Prhs Research, Citing Sources, and Plagiarism

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  • 1. The Research Process Researching, Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism Peachtree Ridge High School
  • 2. The Contradictions of Research Writing Show you have done your research Appeal to experts and authorities Improve your English by mimicking what you hear and read Give credit where credit is due Write something new and original Improve upon, or disagree with experts and authorities Use your own words, your own voice Make your own significant contribution Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_plagiar.html But…
  • 3. Primary vs. Secondary Sources Secondary: analysis of the work • review of a particular genre • article or essay about the work • biography of the author • print or electronic reference sources • textbook Primary: an original work • poem • short story • art work • video • research paper • journal article • book •speech
  • 4. Real Life Consequences Damaged the reputation of two prominent historians: Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns Goodwin – Goodwin left television position and stepped down as Pulitzer Prize judge for “lifting” 50 passage for her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (Lewis). *picture citation: (“Doris Kearns Goodwin”).
  • 5. More Real Life Consequences • Probe of plagiarism at UVA- 45 students dismissed, 3 graduate degrees revoked. • Senator Joseph Biden dropped his 1987 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination (Sabato). – He copied in law school and borrowed from campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy Picture citation: (“Joe Biden Plagiarism Par Dux”)
  • 6. Even More Real Life Consequences New York Times senior reporter Jayson Blair forced to resign after being accused of plagiarism and fraud. The newspaper stated “at least 36 of the 73 articles he had written had problems with accuracy, calling the deception a ‘low point’ in the newspaper's history” (“New York Times Exposes Fraud”).
  • 7. Even More… Annette Schavan, Germany's Education and Science Minister, has resigned over a plagiarism scandal. A university panel “found the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) minister guilty of ‘deliberate deception’ for using foreign text passages without proper citation in her 33-year-old thesis” (“German Minister Quits…”). Picture citation: (“Annette Schavan”)
  • 8. Even More… France’s top rabbi, Gilles Bernheim, resigns in plagiarism scandal – Accused of using text from philosopher Jean- Francois Lyotard (“France’s Top Rabbi”) Picture citation: (Andres)
  • 9. Is this important? What if... Your architect cheated his way through math class. Will your home be safe? Your lawyer paid for a copy of the bar exam to study? Will the contract she wrote stand up in court? The accountant who does your taxes hired someone else to write his papers and paid a stand in to take his major test? Does he know enough to complete your tax forms properly? Your doctor cheated his way through surgical techniques class. Would he remove your appendix or spleen? How much would it matter? (Lathrop and Foss 87).
  • 10. POP QUIZ#1 : Is this plagiarism? Original Source: – If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists (Valenza 26). Student’s Paper: – The existence of a signing ape seemed to be unsettling for linguists, and it was also startling for animal behaviorists.
  • 11. VERDICT=PLAGIARISM! The student should have used quotation marks around the words that he/she copied from the original source. Also, there is no parenthetical citation with the author and page number of the source statement. – Correct: The “existence of a signing ape” seemed to be “unsettling for linguists, and it was also startling for animal behaviorists” (Valenza 26). Citations are important!
  • 12. POP QUIZ #2: Is this plagiarism? Original Source: – If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for behaviorists (Valenza 26). Student’s Paper: – If the presence of a sign-language-using chimp was disturbing for scientists studying language, it was also surprising to scientists studying animal behavior (Valenza 26).
  • 13. VERDICT= STILL PLAGIARISM Even though the writer has substituted synonyms and cited the source, the writer is plagiarizing because the source’s sentence structure is unchanged. It is obvious that the writer could not have written his sentence without a copy of the source directly in front of him Correct: According to Joyce Valenza, linguists and animal behaviorists were unprepared for the news that a chimp could communicate with its trainers through sign language (16). Author’s name is not included in the parenthesis since it is mentioned in the text of the sentence.
  • 14. VERDICT= STILL PLAGIARISM
  • 15. How to Avoid Plagiarism Practice good research methods Know how to quote, paraphrase and cite Know when something is common knowledge Keep track of every source you use Indicate in your notes which ideas are taken from your sources (S) and which are your own insights (ME)
  • 16. How to Take Notes Concrete Details Commentary • Direct quotations from source (make sure you put quotation marks around anything taken word for word) • Isolated facts • Paraphrases (put facts into your own words) • Summaries of key ideas *Be sure to put the page number for each fact!!! • Your thoughts and analysis of each concrete detail • Your explanation of how the concrete detail supports your missing a thesis that addresses your topic and reasons why • Your reactions and responses to the concrete details Using Double Column Notes Start a new table each time you visit a new source. See the research section of our media center web site to download directions and templates for using double column notes. Source information should be included at the top of the table. For example: Strathmore, John S. America in Focus. 2nd ed. New York: Johnson House, 1999. Note: Easybib.com allows you to use this Cornell note taking system by using electronic note cards.
