastes) Liquid wastes Gaseous wastes Energy wastes NoiseKinds of Pollution. 1. Nature of Pollution.(Decomposable and non-decomposable) 2.Components of environment.( Air , Water , Soil Pollution etc.) 3. Sources of Pollutants.( Fertilizer , Pesticidal , Noise pollution etc.) 4.Type of Pollutants.( Lead , Mercury , Chromium , Cadmium pollutions)
2. Air PollutionNatural Components of Air Gas Volume(%) Oxygen 20.92 Argon 0.9325 Hydrogen 0.01 Helium 0.0005 Nitrogen 78.1 Carbon dioxide 0.03 Neon 0.0018 Crypton 0.0001
3. Type of Air Pollutants: Primary Pollutants:-They enter into air directly. Secondary Pollutants:- They are created in air from other pollutants under the influence of electromagnetic radiation from sun.Sources of Air Pollution: Stationary combustion sources.( Burning of fuels like coal ,petroleum etc.) Mobile combustion sources. (Automobiles , Aircraft etc.) Industrial Processing and other sources.
4. Major Air Pollutants 1.Gaseous pollutants. 2. Particulate pollutants1.Gaseous pollutants. a. Inorganic gases. b. Organic gases. a. Inorganic gases :- Oxides Sulphur , Oxides of Carbon ,Oxides of Nitrogen,Ozone , other inorganic gases. b. Organic gases :- Aldehydes , Hydrocarbons .2. Particulate Pollutants. Smoke and grit Photochemical smog Biocides and pesticides. Heavy metals. Radio- active elements. Liquid particulates.
5. Control of Air PollutionSome important measures to reduce the pollution of air are :- 1. Use of purified petrol 2. Modernisation of industries 3.Installation of air treatment plants 4. Use of alternate energy sources 5. Treatment of emissions a. settling chambers b. cyclone separators c. wet and gas scrubbers d. bag filters e. electrostatic precipitation 6. Plantation of trees 7.Changes in lifestyle 8. Enforcement of Air (Prevention and control) PollutionAct,1981 9. Environmental education
6. Water PollutionSources of water pollution 1. Domestic waste 2. Sewage 3. Industrial waste 4. Fertilizers and detergents 5. Pesticides and herbicides 6. Radioactive wastes 7. Thermal pollution 8. OilControl of water pollution 1. Effluents should not be discharged directly into water bodies 2. Proper treatment of the sewage must be carried out before disposing it into water bodies 3.Hot liquid effluents should be cooled before discharge 4. Radioactive discharges should be strictly under control and according to the scientific norms 5. Education
7. Soil PollutionSources of soil pollution A. Natural sources a. plant residues b. animal wastes B. Artificial sources a. industrial wastes b. solid wastes c. radioactive wastes d. detergents e. agrochemicalsControl of soil pollution 1. Control of pesticide pollution 2. Control of fertilizer pollution 3. Control of acid rains 4. Avoid discharging of hot liquids and leakage of oil into the soil 5. Sewage should be biologically treated
8. Marine pollutionSources of marine pollution 1. Industrial effluents 2. Marine ship effluents 3.Oil spillage 4.Inflow of fertilizers and pesticides 5.Nuclear tests and dumping of nuclear wastes 6.Eutrophication
9. Noise PollutionNoise is a wrong sound at wrong place at wrong time .Noise pollution definedas unwanted sound released into the atmosphere with out any concern to theadverse effects.Measurement of sound The decibal(dB) measures a sound intensity by a ratio of loudness withreference to the softest audible sound.Sound levels of different sources: Source Sound level(Db) Sound level( by man)Self whisper 25 Very quietOrdinary conversation 60 Moderately soundFood blender 85 Very loudMotor cycle 90 Very loudJet plane 105 Uncomfortable loudThunder clap 120 Uncomfortable loudJet plane taking off 150 PainfullRocket engine 180 Painfull