N I C H O L S O N KOVAC
SOCIAL MEDIA 101
A N I C H O L S O N K O VA C W H I T E PA P E R
AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL MEDIA
usinesses are rapidly and actions vary according to how people view Community-based
changing the way they themselves within the various online social Social media is a party to which everyone
communicate in both B-to-B communities. We ‘follow’ those we respect, is invited. Communities can form quickly
and B-to-C environments on admire, like, fear, loathe or love. And our and communicate effectively. Communities
a daily basis. Your organization can benefit actions reflect these experiences. If someone share common interests and users
from using the social media channel in many you respect blogs about a recent purchase, you collaborate about each other’s ideas in
ways: to build and maintain client and might be swayed to buy the same product. reference to that interest.
employee relationships, to provide additional
The key to social influence for marketers is to Connectedness
customer service touch points, to identify and
affect consumer behavior, both on and offline, Information becomes easily accessible
engage online brand champions, to monitor
by creating a well-monitored, positive and through the use of social media. It allows
your brand, competitors and marketplace
persuasive dialog that is intelligently integrated messages to spread by using links and
issues, to establish your organization as an
into their overall brand strategy. sharing tools.
industry thought leader … the possibilities are
seemingly endless. Incorporating social Participatory
What is Social Media?
networks into your integrated marketing Social media allows people to tell their stories
strategy has become increasingly necessary as The term “social media” is used to describe a set using online publishing means such as blogs,
your customers have increased the time they of Internet tools that enable shared community social networks, forums, photo/video sharing,
spend on these various communications experiences, both online and in person. A etc. Now anyone with an Internet connection
channels. There is much to consider both community, in this context, is a group of people has the ability to share messages with a
before and after the decision is made to jump with common interests who connect with one worldwide audience.
into the world of online communication. We another to learn, work, organize and socialize.
invite you to use this guide as a primer for Social media was born out of the personal Traditional Versus Social
discussion about social media. empowerment and freedom the Internet offers.1
The biggest differences between traditional
Thus, social media is best understood as having
media (newspapers, TV, radio, etc.) and social
Theory of Social Influence the following characteristics:
media is that social media is collaborative
The theory of social influence states that Open Conversation and on consumers’ terms. Social media elicits
an individual’s behavior is intentionally or Traditional media is about broadcasting audience interaction and is constantly changing.
unintentionally affected by other people (sending one message to many). Social Organizations can no longer just broadcast a
according to how that individual perceives media encourages feedback from everyone. message to the masses. Instead, they must
himself in relation to his influencers. In the social Communication becomes an open and learn how to use online networking channels to
media arena, this theory holds true. Behavior honest two-way conversation. develop and nurture one-to-one relationships.
Companies must meet customers where they
are and engage with them in their own language.
1 I S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1
Why It’s Important
Although there are many reasons why social B A S I C F O R M S O F
media is notable, there is one reason that
stands above the rest: people. Social media
brings with it a tremendous power to build
personal relationships. The ability to reach
every user on the planet, to grow support and
to easily maintain connections are all reasons Blog (short for web log) – Websites to gain more information or start a
why social media can be a game changer for where individuals provide entries conversation.
traditional marketing communication.2 (posts) of any type of content in order
Location-based social networking –
to inform or create discussions.
An online application that allows
What It Means for Companies Popular free blogging websites are
members to share their location using
Who can afford not to take advantage of a Blogger™, Tumblr and WordPress.
their mobile phones through GPS,
huge opportunity? Never before has there been Social network – An online community e-mail or text. Businesses can use these
such an open forum of real-time feedback. that allows people to connect with applications for marketing/advertising
Companies quickly can find where crowds are others, and that enables people to and PR purposes. Foursquare and
and then listen and learn valuable information share videos, pictures and information Gowalla have the largest number of
from them. By joining the conversation, with their peers by creating a personal users at this time.
company executives become industry thought- profile website. The most popular
Creative Content Community – An
leaders and fill the void between customers social networks include Facebook®
online community that focuses on
and traditional marketing communication and LinkedIn, among others.
organizing and sharing particular
channels. Through the use of social media,
Micro-blog – A community where kinds of interactive new media
organizations connect with consumers on a
posts (or updates) are in bite-sized content. The most popular kinds of
deeper level and refine their messaging to
chunks of 140 characters or less. content communities tend to focus
better suit their target audiences.
Twitter is the clear leader here. around video (YouTube), photos
(Flickr®), podcasts (iTunes) or live
Wikis – Web pages used to collect
video streaming (Ustream®).3
content about a topic. Anyone with
access to the pages can edit or modify Virtual world – A computer-based
the information. The most well known simulated online universe (Second Life®)
wiki is Wikipedia, a free online through which its users can interact using
encyclopedia built collaboratively avatars (a user’s online representation of
with over three million articles. himself/herself). Generally these spaces
tend to mirror the real world (i.e.
