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Galileu Galilei
Galileu Galilei
Galileu Galilei
Galileu Galilei
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Galileu Galilei


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  1. Ga li l eo’s Ba tt le for the He aven s AIRING OCTOBER 29, 2002 1564 Born in Pisa,Italy, on February 15. 1579 Studies at a Benedictine Who Was Galileo Galilei? monastery and considers Galileo was a man of many interests. Unlike becoming a monk. today’s scientists who become experts in very 1581 Begins studies at the University of Pisa,Italy. specialized areas, Galileo studied a wide range 1585 Leaves Pisa without a degree. of topics from mathematics to astronomy to Unfortunately, one of the books Galileo pub- 1589 Takes a teaching position at physics. He was also a teacher, inventor, and lished included a strong argument that the Sun Pisa.Three years later, begins writer. and not Earth was at the center of the solar sys- teaching at the University of Galileo may be best known for opposing the tem.This went against church teachings, and Padua. Catholic Church’s view that Earth was the center Galileo was brought before a church organiza- 1597 Develops a geometric and of the universe, but he was in fact a religious per- tion known as the Inquisition. military compass. 1599 Enters a relationship with son. As a teenager, he attended school in a In 1633, the Inquisition placed Galileo Marina Gamba,who bears his monastery and dreamed of becoming a monk. under house arrest,where he stayed until he three children. In 1581, Galileo’s father sent him to the died in 1642. Although Galileo was old and 1600 Daughter, Virginia University of Pisa, Italy, to study medicine. He sick at this point, he continued scientific experi- (1600–1634),is born. wanted Galileo to become a doctor so he could mentation. Going blind, he could no longer 1601 Daughter, Livia (1601–1659), make a good living and eventually support his study astronomy. Instead, he returned to his is born. 1602 Conducts experiments with a younger siblings. Galileo had other ideas. While studies on motion. Galileo’s studies of inclined pendulum. at the University, he became fascinated with planes, falling bodies, projectiles, and other laws 1604 Begins experimenting with mathematics. He left the University to become of motion became the foundation of modern accelerated motion on an a tutor of mathematics and then a professor. physics.Throughout his life, Galileo was inclined plane. Galileo next became interested in falling strongly supported by his eldest daughter, 1606 Son, Vincenzio (1606–1649), bodies. Whether or not he dropped cannonballs Virginia (Sister Maria Celeste), who entered is born. 1609 Improves the telescope and from the Leaning Tower of Pisa is not known, into a convent in 1613 and corresponded with becomes first to use it for ser i- but he did discover that the speed at which him regularly. ous astronomical observation. objects fall depends on air resistance, not on By following his many interests and 1610 Discovers the moons of how much they weigh. pursuing questions that intrigued him, Jupiter; appointed chief math- At around this time, Galileo’s love for tin- Galileo contributed greatly to science. He ematician and philosopher to kering with mechanical things led to his inven- made many discoveries in astronomy and laid the Grand Duke of Tuscany, tion of a simple thermometer, a geometric and the foundation for modern physics. Cosimo II. 1632 Publishes Dialogue on the military compass, and an improved telescope. Two Chief World Systems: He observed the surface of the Moon and Galileo Resources Ptolemaic and Copernican. found it to be surprisingly similar to Earth; he 1633 Submits to trial for heresy by witnessed four objects circling around Jupiter Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens. The Holy Office of the (four of its moons); and then he sketched WGBH Boston Video, 2002. Inquisition and abjures his Find out more about Galileo’s discoveries, his pictures of the changing pattern of views;is allowed to retire to spots on the Sun. He proposed, clash with the Catholic Church, and more in his villa in Arcetri near Florence, Italy, where he quite rightly, that these sunspots the two-hour NOVA program that airs spends the remainder of his were on the surface of the Sun October 29, 2002. Call 1-800-949-8670 or life under house arrest. and that their changing visit 1638 Becomes blind. pattern was evidence that to order. ya a 1642 Dies on January 8 in Arcetri, the Sun rotated. Italy. In a companion Web site, learn about Galileo’s 1892 Awarded honorary degree life, his place in the world of science, his experi- from the University of Pisa. 1981 Pope John Paul II establishes ments, and his mistaken belief that Earth’s daily the Galileo Commission to rotation and its annual orbit around the Sun study the Galileo case. trigger ocean tides. ya a 1992 Pope John Paul II officially closes the work of the com- mission,affirming that his Discover more at your local library. predecessor, Pope Urban VIII (1568–1644),had unfairly condemned Galileo for his beliefs. The following icons indicate whether a resource is recommended for children, young adult, and/or adult audiences. c children ya young adult a adultR E P R O D U C I B L E H A NDO U T • PA G E 1 OF 4 WWW.PBS.ORG/NOVA/GALILEO
  2. G a li l eo’s Ba ttle f or t he He av en s AIRING OCTOBER 29, 2002Learning More Scientists TodayRubin, Vera C. Astronomy and physics are much different today than they were in Galileo’s time. Today’sBright Galaxies,Dark Matter. scientists are much more likely to subspecialize in a main area of interest. For example,Woodbury, NY: American physicists interested in subatomic objects are called particle physicists. Astronomers interestedInstitute of Physics Press, in the origin of life in the universe are called astrobiologists.1997. Almost anyone can become a scientist. Here are brief biographies of some of the scientistsRubin narrates her resear ch in who are making contributions to astronomy and physics today.such areas as galactic motionand dark matter and the courseof her own career. a Vera Cooper Rubin Since 1995, Tyson has written a monthly essay “Universe” for Natural History magazine.Women in Astronomy: An Vera Rubin’s interest in He has also written numerous books to helpIntroductory Resource Guide stars began