  • 17. Using Existing Knowledge Use your own words, your own voice, your own ideas Paraphrase or quote, and cite both! – Paraphrase: restate information, giving the meaning in another form – Quote: to repeat wording exactly using quotation marks (“”) – Cite: to give credit to original author of material; You will use parenthetical citations after quotations and paraphrases and include source info on a Works Cited page
  • 18. What is a Parenthetical Citation? Whenever you quote words, cite facts, or use ideas from an outside source, you must briefly identify that source by author (or title if there is not credible author) and specify where the words, facts, or ideas originally occurred —for instance by including page numbers. MLA calls this “parenthetical citation” because the information is placed in a parenthesis. Together, your parenthetical documentation and Works Cited enable your reader to identify your sources and locate the exact passages you have used. Example: (Smith 278).
  • 19. You Need To Cite When You… Use or refer to someone else’s words or ideas (whether a direct quotation or paraphrase) Gain information through interviewing another person Use facts, statistics, etc. Copy the exact words or a “unique phrase” Reprint diagrams, illustrations, charts, pictures, videos, music Use other people’s ideas (printed, or through conversations or email)
  • 20. You Don’t Need to Cite When You… Write from your own experiences, observations, insights, thoughts, conclusions about a subject Compile generally accepted facts Write up your own experimental results Using publications produced by federal and state governments Using information in the public domain Use “common knowledge”--shared information in your field of study
  • 21. What is Common Knowledge? The same information is not cited in at least five other sources Information that your audience will already know or that is easily observed General information NOT quoted directly Commonly reported facts or sayings Examples of common knowledge: – John Adams was our second president.
  • 22. More Parenthetical Fun! Use of Authors' Names: Always mention the author's name—either in the text itself or in the parenthetical citation—unless no author is provided. If the author's name is mentioned in the text introducing the source material, then cite the page number(s) in parentheses: Ex: Branscomb argues that "it's a good idea to lurk (i.e., read all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you don't break any of the rules of netiquette" when joining a listserv (7). citation
  • 23. If the author's name is not mentioned in the text then include the author's last name in the parenthetical citation before the page number(s). Note that no comma appears between the author's name and the page number(s). Ex: The modern world requires both the ability to concentrate on one thing and the ability to attend to more than one thing at a time: "Ideally, each individual would cultivate a repertoire of styles of attention, appropriate to different situations, and would learn how to embed activities and types of attention one within another" (Bateson 97). citation
  • 24. If no author is identified then substitute for the author's name the title or an abbreviated title in the text or parenthetical citation. Underline the title if the source is a book; if the source is an article, use quotation marks: Ex: The use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has grown substantially over the past five years as companies attempt to adapt to customer needs and to improve their profitability ("Making CRM Work"). Placement of Citations: Place a citation as close to the quoted or paraphrased material as possible without disrupting the sentence. In most cases the parenthetical citation will appear after the final quotation mark and citation
  • 25. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing has to do with … “the sequence of ideas, the arrangement of material, the pattern of thought…” -rephrasing the words of the author and putting his/her thoughts in your own words, phrases and sentence structure. Use your own words when you paraphrase, don’t just move things around. You still need to include a parenthetical citation when paraphrasing!
  • 26. When Paraphrasing and Summarizing First, write your paraphrase and summary without looking at the original text, so you rely only on your memory. Next, check your version with the original for content, accuracy, and mistakenly borrowed phrases Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_plagiar.html Writing Process: Appearance on final product: Begin your summary with a statement giving credit to the source: According to Jonathan Kozol, ... Put any unique words or phrases that you cannot change, or do not want to change, in quotation marks: – "savage inequalities" exist throughout our educational system (Kozol 27).
  • 27. Direct Quotations -Quotations are the EXACT words of an author or text, copied directly from the source, word for word. They must be cited! In his investigation of social identity, The Uses of Disorder, Sennett defines adulthood as a stage where people "learn to tolerate painful ambiguity and uncertainty" (108). Provide tags (lead in) to direct quotations
  • 28. Lead in to quotation No Quotation Should Stand by Itself! Always lead in or out of your quotations by weaving your wording with the quotation Ex: A great philosophy on life is shown in the statement, “All life is an experiment. The more experiments you make the better” (Emerson 47). Ex: Though it may seem expensive to keep a person in prison for life, “roughly it's costing us $2 million more to execute someone than it would cost to keep them in jail for life” (Porter 38). citation
  • 29. When Quoting Directly Keep the person’s name near the quotation in your notes, and in your paper Select those direct quotations that make the most impact in your paper -- too many direct quotes may lessen your credibility and interfere with your style Writing Process: Appearance on final product: Put quotation marks around the text that you are taking word for word Optional with quotes: Mention the person’s name before or after the quotation Indicate added phrases in brackets ([ ]) and omitted text with ellipses (. . .)
  • 30. Original Quotation – “More than 130 of them in dozens of countries still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.” Altered Quotation – According to researchers Matthew Bunn and Anthony Wier, “More than 130 [research reactors] in dozens of countries still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain- link fence” (76). [Brackets ]
  • 31. Original Quotation – “More than 130 of them in dozens of countries still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.” Altered Quotation – According to researchers Matthew Bunn and Anthony Wier, “More than 130 [research reactors]…still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence” (76). ... Ellipses ...
