King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Improving
student learning
using information
technologies
1
Why e-learning?
•
•

•
•

•

•

because it’s ‘cool’
to enhance the quality of
teaching
to meet the needs of millennials
to...
What is e-learning?
(Bates, 2005)

blended
learning

•

face- classtoroom
face
aids

no e-learning

distributed
learning

...
Making choices

For any course or academic
programme:
Where on the continuum of elearning should this course or
programme ...
Deciding on the role of e-learning

e-learning a tool, not a panacea
need to identify where it will
bring most benefit
dep...
Students

Three technology issues
regarding students:
• market and demographics
• technology access
• learner ‘psychology’...
Who are the students? Demographics

Who is your target group?
Demographics:
•
•
•

age
gender
location (where do they live...
Who are the students?
Technology access

What technology can they access
on campus? When? Line-ups?
What do they own thems...
Who are the students? Learner
‘psychology’

Dependent or independent
learners?
High ability or mixed ability?
Motivation
P...
Who are the students? Common
learner profiles

Novice undergraduates: 18-20;
straight from high school; fulltime; dependen...
Who are the students? Common
learner profiles

Mature undergraduates: 20-25;
working part-time; relatively
independent lea...
S: Who are the students? Common
learner profiles

Mature graduate students: 25 40; working full-time;
independent learners...
Prior strategic decisions to be made

Same students as before or
reach out to new students?
mandate?
100% face-to-face or ...
Knowing your students

Who is the desired target group?
Describe the current enrolments:
demographics/technology
access/le...
Students and the mix of teaching

Identify market:
Identify best delivery method:
Market
From
school/undergrad
Final year ...
Teaching functions

Link choice of technology to
desired learning outcomes
Choose best pedagogical
approach to achieve des...
T: Teaching functions

Content (knowing):
•
facts/ideas/principles/relationship
s/formulae/problems/opinions
• choice of m...
T: Teaching functions: skills

Skills (doing)
•
comprehension/analysis/synthesis
/ application/evaluation/critical
thinkin...
I: Interaction

Four kinds interaction:
•
•
•
•

instructor – student(s)
student – other student(s)
student – learning mat...
I: Interaction

Cultural issues: will students
share/collaborate/discuss/challe
nge instructor?
Technologies vary in the w...
What teaching roles are suitable for
online learning?
What is best done online? What faceto-face?
• transmitting informati...
Group work

Identify
Identify

course
teaching activities

Activity

f2f
online

Information transmission
Lab exp.

x
x

L...
Meeting the needs of 21 st century
learners

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

23
Different economies

Resource-based: agricultural,
mining, fishing: land/sea-based,
local

Industrial: manufacturing: urba...
Meeting the needs of 21 st century
learners

Main reason for using technology
in teaching:
• to develop the skills needed ...
Skills of knowledge-based workers
•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

• problem solving, critical
thinking
• communication skills
• computin...
How can we use information
technologies to develop the
skills needed by knowledge
workers?
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

27
Current proportion of different types of elearning in North America + Europe

Proportion of
courses
using
each
type of
ele...
Current teaching models
Learning management systems
Commercial:
• Blackboard (includes WebCT)
• monopoly (patent)
• high l...
The transmissive model of teaching

Predominant teaching model:
• lectures, seminars, lab classes
Students study by:
• lis...
Current, dominant teaching
technologies

• Powerpoint/pdf
•
whiteboards/projectors/scree
ns
• lecture capture/clickers
• l...
Transmission of knowledg

Technology is mainly being used
for transmissive model of
teaching
Learning management systems:
...
New technologies: 2005 -

user-created content: blogs,
YouTube
social networking:
MySpace/FaceBook
mobile learning: phones...
What is Web 2.0?

Educational implications
• learners have powerful tools
• learners create/add/adapt
content
• personal l...
How to mobilise Web 2.0 in online
teaching

Within programmes:
• group work
• projects and cases
• outside experts and con...
Examples

•
•

•
•

History (web quests)
Business management (geo
positioning, Google)
Medicine
Education (e-portfolios)
©...
Conclusions
•

•

•

•

Different students, different
educational outcomes
New tools give learners power
to create and dem...
Thank you!