Social news/bookmarking – A method
environment, economics, etc.) and
for people to search, organize, store
despite many people’s belief, the
and share items (i.e. blog posts, online
boundaries between the real and virtual
articles, etc.) of interest using the
worlds are quite porous.
item’s URL. Or websites (like Digg)
users submit and vote on news stories
or other links, thus determining which
Things move fast in the social media world and
links are most prominent. Other there are many other forms not listed here
popular bookmarking communities (including RSS aggregators, mash-ups, and
augmented reality). You can refer to the glossary
are Del.icio.us and StumbleUpon. on page 15 to reference other social media
Forum – An online discussion site
where people who wish to discuss
particular issues post threads (topic-
based messages) on a message board
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 2
social say reviews
networks 11 from friends
SOCIAL MEDIA INSIGHTS
they follow T I P S F O R
Creating a Social Business
Are you using social technology to engage
collection of valuable data that can be
your customers and their influencers, to
encourage your employees to collaborate
used to customize both their on- and offline
purchasing experiences. However, a true
1. Define your objective
more efficiently, and to enhance your social business is one that places just as much
business partner relationships? If you on creating a similarly nurturing Whether it is brand awareness
answered yes to all three, you are on your or a call-to-action, it’s always
customers andthem a
environment for its employees as it does its
way to evolving into a social business. partners. Working diligently good to have a measurable and
to build alignment around the company’s attainable goal.
As a result of the ever-expanding number
of social networking platforms, you now great deal.”
mission and to foster a spirit of community
2. Develop a corporate social
and collaboration in the workplace will
have the opportunity to interact with media policy
yield an army of brand champions who will
your increasingly social customers more Be smart about privacy and
feel empowered to take ownership of your
frequently and through many more touch the company’s confidential
customer and partner relationships.
points than ever before – enabling the information.
3. Make it personal
If multiple people are managing
Basically, social media is any web tool or technology one twitter account, use your
initials at the end of an update
that connects people. While somewhat complex, all social so that users know who is
media content can be broken down into simple categories: communicating. Try using a
personal photo as an avatar
instead of the company logo.
4. Protect your brand
Create a custom URL. It’s also good
User Generated Content to reserve brand-associated profiles
A lot of what comes to mind when people Internet and sharing the content with on social networking channels
think “social media” is really just user their community through sites like Digg, like Twitter, Facebook®, YouTube,
generated content. This includes things like StumbleUpon, Reddit, Del.icio.us, and many Flickr®, SlideShare and others.
blogs, podcasts, photos and video; essentially others.
anything where the main focus is content 5. Stay active
creation. This is one of the fastest growing Social Networks and Content Post relevant, meaningful and
parts of social media, primarily because of the respectful comments. Do not
Along with user generated content, social spam or post remarks that are
shrinking barriers to entry. You can showcase
networks are the other half of social media. off-topic or offensive.
your pictures on Flickr® and upload a video to
By now, everyone has heard of sites like
a YouTube channel/page very easily.
Twitter, Facebook® and LinkedIn. These
networks, among many others, allow users
Socially Highlighted Content
to create profiles and connect with peers,
These sites can help a company accrue and friends and coworkers to form a network of
preserve brand equity because they serve as “linked” individuals. These channels can be
a showcase or portal for content that people a precious resource when trying to promote
deem valuable. The popularity of socially a cause because you can leverage your
highlighted content is measured by people network of supporters.
finding something interesting on the
3 I S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1
SOCIAL NETWORKING BEST PRACTICES
1. Reserve a YouTube.com URL. 1. Secure your own 1. Reserve your custom ®
1. Reserve your custom
2. Choose relevant keyword-
Facebook URL. LinkedIn URL. Twitter URL.
friendly tags for videos to
increase your search results. in
2. Think carefully about who
2. Fill out your profile
2. Include a well-written bio.
3. Make your page stand out
3. Brand and customize your 3. Select your privacy settings. 3. Have a compelling and with a custom background.
YouTube channel by adding 4. Update regularly. search-friendly headline. Include your contact info
background images and 4. Give and receive and links to other social
choosing company colors. 5. Keep your friends organized networks.
using Facebook’s groups recommendations.
4. Get best quality by following feature. 5. Stay active. 4. Post regularly and retweet
YouTube’s video compression others’ posts if they are
guidelines. 6. Create fan pages and track 6. Connect with everyone. interesting and relevant to
your insights. 7. Import your other feeds (i.e. your audience.
5. Thank subscribers and
respond to wall comments. 7. Engage customers with polls blog, Twitter, etc.). 5. Listen and be prepared to
or special fan promotions 8. Become an industry thought respond to conversations.
