• 1919-1934- Filipinos campaigned for
independence and sent twelve
independence missions to America.
• 1935- the Commonwealth of the
Philippines was finally established.
• July 4, 1946- this was the preparatory step
to the established of the Third Philippine
o. 1899-1901-It’s was realize for a brief time with the established
for the First Philippine Republic, only to be lost in a war against
oDefeated in a war, the people accepted American rule, trained
in the presence of democracy, assimilated American political
and cultural legacies. But they never ceased to aspire for
• 1907- the Philippine Assembly and the later the
Philippine Legislature passed resolution
expressing the Filipino desire for independence.
• The Nacionalista Party won every election because
of it’s stirring cry: ”Immediate Complete, and
• During the First World War the Filipinos temporarily stopped their
independence campaign and supported the United States against
Germany. After the war they resumed their independence drive
with greater vigor. On March 17, 1919, the Philippine Legislature
passed the famous “Declaration of Purposes”, which stated the
inflexible desire of the Filipino people to be free and sovereign.
• February 28, 1919- Senate President Quezon, left Manila to
Washington. It consisted of 40 prominent Filipinos representing the
political, educational, and economic elements of the country. The
Filipinos were received by Secretary of War Baker, who extended
to them the courtesies of the American nation. They presented the
Filipino case before congress, and them returned home.
• President Wilson, in his farewell address to Congress on
December 2, 1920, recommended the granting of Philippine
Independence. Unfortunately, the Republican Party then
controlled Congress, so that the recommendation of the
outgoing Democratic president was not heeded.
• The failure of the First Independence Mission did not
discourage the Filipino people. In subsequent years other
indepence missions were sent across the Pacific. The
Second mission was sent in 1922, thre third in 1923, the
fourth in 1924, the fifth in 1925, the sixth in 1927, the
seventh in 1928, the eight in 1930, the ninth in 1931(OSROX
MISSION), the tenth (one-man mission consisting of
Benigno Aquino) in 1932,the eleventh in 1933, and the
twelve in November 1933.
• The OsRox Mission (1931) was a campaign for self-government and
United States recognition of the independence of the Philippines led
by former Senate President Sergio Osmeña and House Speaker
Manuel Roxas. The mission secured the Hare–Hawes–Cutting
Act, which was rejected by the Philippine Legislature and Manuel
• The OsRox Mission was the 9th Independence Mission in a series of
missions lasting from 1919 to 1933. While the previous missions
gave good impressions of the Filipinos in the minds of
Americans, they were marked by misunderstandings among Filipino
leaders. The Americans had mixed opinions on whether to give the
Philippines independence; some political leaders in the US thought
that giving the Philippines independence would result in them losing
• The OsRox Mission stayed in the US the longest and secured the
passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act. It would establish
the Philippine Commonwealth as a transition government for 12
years before receiving independence on July 4, 1946.[ It separated
the Philippine Legislature in two "camps", the Antis and the Pros.The
Pros were led by Osmeña and Roxas, who supported the act as they
believed it was the best one they could get out of the US Congress.
Senate President Manuel Quezon led the Antis and objected the act
due to its "objectionable features“.]He also believed that the act did
not truly grant the Philippines independence.Aside from granting the
Philippines independence, the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act also
reserved military bases from the US and let American goods into the
country for free. These provisions were seen as controversial.
• The Philippine Legislature ended up rejecting the OsRox Mission's
work for the following reasons:
1. The provisions affecting the trade relations between the United
States and the Philippines would seriously imperil the
economic, social and political institutions of the country and might
defeat the avowed purpose to secure independence for the
Philippines at the end of the transition period.
2. The immigration clause was objectionable and offensive to the
3. The powers of the High Commissioner were too indefinite.
4. The military, naval and other reservations provided for in the act
were inconsistent with true independence, violated dignity and were
subject to misunderstanding.
• The HHC-act proved to be a disruptive factor in the Philippine
politics because it divided the people into two opposing camps – the
Anti’s and the Pro’s. The Anti’s, led by Senate President
Quezon, opposed the act because of it’as objectionable features. The
Pro’s, headed by Senator Osmeña and Speaker Roxas, upheld it on
ground that it was the best independence measure that could be
obtained from Congress.
• Before the final passage of the HHC-act, Senate President
Quezon, who was in Manila, expressed his objections to the pending
independence legislation. In December 1932, he sent a one-man
mission (Aquino) to Washington with “definite instruction” regarding
his objections. Aquino, however, was won over by Osmeña and Roxas
to their side.
• The following year Quezon left Manila at head of the eleventh mission.
The home-bound OSROX Mission met the Quezon Mission in Paris. The
two missions failed to come to an understanding. With strained
relations, they returned together to Manila.