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

38
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Improving student learning using information technologies

  1. 1. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Improving student learning using information technologies 1
  2. 2. Why e-learning? • • • • • • because it’s ‘cool’ to enhance the quality of teaching to meet the needs of millennials to increase access and flexibility to provide the skills needed in the 21 st century © Tony Bates Associates Ltd to improve cost-effectiveness 2
  3. 3. What is e-learning? (Bates, 2005) blended learning • face- classtoroom face aids no e-learning distributed learning lapmixed distop mode tance pro- (less faceto-face + e- edugram learning) cation s fully e-learning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 3
  4. 4. Making choices For any course or academic programme: Where on the continuum of elearning should this course or programme be? If blended or hybrid learning, what should be done face-to-face and what done online? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 4
  5. 5. Deciding on the role of e-learning e-learning a tool, not a panacea need to identify where it will bring most benefit depends on type of students, nature of topic Taking account of students/topics, need to design course to make best use of elearning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 5
  6. 6. Students Three technology issues regarding students: • market and demographics • technology access • learner ‘psychology’: learning styles, motivation, experience © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 6
  7. 7. Who are the students? Demographics Who is your target group? Demographics: • • • age gender location (where do they live; where will they study?) • part-time/full-time (working or not?) © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 7
  8. 8. Who are the students? Technology access What technology can they access on campus? When? Line-ups? What do they own themselves? Internet access from home? How ‘literate’ are they in using technology for study purposes You need this information © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 8
  9. 9. Who are the students? Learner ‘psychology’ Dependent or independent learners? High ability or mixed ability? Motivation Preferred learning styles (listeners, talkers, watchers) Do your students need to be actively ©engaged to learn? Tony Bates Associates Ltd 9
  10. 10. Who are the students? Common learner profiles Novice undergraduates: 18-20; straight from high school; fulltime; dependent learners; low ‘subject’ motivation; mainly campus-based; demand high ‘personal contact’; computers as a study aid © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 10
  11. 11. Who are the students? Common learner profiles Mature undergraduates: 20-25; working part-time; relatively independent learners; high ‘subject’ motivation; partly campus-based; confident technology users © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 11
  12. 12. S: Who are the students? Common learner profiles Mature graduate students: 25 40; working full-time; independent learners; high ‘subject’ motivation; mainly distance learners; heavy technology users Most courses will have a mix of students – how to cater for this © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 12
  13. 13. Prior strategic decisions to be made Same students as before or reach out to new students? mandate? 100% face-to-face or blended or fully distant – or all three? What technologies to use? Who is to provide the technology for students? Associates Ltd © Tony Bates 13
  14. 14. Knowing your students Who is the desired target group? Describe the current enrolments: demographics/technology access/learner psychology Is there a gap? Could technology delivery help? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 14
  15. 15. Students and the mix of teaching Identify market: Identify best delivery method: Market From school/undergrad Final year undergrad f2f 70% 60% online 30% 40% Graduate: on-campus 50% 50% Graduate: off-campus 10% 90% © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 15
  16. 16. Teaching functions Link choice of technology to desired learning outcomes Choose best pedagogical approach to achieve desired outcomes Two aspects of learning outcomes: • content © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 16
  17. 17. T: Teaching functions Content (knowing): • facts/ideas/principles/relationship s/formulae/problems/opinions • choice of media: what is best way to represent this knowledge? • e.g. use of colour, graphics, animation • media excellent for moving between Tony Bates Associates Ltd concrete and abstract © 17
  18. 18. T: Teaching functions: skills Skills (doing) • comprehension/analysis/synthesis / application/evaluation/critical thinking/collaborative learning/problem-solving • choice of media: what technologies facilitate the required skills? 18 © Tony Bates Associates Ltd