6. Build up your library of and giveaways.
content quickly. Repurpose leader by joining groups A good way to interact is to
video from traditional and answering people’s ask questions.
advertising (i.e. TV spots). questions. 6. If you want to get retweets,
7. Regularly monitor your be relevant.4
insights on your YouTube 7. Make sure your tweets
channels. provide some value for your
8. To increase your reach, look audience. For example, post
beyond YouTube and post pictures, provide coupons or
your videos on other social a behind-the-scenes view of
video sites such as Vimeo. your company.
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 4
Social Media is consumed and
contributed to almost simultaneously.
5 I S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1
Social Media Convergence audio or video responses, which in turn result
in engagement. Engagement can translate to
Within the world of social media there is
attention, awareness and recall of a topic/
much overlap, and a lot of sites represent
the intersection of different forms of social
media. This makes it even more crucial for A good way to think about social media is
your organization to showcase the right that all of this is actually just about being
messages for your specific audience across human beings. Sharing ideas, cooperating
the entire realm of channels. For example, and collaborating to create art, drive
a micro-blogging site like Twitter or Google commerce, provoke vigorous debate and
Buzz, sits at the intersection of user-generated discourse, and finding people who might
content and social networking; it’s the perfect be good friends, allies and lovers are
blend of both. the essence upon which our species has
built several civilizations. That’s why it is
In practice, social media is content that anyone
spreading so quickly, not because it’s great
online can provide. Social media is consumed
shiny, whizzy new technology, but because
and contributed to almost simultaneously.
it lets us be ourselves.5
Contributions can be comments, photos, and
Retweets and Timing 4
Day of Week
Sun Mon Tues Wed Thu Fri Sat
Random Tweets Retweets
Time of Day (EST)
Random Tweets Retweets
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 6
WHO IS USING SOCIAL MEDIA?
ince 2007, Forrester has sophisticated category, a more detailed Conversationalists include only those
tracked the growth of explanation of the six levels on the Social who update their status at least once a
social behavior. According Technographics ladder are: week, since anything less isn’t much of
to a consumer poll done in a conversation. This group is intriguing
the second quarter of 2010, Forrester found because it is 56% female, more than any
that more than 4 in 5 (81%) of U.S. Internet At the top of the ladder are other group in the ladder. While
users participate in some form of social
media at least once a month. Per Nicholson
Creators – online consumers
who publish blogs, maintain
81 % they’re among the youngest of the
groups, 70% are still 30 and up.
Kovac estimates, among the 60%+ of adults comment Web pages, or upload videos to of adults Critics
18+ reached daily via the Internet, 80% of on blogs YouTube at least once
sites like reached by
a month. Creators, which include the Internet These online consumers participate in
them are engaged in some type of social % are engaged
media, resulting in almost half (45%) of all just 23% of the adult online two ways – by commenting on blogs
adults participating in social media. While of joiners
population, are generally young – media or by posting ratings and reviews on
social media has grown rapidly, when ranked the average age of adult users is sites like Amazon.com. This level of
alongside other media, social media would
30 39 – %are evenly split between
but participation isn’t nearly as intense
rank sixth, almost as high as magazines (in men and women. Their participation is as being a Creator. Critics pick and choose
of joiners %
aggregate), as a medium in terms of average publish blogs 14% produce all three types of
varied: just where they want to offer their expertise and
daily reach. online content whileof active19% produce
another often use another blog post or product as
two of the three types of content.
the foundation for their contribution. Critics
How Users Consume Social Media of Americans 33% of all adult online consumers
brands, or who use average are several years older than
Forrester categorizes social computing Conversationalists, recently added to the
products on social media
Creators. Two-thirds of them post ratings
behaviors into a ladder with six levels of social say reviews
Social Technographics ladder, include from and reviews, but only 22% comment on
participation. They use the term Social networks 11
31% of the adult online population.theyblogs and rate/review website content. Four
Technographics to describe a population Conversationalists are comprised of not on social ten Critics are Creators as well.
according to its participation in these networks
only Facebook® and Twitter users, but also “influence
levels. Participation at one level may or people who regularly post status updates them a
may not overlap with participation at other to these social network sites to converse.great deal.”
levels. Starting from the top with the most
7 I S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1
When users save URLs on a
if they never bookmarked a page
Joiners represent 59% of the adult online
population and are generally made up of
social bookmarking service like
comment of adults people between 18-24 years of age. They
themselves. Collectors represent
on blogs reached by are highly likely to engage in other social
Del.icio.us or use RSS feeds 19% of the adult online population
on blogs, they create metadata % and are the most male-dominated computing activities – 56% also read blogs,
that’s shared with the entire in social while 30% publish blogs.