  • 32. Block Quotations Use for quotations that extend more than four lines of verse or prose. Place in a free-standing block (indented one inch from left margin) and omit quotation marks. Unlike shorter quotations, your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks (and maintain double space).
  • 33. Example of a Block Quotation: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78) Period goes before citation in this case only No quotation marks needed in block quotations.
  • 34. What is a Works Cited Page? The purpose of the Works Cited page is to give readers a complete bibliographical entry for each source used in an essay. This complete bibliographical entry will allow the readers to go and find the exact source(s) used in the paper. A direct connection between parenthetical citations and works cited page entries exists.
  • 35. Connection Between Parenthetical Citations and Works Cited See how they match up?
  • 36. Reminders About Works Cited - Make sure your sources are listed in alphabetical order ignoring any initial A, An and The - Make sure your entries have a hanging indent (additional lines of entries after the first line are indented) - Make sure double spacing is used throughout (no extra spaces should exist between entries) - Make sure all sources listed on your works cited paper are found in the text of your paper - Make sure all sources found in the text of your paper are listed on your works cited page. - Make sure your Works Cited page is in the same document as your paper. It should be the last page of your paper so your header and page number will remain on the top right
  • 37. Last name 7 Works Cited Gross, Daniel. “The Recession is Over! Now What We Need is a New Kind of Recovery.” Newsweek. 3 Aug. 2009: 32-37. Print. The Hat Makes the Man. 1920. Drawing. MoMA. Web. 14 Aug. 2009. Musgrave, Gerald L. "Taxing Ourselves: A Citizen's Guide to the Debate over Taxes, 4th ed." Business Economics Header remains Hanging indent ABC order
  • 38. Media Center Web site Click here There are many helpful links and tutorials on our under Research Resources (click on Helpful Handouts) Site: prhsmediacenter.com
  • 39. Databases
  • 40. Database Passwords You will need a password to access these databases at home Passwords can be found through the student portal (handouts available in MC) On your desktop In the portal
  • 41. Why Not Google??? Anyone can create a web site and make it look credible. For example: see this fake site on the endangered tree octopus (It looks pretty credible!): http://zapatopi.net/treeoctopus/ Many sites found on google (or other search engines) are biased, inaccurate, unreliable, or not valuable. No one has to approve internet content found through google, bing or other search engines so in a sense the internet is just a big, global bathroom stall where anyone can contribute his/her own graffiti! Databases are librarian-approved and guaranteed to be credible sources. If you are really missing google then try WebPath Express found on the databases. – If you HAVE to use google when conducting research then use Google Scholar (use the “more” tab at the top of the google search page to select this option). Also try SweetSearch.com –
  • 42. Citing Sources from Databases (Another Perk of the Databases!) Good news: many databases do all the work and find your source information for you (google doesn’t do this!). – Once you find an article you want to use, just look for a “cite” button (or some databases include this info at the bottom) and select “MLA” to get this info to paste into your Easybib Bibliography.
  • 43. Formatting Your Paper: A Refresher in MLA!-Forgot how to make a heading/header? Here is a video found on our media center web site that shows you how to set up the rest of your paper in MLA format: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EONMCb8gYnQ&feature=plcp
  • 44. Don’t forget to use Easybib.com! This tool will make MLA formatting and research SO much easier! It will automatically format your Works Cited page, and you can take research notes with this tool. Tutorial Videos and handouts are available on our media center web site AND there is an iphone app that lets you scan a book to get the Works Cited entry: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0FjFLi6Wj8
  • 45. Summary Take precautions to avoid plagiarism (take careful notes, learn how to paraphrase correctly, use quotation marks for direct quotations, and cite all of your sources!) Use credible sources (like the databases!) when researching Refer to the media center web site for useful handouts and tutorials Use Easybib.com to make your life EASIER!
  • 46. Works Cited for this Presentation Works Cited “Doris Kearns Goodwin.” Doris Kearns Goodwin Official Site. 7 September 2011. Web. 10 October 2011. “Jayson Blair.” The Time of India. 2010. Web. 10 October 2011. “Joe Biden Plagiarism Par Dux.” Lame Cherry. 23 August 2008. Web . 10 October 2011. Lathrop, Ann, and Foss, Kathleen. Guiding Students From Cheating and Plagiarism to Honest an Integrity: Strategies for Change. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005. Lewis, Mark. “Doris Kearns Goodwin And The Credibility Gap.” Forbes. 2 Feb. 2002. Web. 10 October 2011. “New York Times Exposes Fraud of own Reporter.” ABC News Online. 12 May 2003. Web. 10 October 2011. Sabato, Larry J. “Joseph Biden's Plagiarism; Michael Dukakis's ‘Attack Video' 1988.” Washington Post Online. 1998. Web. 3 March 2002. Valenza, Joyce. “What is plagiarism? (And why you should care!)” Springfield Township High School Virtual Library. 7 Feb. 2008. Web. 10 October 2011. Should be double-spaced
  • 47. Web Sites Consulted to Create this Presentation http://owl.english.purdue.edu/han http://ghs.grads.vt.edu/student/av http://www.lib.uconn.edu/~sro