• It eclipsed the famous Osmeña-Quezon fight in 1921, which split for
the first time the Nacionalistas into two warring factions – the
unipersonalistas(Osmeña Wing) and the Colectivistas(Quezon Wing).
On October 17, 1933, the Quezon-controlled Philippine Legislature
rejected the HHC-act. The following month, Quezon himself led the
twelfth mission to Washington to secure a better independence act.
• Following a series of conferences with President Franklin D.
Roosevelt and various Congressional Leaders, Quezon was able to
win Congress to his side. A new independence measure, called the
Tydings-McDuffie Law (so named after its sponsors Senator Millard
E. Tydings and Representative John McDuffie), was passed and signed
by President Roosevelt on March 24, 1934. It was a revised copy of
the spurned HHC act of 1933. The only difference from the HHC act
were the change in the title, the eleminetion of military
reservations, and the modification of certain vague provisions.
• July 4, 1946- preparatory granting of independence.
• April 30, 1934 – Senate President Quezon proudly returned to Manila
with a copy of the Tydings-McDuffie Law.
• May 1 – The Philippine Legislature accepted the law.
• This did not end the controversy between the Anti’s and the Pro’s, for
the latter insisted that the Tydings – McDuffie Law was the same as
the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law.
• June 5, 1934-the issue was presented to the people in the general
election. The Pro’s down in defeat. Quezon and his men surged to
power by popular vote. Osmeña and Roxas were reelected to the
Legislature, but they lost their respective positions as President
Pro-tempore of the Senate and Speaker of the House. Quintin
Paredes became the Speaker of the House and Jose Clarin became
Senate President Pro-tempore.
• The Tydings-McDuffie Law authorized the Philippine
Legislature to call a constitutional convention to draft the
Constitution of the Philippines.
• May 5, 1934-the Philippine Legislature passed an act setting
the election of 202 delegates to the convention.
• Governor-General Frank Murphy-designated July 10 as the
date of election of delegates to the convention.
• Of the 202 delegates the majority were lawyers, including
many who had been judges, legislator, and cabinet men.
educators, scholars, writers, physicians, farmers, business
men, labor leaders, and religious ministers. With the
exception of a few rich hacienderosand financers, the
delegates were mostly of the middle class.
(74 YEARS OLD)
(25 YEARS OLD)
• At 10:30 am in the morning of July 30, 1934- the convention met in
inaugural session at the hall of the House of Representative, Legislative
Building, Manila. The Batanes delegates were delayed in coming to Manila
because of the difficulty of transportation. A vast crowd jamming the
Session Hall to witness the opening ceremonies.
• The convenmtionb was formally opened by Senater President Quezon. A
solemn invocation over, President Quezon delivered a short speech, after
which he oprdered the calling of the roll of delegates. A quorum was
declared Jose P. Laurel, delegate from Batangas, was chosen temporary
chairman, and he presided over the election of the Convention officers.
• The elected officers of the Convenmtion were Claro M.
Recto, president, Ruberto Montinola and Teodoro Sandiko, first and second
vice-president, respectively; Narciso Pimentel, secretary; and Narciso
Diokno, sergeant and arms.
• The convention was too unwieldy a body to draft a constitution. It
was therefore, divided into two committees. There were sevebn
standing commitees on the organization and the function of the
Convention and forty committees of the constitution. The largest and
the most powerful of these committees was the Sponsorship
Committee of 87 members, with Delegate Filemon Sotto as chairman.
• According to the rules adopted by the Convention, any delegate could
submit constitutional proposals. These proposals would be studied by
the pertinent committees which, in turn, would make their reports to
the Sponsorship Committee.
• After working for sometime over the numerous proposals received
from the different committee, the Sponsorship Committee found out
that it could not work fast enough owing to its large membership.
Accordingly, on October 8, 1934, it created a Sub-Committee of
Seven to draft the Constitution. This body was composed of Filemon
Sotto (chairman), Manuel A. Roxas, Norberto Romualdez, Manuel C.
Briones, Condrado Benitez, Miguel Cuaderno, and Vicente Singson
Encarnacion, they were called the “seven wise men” by the press.
• October 20, 1934- the sub-committee of seven reported the finished
draft of the constitution to the sponsorship committee which, in
turn, submitted it to the convention.
• January 31, 1935- the convention approved the draft, with certain
• February 8, 1935- the constitution was approved by the convention
by a vote of 177 to 1. Twenty-two members were absent. One member
had died in August 1934. The only dissenting vote was cast by
Delegate Tomas Cabili of Lanao.
• The drafting of the constitution lasted six months- from July 30. 1934
to February 1935, amidst impressive ceremonies.