of all the Social Technographics
of joiners media
community. This act of collecting read blogs groups. More than two-thirds tag Spectators
and aggregating information pages, while more than half use
plays a vital role in organizing the
% RSS feeds. This group of blog readers, video viewers,
and podcast listeners, which represent 68%
tremendous amount of content of joiners
Joiners % of the adult online population, serves as the
being produced by Creators and
of active audience for the social content made by
Critics. For example, Del.icio.us This unique group has just one
Twitter users %
everyone else. The most common activity
users can see all of the Web defining follow – using a social
for Spectators is reading blogs, with only
pages tagged “Political Headlines” even networking site like Facebook® or Twitter.Americans
brands, or who use small overlap of users watching peer-
products on generated video on sites like YouTube. It’s
social say reviews
Social Technographics Ladder 6 important to note that Creators can also be
Spectators. Someone who writes a blog
about politics may be a listener of a CNN
• Publish a blog podcast, but many Spectators fail to climb
Creators • Publish their own Web pages them a higher up the participation ladder.
• Upload video they created
• Upload audio/music they created Inactives
• Write articles or stories and post them
19% of online adults do not participate at
Conversationalists all in social computing activities. These
• Update a status on a social networking site
31% • Post updates on Twitter
Inactives have an average age of 50, are
more likely to be women, and are much
less likely to consider themselves leaders
Critics • Post ratings/reviews of products or services or tell their friends about products that
• Comment on someone else’s blog
33% • Contribute to online forums
• Contribute to/edit articles in a wiki
interest them. Although they don’t directly
participate in social media, they are still
affected when the activities of others, i.e. in
Collectors • Use RSS feeds blogs or online consumer-generated videos,
19% • “Vote” for Web sites online get covered in the news media.
• Add “tags” to Web pages or photos
In looking at a four-year trend of the Social
Joiners Technographics groups, there has been
• Maintain profile on a social networking site significant growth in participation groups,
59% • Visit social networking sites which is shown by Inactives decreasing
60%+ from 2007 to 2010. Joiners had the
Spectators • Read blogs largest growth, as they more than doubled in
• Listen to podcasts size. Creators have also seen a boost since
68% • Watch video from other users
• Read online forums 2007. The fact that more than 1 in 5 online
• Read customer ratings/reviews adults in the U.S. are exhibiting Creator
Inactives behavior is a testament to how social
technologies have allowed more people to
19% • None of the above
create and distribute their ideas, opinions
and creations than was ever possible in the
BASE: U.S. ONLINE ADULTS Groups include people participating in at least one of past.
Source: Forrester Research the activities monthly except Conversationalists
who participate in at least one of the included
activities at least weekly. S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 8
Social Influence Targeting marketers make sure that viral elements S O C I A L M E D I A
Varies By Generation – not static links and videos – are key to
reaching this audience.
Just as different generations watch different
shows and read different magazines, GenXers (33-44) Spectators form the
requiring marketers to devise different media foundation for future participation. While
and messaging strategies for each group, significantly fewer members of GenX are
the unique online participation profiles for at the top of the participation ladder, four ®
each generation also require varying social out of 10 are already using social media as
influence strategies. Spectators, making them well positioned
to take the next step. This generation has According to the Arbitron Edison
Teenagers (12-17) create more than any
plenty of knowledge to share based on their
study, Twitter usage presently
other generation, with more than one-third stands at an estimated 17 million
years of experience, from rating recipes to
engaging as Creators. Since teens are very Americans. (75 million users worldwide)
offering reviews of new restaurants. This reflects 7% of the population.7
likely to create their own content, they are
less likely than GenYers to be Critics and Boomers and Seniors (45-55+) with Nearly two-thirds of active Twitter
Collectors. Therefore, the key to reaching 70% participation at least once a month, users also access social networking
marketers need more relevant content and sites using a mobile phone.7
this group is to appeal to its need for self-
expression. services to get them engaged. The advent of 51% of active Twitter users follow
sites like Eons – which is a social networking companies, brands or products on
Millennials (18-32) While this age group social networks.8
site that incorporates blogging and targets ®
has higher percentages in each category
users 50 and older – means that Boomers
than any other (except for youth Creators),
and Seniors are more likely to find something
it’s their sky-high participation in social
that inspires greater levels of participation.
networks that stands out. Successful
There are more than 550 million
active Facebook® users around
Age Age Sex Sex ®
50% of active users log on to
55+ 55+ Facebook® in any given day.
7% 12 to 17 7% 12 to 17
45 to 54
45 to 54
The average user has 130 friends.
