Improving student learning using information technologies


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Improving student learning using information technologies

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Improving student learning using information technologies

  1. 1. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Improving student learning using information technologies 1
  2. 2. Why e-learning? • • • • • • because it’s ‘cool’ to enhance the quality of teaching to meet the needs of millennials to increase access and flexibility to provide the skills needed in the 21 st century © Tony Bates Associates Ltd to improve cost-effectiveness 2
  3. 3. What is e-learning? (Bates, 2005) blended learning • face- classtoroom face aids no e-learning distributed learning lapmixed distop mode tance pro- (less faceto-face + e- edugram learning) cation s fully e-learning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 3
  4. 4. Making choices For any course or academic programme: Where on the continuum of elearning should this course or programme be? If blended or hybrid learning, what should be done face-to-face and what done online? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 4
  5. 5. Deciding on the role of e-learning e-learning a tool, not a panacea need to identify where it will bring most benefit depends on type of students, nature of topic Taking account of students/topics, need to design course to make best use of elearning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 5
  6. 6. Students Three technology issues regarding students: • market and demographics • technology access • learner ‘psychology’: learning styles, motivation, experience © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 6
  7. 7. Who are the students? Demographics Who is your target group? Demographics: • • • age gender location (where do they live; where will they study?) • part-time/full-time (working or not?) © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 7
  8. 8. Who are the students? Technology access What technology can they access on campus? When? Line-ups? What do they own themselves? Internet access from home? How ‘literate’ are they in using technology for study purposes You need this information © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 8
  9. 9. Who are the students? Learner ‘psychology’ Dependent or independent learners? High ability or mixed ability? Motivation Preferred learning styles (listeners, talkers, watchers) Do your students need to be actively ©engaged to learn? Tony Bates Associates Ltd 9
  10. 10. Who are the students? Common learner profiles Novice undergraduates: 18-20; straight from high school; fulltime; dependent learners; low ‘subject’ motivation; mainly campus-based; demand high ‘personal contact’; computers as a study aid © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 10
  11. 11. Who are the students? Common learner profiles Mature undergraduates: 20-25; working part-time; relatively independent learners; high ‘subject’ motivation; partly campus-based; confident technology users © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 11
  12. 12. S: Who are the students? Common learner profiles Mature graduate students: 25 40; working full-time; independent learners; high ‘subject’ motivation; mainly distance learners; heavy technology users Most courses will have a mix of students – how to cater for this © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 12
  13. 13. Prior strategic decisions to be made Same students as before or reach out to new students? mandate? 100% face-to-face or blended or fully distant – or all three? What technologies to use? Who is to provide the technology for students? Associates Ltd © Tony Bates 13
  14. 14. Knowing your students Who is the desired target group? Describe the current enrolments: demographics/technology access/learner psychology Is there a gap? Could technology delivery help? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 14
  15. 15. Students and the mix of teaching Identify market: Identify best delivery method: Market From school/undergrad Final year undergrad f2f 70% 60% online 30% 40% Graduate: on-campus 50% 50% Graduate: off-campus 10% 90% © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 15
  16. 16. Teaching functions Link choice of technology to desired learning outcomes Choose best pedagogical approach to achieve desired outcomes Two aspects of learning outcomes: • content © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 16
  17. 17. T: Teaching functions Content (knowing): • facts/ideas/principles/relationship s/formulae/problems/opinions • choice of media: what is best way to represent this knowledge? • e.g. use of colour, graphics, animation • media excellent for moving between Tony Bates Associates Ltd concrete and abstract © 17
  18. 18. T: Teaching functions: skills Skills (doing) • comprehension/analysis/synthesis / application/evaluation/critical thinking/collaborative learning/problem-solving • choice of media: what technologies facilitate the required skills? 18 © Tony Bates Associates Ltd
  19. 19. I: Interaction Four kinds interaction: • • • • instructor – student(s) student – other student(s) student – learning materials reflection (student with himself) Interaction = feedback + hypothesis + knowledge construction: ‘deep’ learning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 19
  20. 20. I: Interaction Cultural issues: will students share/collaborate/discuss/challe nge instructor? Technologies vary in the way they facilitate interaction Design is important: interaction can be ‘built in’ or can ‘evolve’ © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 20
  21. 21. What teaching roles are suitable for online learning? What is best done online? What faceto-face? • transmitting information • collecting data/finding information • preparation for lab work • designing experiments • doing experiments • discussing best ways to do things • problem solving……. © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 21
  22. 22. Group work Identify Identify course teaching activities Activity f2f online Information transmission Lab exp. x x Lab prep Data collection …… x © Tony Bates Associates Ltd x x 22
  23. 23. Meeting the needs of 21 st century learners © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 23
  24. 24. Different economies Resource-based: agricultural, mining, fishing: land/sea-based, local Industrial: manufacturing: urban, factories, hierarchical, economies of scale, specialist skills Knowledge-based: financial, biotechnology, ICTs, telecoms, entertainment: ‘virtual’, global, networked, multi-skilled All three economies in parallel © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 24
  25. 25. Meeting the needs of 21 st century learners Main reason for using technology in teaching: • to develop the skills needed in a knowledge-based society • not just IT literacy: embedding use of IT in teaching and learning • also developing knowledge© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 25
  26. 26. Skills of knowledge-based workers • • • • • • • • • problem solving, critical thinking • communication skills • computing/Internet skills • independent learners • entrepreneurial, initiative • flexibility • team-work/networking © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 26
  27. 27. How can we use information technologies to develop the skills needed by knowledge workers? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 27
  28. 28. Current proportion of different types of elearning in North America + Europe Proportion of courses using each type of elearnin <1% g No technolog y 56% 24% 10% Classroom aids Laptops in class 8% Hybrid © Tony Bates Associates Ltd Fully distance 28
  29. 29. Current teaching models Learning management systems Commercial: • Blackboard (includes WebCT) • monopoly (patent) • high licensing fees Open source • Moodle, Sakai • ‘free’ (but operating costs) Teacher/institutional controlled © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 29
  30. 30. The transmissive model of teaching Predominant teaching model: • lectures, seminars, lab classes Students study by: • listening in class, reading, discussion Assessment by: • tests, essays, lab work © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 30
  31. 31. Current, dominant teaching technologies • Powerpoint/pdf • whiteboards/projectors/scree ns • lecture capture/clickers • learning management systems (Blackboard, Moodle) 31
  32. 32. Transmission of knowledg Technology is mainly being used for transmissive model of teaching Learning management systems: • instructor posts content (lecture slides, readings, urls), assignments, sets up discussion topics © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 32
  33. 33. New technologies: 2005 - user-created content: blogs, YouTube social networking: MySpace/FaceBook mobile learning: phones, MP3s virtual worlds: Second Life emerging publication: wikis, ePortfolios multi-player games: Lord of the © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 33
  34. 34. What is Web 2.0? Educational implications • learners have powerful tools • learners create/add/adapt content • personal learning environments • power shift from teachers to learners © Tony Bates Associates Ltd • ‘open’ access, content, services 34
  35. 35. How to mobilise Web 2.0 in online teaching Within programmes: • group work • projects and cases • outside experts and content • field work • language teaching • multimedia assignments/eportfolios © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 35
  36. 36. Examples • • • • History (web quests) Business management (geo positioning, Google) Medicine Education (e-portfolios) © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 36
  37. 37. Conclusions • • • • Different students, different educational outcomes New tools give learners power to create and demonstrate knowledge New designs and organization of teaching needed Only limitation: Associates Ltd our imagination © Tony Bates 37
  38. 38. Thank you! © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 38