  19. 19. I: Interaction Four kinds interaction: • • • • instructor – student(s) student – other student(s) student – learning materials reflection (student with himself) Interaction = feedback + hypothesis + knowledge construction: ‘deep’ learning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 19
  20. 20. I: Interaction Cultural issues: will students share/collaborate/discuss/challe nge instructor? Technologies vary in the way they facilitate interaction Design is important: interaction can be ‘built in’ or can ‘evolve’ © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 20
  21. 21. What teaching roles are suitable for online learning? What is best done online? What faceto-face? • transmitting information • collecting data/finding information • preparation for lab work • designing experiments • doing experiments • discussing best ways to do things • problem solving……. © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 21
  22. 22. Group work Identify Identify course teaching activities Activity f2f online Information transmission Lab exp. x x Lab prep Data collection …… x © Tony Bates Associates Ltd x x 22
  23. 23. Meeting the needs of 21 st century learners © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 23
  24. 24. Different economies Resource-based: agricultural, mining, fishing: land/sea-based, local Industrial: manufacturing: urban, factories, hierarchical, economies of scale, specialist skills Knowledge-based: financial, biotechnology, ICTs, telecoms, entertainment: ‘virtual’, global, networked, multi-skilled All three economies in parallel © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 24
  25. 25. Meeting the needs of 21 st century learners Main reason for using technology in teaching: • to develop the skills needed in a knowledge-based society • not just IT literacy: embedding use of IT in teaching and learning • also developing knowledge© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 25
  26. 26. Skills of knowledge-based workers • • • • • • • • • problem solving, critical thinking • communication skills • computing/Internet skills • independent learners • entrepreneurial, initiative • flexibility • team-work/networking © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 26
  27. 27. How can we use information technologies to develop the skills needed by knowledge workers? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 27
  28. 28. Current proportion of different types of elearning in North America + Europe Proportion of courses using each type of elearnin <1% g No technolog y 56% 24% 10% Classroom aids Laptops in class 8% Hybrid © Tony Bates Associates Ltd Fully distance 28
  29. 29. Current teaching models Learning management systems Commercial: • Blackboard (includes WebCT) • monopoly (patent) • high licensing fees Open source • Moodle, Sakai • ‘free’ (but operating costs) Teacher/institutional controlled © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 29
  30. 30. The transmissive model of teaching Predominant teaching model: • lectures, seminars, lab classes Students study by: • listening in class, reading, discussion Assessment by: • tests, essays, lab work © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 30
  31. 31. Current, dominant teaching technologies • Powerpoint/pdf • whiteboards/projectors/scree ns • lecture capture/clickers • learning management systems (Blackboard, Moodle) 31
  32. 32. Transmission of knowledg Technology is mainly being used for transmissive model of teaching Learning management systems: • instructor posts content (lecture slides, readings, urls), assignments, sets up discussion topics © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 32
  33. 33. New technologies: 2005 - user-created content: blogs, YouTube social networking: MySpace/FaceBook mobile learning: phones, MP3s virtual worlds: Second Life emerging publication: wikis, ePortfolios multi-player games: Lord of the © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 33
  34. 34. What is Web 2.0? Educational implications • learners have powerful tools • learners create/add/adapt content • personal learning environments • power shift from teachers to learners © Tony Bates Associates Ltd • ‘open’ access, content, services 34
  35. 35. How to mobilise Web 2.0 in online teaching Within programmes: • group work • projects and cases • outside experts and content • field work • language teaching • multimedia assignments/eportfolios © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 35
  36. 36. Examples • • • • History (web quests) Business management (geo positioning, Google) Medicine Education (e-portfolios) © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 36
  37. 37. Conclusions • • • • Different students, different educational outcomes New tools give learners power to create and demonstrate knowledge New designs and organization of teaching needed Only limitation: Associates Ltd our imagination © Tony Bates 37
  38. 38. Thank you! © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 38
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