18 to 24
People spend over 500 billion
18 to MenWomen Men
35 to 44 3511%
to 44 53% 11%
Base: Monthly Twitter Users 47% 53% 47%
minutes per month using
19% 19% Facebook®.
25 to 34 25 to 34 The average user creates 70 pieces
33% 33% of content each month.
Base: Monthly Twitter Users Base: Monthly Twitter Users
More than 25 billion pieces of
content (Web links, news stories,
9 I S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 blog posts, notes, photo albums,
etc.) are shared each month.
O P P O R T U N I T I E S
How Does Social Media Fit In?
Social media allows businesses to effectively already have shown an interest in their
connect more with their customers and brand through their social media channels,
better meet their customers’ demands. In thus increasing the number of successful
fact, in 2010, about 70% of small businesses marketing campaigns.
plan to use social media to get their
Integrating on- and offline content is a simple
messages out.9 Many brands use social
and cost-effective way to create awareness
media monitoring to hone their messages. By
and consistent messaging about a company’s
listening to the market they are able to draw
networking sites and to persuade customers
important conclusions that can influence
to visit them to learn more. It is important
their traditional marketing strategies. For
to have well thought out objectives when
example, a company might reword a print ad
designing social media channels (Facebook/
to match the style of language its customers
Twitter page) to truly stand out and engage
are using in online forums – allowing the
viewers. Otherwise, once users reach your
ad to be more effective as it reaches the
site they might deem it irrelevant or static.
audience on a deeper level. Companies can
Below are some examples of corporations
also engage parties who
who are profiting from their social media
Listed as #12 in the Corporate America Top
50 Facebook® Pages of 2009, Dunkin’ Donuts
can teach us all something about the use of
While most Facebook® fan pages use
corporate logos as their profile pictures,
Dunkin’ Donuts uses this space to honor its
“Fan of the Week” contest winner. Dunkin’
Donuts’ attentiveness to fans’ positive or
negative comments on their Facebook® wall
shows they truly care about their customers’
wants and needs.
Before Dunkin’ Donuts opened its second
store in Kansas City, the company had started
tweeting about its grand opening long
before they ran traditional advertising. This
created a buzz in the Kansas City community,
getting people excited for Dunkin’ Donuts’
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 10
If you follow Southwest Airlines on flight delays or weather issues, and route listening to what is being said about their
Twitter, you’ll never be bored. It’s just not potential customer service inquiries to brand across the Web, Southwest never
your everyday corporate Twitter account. appropriate internal team members so they misses valuable opportunities to connect
Southwest’s corporate communication team can assist. Southwest also uses monitoring with their customers.
uses Twitter to share news and information to address any harmful feedback from
Southwest recently tweeted about a video
about Southwest, inform its customers of customers. By carefully monitoring and
that a customer took of a rapping flight
attendant and mentioned it to a journalist.
From there, the video and story got picked up
everywhere from the Web to the Wall Street
Journal. Southwest has embraced the power
of social media to give their customers
access to what’s happening behind the
scenes at the airline, and hear what they
have to say about their experiences with the
They are proof that listening, engaging
and embracing communication with your
customers is key to building long-term brand
awareness, loyalty and even a bit of fun.11
Who knew that a company that makes
blenders could be so popular? Blendtec
took a boring product and made it exciting.
Famous for its library of inexpensive Will
It Blend™ videos posted on YouTube and
shared by millions, Will It Blend is part of
the company’s viral marketing strategy,
consisting of a series of infomercials
demonstrating the Blendtec line of blenders.
In the show, Tom Dickson, the Blendtec
founder, attempts to blend various items was important. Consumers had a stake in Nothing is better than creating some great
(wood, marbles, an iPhone, etc.) in order the videos and thus the Will It Blend videos content and handing it over to your brand
to show off the power of his blender. As developed a cult-like following. Dickson has supporters. It’s powerful, and Blendtec
the popularity of the videos grew, Blendtec showcased the power of Blendtec’s blenders is a great example of how a company can
encouraged consumers to suggest things to live on YouTube as well as other media combine a little bit of creativity and user-
blend. outlets like NBC’s Today Show, demonstrating generated content to gain sizable awareness
By engaging audiences, Blendtec was able how they profited from the reach that social and sustain a following.
to create a sense that customer feedback media provides.
11 I S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1
MANAGING YOUR ONLINE REPUTATION
hink about a person to whom for engaging with your customers and potential
you enjoy talking. Maybe it’s a customers online. If the answer to either question
spouse or a best friend. Now
think about the qualities that
% is no, then social media monitoring would be
your first step. However, listening is important for
Google Alerts – Tracks information
from news, Web, blogs, microblogs,
images and video and allows users to
comment of adults
on blogs that person such a good conversationalist.
make other reasons, not just for determining whether decide how often they want to receive
One of the key skills in communicating effectively your company should set up a Facebook® page alerts (generally by e-mail): as-it-
listening. It shouldn’t be a surprise that one of
are engaged or a Twitter account. happens, once a day or once a week.
of joinersmain benefits of social media monitoring is
media Monitoring your reputation online is a necessary
SocialMention.com – Allows users
read blogsit is a great listening tool. By listening to
that to track information from news, Web,
investment if you want to be able to protect
blogs, microblogs, images and video
the marketplace and focusing more directly on
yourself adequately from brand hijacks and and also offers them the chance to
customers’ demands, companies gain significant
filter these results by social media
of joiners % credibility damaging comments. No matter the
publish competitive advantage.
blogs size of your organization, using social
sources from a list of 80. Social
Mention.com effectively measures
What people say active about
Twitter users % media alerts lets you track mentions of results of search terms by strength,
companies, brands and products
follow your name, company and brand. You sentiment, passion and reach.
companies, of Americans
matters. In fact, nearly half of who use can also use alerts to listen to what’s Topsy.com – Monitors photos and
Americans who use social media
products on social media being said about your employees and/or tweets by measuring results of search
say reviews terms by how they match your search
say reviews about a particular
executives, as well as your competitors.
networks 11 terms and the influence of people
company, brand or product from they follow It’s better to get notifications before a talking about them.
friends or people they follow on social problem escalates or gets lodged in the
networks Trackur – Shows the influence and
on social networking websites “influence top search rankings. By then, it may be
audience reach of those discussing
influence them either a great deal them a too late. your brand and includes sentiment
or a fair amount (45%) – the same tagging to see how people currently
11 Alternatively, if your competitors feel about your company/brand.
number of Americans who say
are showing up in search results on Kurrently – Tracks information from
reviews in newspaper or magazine articles
marketplace issues ahead of you, or if mentions Facebook® and Twitter and offers
influence them (46%).12 instant updates of what’s happening
of your brand contain nothing more than neutral
When is the right time to establish a social sentiment, using a monitoring tool can help you right now on the Web.
media presence? Ask yourself first if you know identify which key influencers to engage with to MonitorThis.com – Monitors news,
whether your target audience is actively using give you a positive infusion of energy. Web, blogs, microblogs, images and
video and allows users to filter their
social networking sites, and whether you have search results by requiring their
established both an objective and a strategy search name in title.
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 12
MANAGING YOUR ONLINE REPUTATION
Highly effective social media campaigns are By responding to both negative and positive
not accomplished simply by broadcasting feedback, companies show their honesty
information and disseminating it through and that they truly care about developing a
social media channels. Successful personal relationship with their consumers.
companies build meaningful and lasting
There are many free tools available today,
relationships through constant interaction
and the list keeps growing. Free monitoring
with consumers. Very often those
services we highly recommend are shown
relationships create a referral network
below. When you’re ready to begin more
once consumers start talking to each other.
robust, sophisticated monitoring, Nicholson
Building relationships through social media
Kovac is poised to be your partner.
in turn allows companies to build trust and
loyalty for themselves.
Monitoring Tool Matrix
Monitoring Tool What Does It How Are Results How Are Results Noteworthy
Track? Filtered? Measured?
Google Alerts All Google content Type Relevance Simple to manage
such as images, Frequency Date range existing e-mail
videos, maps, news, Posts per page Length of post alerts or add more.
shopping sites, blogs,
Social Mention 100+ social media Date Strength Offers top keywords,
properties Source Sentiment users, hashtags and
Time period Passion sources.
Reach Personalized daily
Trackur Blogs, news, Type Influence Allows advanced
social networks Date Sentiment filtering such as
Time period domain exclusion.
Topsy Photos, Tweets Type Influence Contains trackback
Time period Relevance pages, allows
Kurrently Facebook, Twitter Type Relevance Instant updates.
Time period Stream speed
Monitor This Articles, blogs, Engine Date Aggregates results
microblogs, news, Source Relevance for 26 search
photos, tags, videos, Length of post engines.
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R E F E R E N C E S
1. Evans, Dave. “Social Media Marketing: 7. Webster, Tom. “Twitter Usage in 10. Username: Brad. “Corporate America
An Hour a Day.” (October 13, 2008) America: 2010.” Retrieved on June 1, Top 50 Facebook Pages 2009.” Retrieved
2010. <http://www.edisonresearch. on June 1, 2010. <http://retechworld.
2. Karjaluoto, Eric. “A Primer in Social com/home/archives/2010/04/twitter_ wordpress.com/2009/12/23/corporate-
Media.” Retrieved on June 1, 2010. usage_in_america_2010_1.php> america-top-50-facebook-pages/>
8. Arbitron/Edison Research. “Everything 11. Radian 6. Retrieved on June 1,
3. Mayfield, Anthony. “What Is Social you need to know about who is using 2010. <http://www.radian6.com/our-
Media?” Retrieved on June 1, 2010. Twitter.” Retrieved on June 1, 2010. customers/southwest-airlines/>
everything-you-need-to-know-about- 12. Heckathorne, Whitney. “Speak
4. Zarrella, Dan. “The Science of ReTweets.” whos-using-twitter-2010-4#25-34-year- Now or Forever Hold Your Tweets.”
Retrieved on June 1, 2010. <http:// olds-make-up-a-third-of-the-twitter- Retrieved on June 3, 2010. <http://
www.danzarrella.com> population-10> multivu.prnewswire.com/mnr/
5. Mayfield, Anthony. “What Is Social 9. Frelix, La Tonya. “Study: 70 percent
Media?” Retrieved on June 1, 2010. of small businesses using social
<http://www.icrossing.co.uk/ebooks> networks to get their messages out.”
Retrieved on June 1, 2010. <http://
6. Rousseau-Anderson, Jackie. “The
Latest Global Social Media Trends May
Surprise You.” Retrieved on September
29, 2010. <http://blogs.forrester.com/
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 14
G L O S S A R Y
Aggregation – Gathering information Blogs – Websites where individuals provide Flashmob – A sudden physical gathering
from multiple websites, typically via RSS. entries of any type of content from video and of people initiated by an online request or
Aggregation lets websites mix the information podcasts to traditional text and photos in order invitation via a tweet, Facebook® status, text
from multiple websites, for example by to inform or create discussions; presented in message or email.
republishing all the news related to a particular reverse chronological order. Slang for web-log.
keyword. Flickr® – Online site for storing, sharing and
Blogroll – A list of recommended blogs commenting on photos.
API (Application Programming Interface) generally in link form.
– allows a data feed to feed from another site Geotagging – The addition of geographical
to a personal site. Blogosphere – The collective term for location information to online media
the entire blogging community. (photographs, video, posts, websites, etc).
App (Short for application) – Apps perform
special functions on smart phones and can be Vlog – A form of blogging that uses the Hat Tip – Public acknowledgement for raising
downloaded or purchased through the phone’s video medium instead of written/typed attention to a post, tweet or person.
Internet. A wide range of apps are available in posts.
Influencer – A person specialized in a specific
several categories including, but not limited to,
Brand Advocates – Influencers that display subject matter and highly recognized in an
games, education and health.
positive sentiment through conversations for a online community who has the ability to sway
Astroturfing – A fake grassroots campaign company, brand or product. others’ thoughts. Key Influencers are sought
online used to create simulated buzz about a out because of their expertise on specific
E-book – A digital edition of a printed book subject matters.
brand or product.
or periodical to be read online. E-books can
Augmented Reality – The use of computer be downloaded as an alternative to buying the Location-based Service – A service
graphics in real-world environments to printed edition. operating from a mobile device that capitalizes
enhance what we see, hear and feel around on geographical location for various purposes
Chatroulette – A website that pairs random including entertainment, safety and work, i.e.
us. These graphics can be added in real time
strangers from around the world together for Foursquare, Google maps and Loopt.
to provide feedback or information about
the world around users.
Mash-up – The combination of different Web
Ecosystem – An online community and its sources to create a new source.
Avatar – A computer user’s representation of
surrounding environment functioning as a
themselves in the form of a two-dimensional
whole. Mention – The listing of a company, brand or
icon or a three-dimensional model.
product within the context of a social media post.
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Meme – A viral concept or question that a Profiles – The information that you provide Social Media – A term used to describe
person contributes to and then shares with about yourself when signing up for a social tools and platforms people use to produce,
others to continue the chain. networking site. This may include a picture, publish and share online content and to
basic information, personal and business interact with one another. Social media tools
Message Boards/Forums – An online interests and tags to help people search for include: blogs, podcasts, videos, microblogs,
discussion site for people looking to discuss like-minded people. wikis, etc.
particular issues or needing support post
threads (a message) on the forum or message QR Code (Quick Response Code) – a two- Social Networking Sites – Large sites
board in hopes to gain more information or dimensional bar code that can be scanned that host multiple communities comprised
start a conversation. with a QR code reader on smart phones to of profiles of people with similar interests.
launch the Internet on the phone and lead These sites offer a place where people
Micro-blogging – A form of blogging where directly to a specific URL, video or photo. engage with one another online and share
the entries/posts are limited to a certain content. Example communities include:
amount of characters or words, i.e. Twitter. RSS Feed (Really Simple Syndication) –
a system that generates frequently updated Facebook® – An online community for
Micro-vlogging – A form of vlogging where information from a site, i.e. blog posts and people to connect or re-connect with others.
the entries/posts are limited to a specific amount online articles. Enables people to share videos, pictures
of time, i.e. 12seconds.tv or geekbeat.tv. and information about themselves. One of
Reader – Aggregates information from RSS the fastest growing social networks of the
Online Community – A group of people Feed into one site, i.e., Google Reader. past two years.
using social media tools and sites on the
Internet. Sentiment – A level of assessment that Formspring – A social networking site
determines the tone of an article, blog post, where users can ask and answer questions
Open-source Software – Computer a company, etc – usually positive, negative or anonymously.
software with a source code that is publicly neutral.
available for developers to explore, improve LinkedIn – A professional online community
and alter. Share-of-Discussion – The competitive used to network with fellow professionals;
share of conversations in the social media an online resume sharing site.
Podcasts – Online audio or video recordings channel, similar to a traditional media share-
syndicated on the Internet and available for of-voice. Social News Sites – Websites where
download to portable media players such as users submit and vote on news stories or
an iPod. Social Bookmarking – A method for people other links, thus determining which links are
to search, organize, store and share items, i.e. presented. Example sites include Digg and
Post – The entire content (article) that is blog posts, online articles and pictures of Reddit.
posted in a social media channel. interest using the item’s URL. Example sites
include Del.icio.us and StumbleUpon.
S O C I A L M E D I A 1 0 1 I 16
G L O S S A R Y
Social Technographics – Categories Trend Graph – A visualization of quantitative Twitter Client – A 3rd party software client
representing the various types of social media trends, over a given period of time, for a that allows users to access Twitter using API
users based on the level of their participation company, brand or specific set of issues. calls instead of visiting Twitter.com.
within social media.
Twitter – A micro-blogging community where Upload – To transfer a file or other content
Creators – Make social content by writing posts and links are 140 characters or less. from your computer to an Internet site.
blogs and posts or uploading media.
Tweet – A post/entry made on Twitter. URL (Unique Resource Locator) – The
Critics – Respond to content from others. technical term for a web address.
They post reviews, comment on blogs, Retweet (RT) – To share an update from
participate in forums and edit wiki articles. someone you are following by reposting it Video Chat – Online chatting using a webcam.
to your followers. Popular services/sites associated with video
Collectors – Use social technology to chatting are Skype and Chatroulette.
collect information and stay on top of Direct Message (DM) – A private
trends. personalized message that is 140 Vimeo – A social site for uploading and
characters long. sharing videos with a creative focus.
Joiners – Join social networking sites like
Twitter or Facebook to connect with other Virtual World – An online community where
@reply – Tweets that start with an @
users. users can interact and inhabit in the form
then a username. This allows you to
of avatars in a simulated environment, i.e.
address another user specifically, much as
Spectators – Read blogs, watch user- Second Life®.
you would in a conversation.
generated videos and view or listen to
other social media without engaging with Hashtag – Similar to regular tags, these Webinar – An online seminar with interactive
other users. are keywords associated and assigned qualities such as call-in questions or question
to an item of content with a hash mark submission, comments and feedback.
Inactives – Non-participants in social
(#) attached to the front of the word.
media. Webcast – A one-way online web conference
Hashtags make it easier to follow a topic
where the speaker transmits information but
Tags – Keywords attached to a blog post, of interest discussed on Twitter.
the listeners are unable to contribute.
bookmark, photo or other item of content so the
Twitter Search – A search engine that
creator and others can find them easily through Widget – A mini application that performs a
filters out real-time tweets.
searches and aggregation. specific function and connects to the Internet.
TweetChat – A scheduled chat on Twitter
Tag Cloud – A visualization of the most Wikis – Web pages used to collect content
that is led by a moderator or by freestyle
popular tags related to a specific brand, topic about a topic. Anyone with access to the pages
participation from chat members. Tweets
or issue. The larger the font is in the cloud, the can edit or modify the information.
to these chats are linked together by a
more popular and closely related it is to the
common predetermined hashtag. WordPress – An open source blog publishing
Tweetup – An organized in-person
Threads – Strands of conversation. On an
gathering of Twitter users. YouTube – An online site for uploading
e-mail list or Web forum, they will be defined
by messages that use the same subject. and discussing videos. Videos can also be
Twitter List – A categorized compilation
embedded from YouTube onto other social
of Twitter users collected by another user.
Topic – An idea, issue or talking point in an media sites such as blogs or social networks.
When a user is listed, it is featured in their
online conversation that is made up of threads.
individual profile. Users can also see the
lists a user has created on their profile.
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Nicholson Kovac is a totally integrated marketing communications agency. From the day we opened our doors in 1981, we’ve been providing
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