when she others understand the universe. His was 10 years old. Her interests include star formation, exploding stars,education/resources/ father helped her build a dwarf galaxies, and the structure of our Milkywomenast_bib06.html telescope from scratch Way. He has two children.Provides a reading list of and attended amateurbooks about women in astronomy club meetings with her. In the early Stephen Hawkingastronomy. ya a 1960s, Rubin became the first woman Stephen Hawking likes to P P permitted to observe at the Palomar think big. He spends timeTyson, Neil de Grasse Observatory, which is run by the California working as a cosmologist,The Sky Is Not the Limit: Institute of Technology. One of her major a person who studies theAdventures of an Urban contributions to astronomy was finding origin, present state, andAstrophysicist. evidence to support the theory that there may future of the universe.New York: Doubleday, 2000. be large amounts of unseen matter, known as One of his greatest con-Offers Tyson’s perspectives dark matter, in the universe. tributions has been in theand experiences—from his She is currently an astronomer at the understanding of blackchildhood in the Bronx to his Carnegie Institution of Washington (D.C.) holes, which are thought to be places in spacecurrent post as director of for the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. where there is so much concentrated mass thatHayden Planetarium. a In 1993, she was awarded the National Medal anything nearby is sucked into their gravita-Neil de Grasse Tyson of Science. She has four children, all of whom tional have pursued careers in science. In addition, Hawking has also had to overcome greatsurvivalkit/tyson042802.html she has been very active in encouraging physical challenges. For most of his adult life,In this National Public Radio women and minorities to pursue science he has had a disease called amyotrophic lateralinterview, find out what careers. sclerosis,or ALS. Also known as Lou Gehrig ’sTyson would put in a survival disease, this illness makes it progressively morekit if he were stranded difficult to move, speak, breathe, and swallow. Neil de Grasse Tysonsomewhere.(Requires Adaptive technologies have allowed him toRealPlayer plug-in.) a Neil de Grasse Tyson is continue to write and deliver scientific papers an astrophysicist who P P has pursued science and and lectures worldwide. He has three childrenMcDaniel, Melissa and Jerry and one grandchild.Lewis. spent years helping oth-Stephen Hawking: ers understand it.Revolutionary Physicist. Tyson first lookedNew York: Chelsea House up at the sky from thePublishers, 1994. rooftop of his Bronx, New York,apartment house with a pair ofRelates Hawking’s life from his binoculars. He was 9 years old. He would laterchildhood to the present.This become the youngest-ever director of thebook is part of the series, Great Hayden Planetarium at the AmericanAchievers:Lives of the Museum of Natural History in New YorkPhysically Challenged. ya a City. He also spends time as a visitingStephen Hawking’s Web Site research scientist in astrophysics at University, New Jersey. The following icons indicate whether ahindex.html resource is recommended for children,Profiles personal and profes- young adult, and/or adult audiences.sional information about c childrenHawking. ya ya young adult a adultREPRODUCIBLE HANDOUT • PAGE 2 OF 4 WWW.PBS.ORG/NOVA/GALILEO
  3. Ga li l eo’s Ba tt le for the He aven s AIRING OCTOBER 29, 2002In the Swing of Things Learning More Bonnet , Robert L. and Dan Keen. Science Fair Projects: Physics.For ages 10 and older. What to do New York: Sterling Publishing, 1999. 1 Measure out an 18-inch length of Presents projects and experiments that useIt is thought that Galileo first started string. Tie a washer to one end. easy-to-find materials to explore thestudying pendulums when, in 1583, Measure and mark the string 12 inches world of physics, covering such topics ashe watched a suspended lamp swing from the washer. Find a surface from temperature, energy flow, acceleration,back and forth in the cathedral of Pisa. which you can freely swing the pendu- sound, pendulums, momentum,magnet-He used his pulse to time the swings lum, such as the corner of a table or ism, and solar heat.and discovered that the duration of desk. Tape the string to the edge of theeach swing was the same.This would Galileo’s Pendulum Experiments surface, making sure that the markedlater become an important concept in part of the string sits right on the edge.regulating clocks. Do this experiment Student_Work/Experiment95/galileo_with a pendulum and see whether you 2 Raise the washer to the height of the pendulum.htmlcan learn what makes it work. table. As you drop the washer, start Relates the observations Galileo made in your timing. Count how many times his pendulum experiments, reproduces theYou will need the pendulum swings in 15 seconds. experiments, and reports the results. Record the number on a sheet of• cotton string How Pendulum Clocks Work notepaper.• flat metal washers• ruler 3 Add a second washer to your pendu- Describes the workings of the pendulum• scissors lum and repeat the experiment. Count clock, the first clock made that had any• tape the number of swings in 15 seconds accuracy.• watch with a second hand and record that number.• notepaper The Pendulum• ballpoint pen 4 Add two more washers (for a total of four) and repeat the procedure one pendulum.html#a1 more time. Explains the mechanism that drives the pendulum,why Galileo became interested 5 Cut a new piece of string 30 inches in pendulums, and Galileo’s conclusions long and create a pendulum that is 24 about the pendulum. inches long, twice as long as in your first experiment. Repeat the experi- ment above. 6 Now take a look at your results. What You’re affects the timing of the swing? What Getting do you think would happen if you Very Sleepy started the pendulum from different Have you heights? ever seen a hypnotist swing a watch back and forth to put somebody in a very relaxed state? The watch on a chain is a type of pendulum.The idea is that the swinging motion is so regular that the person looking at it will become so entranced that she will be susceptible to anything you tell her. Whether this is true is debatable. But how a pendulum works is not. Galileo discovered the laws under which pendulums work, one of the main principles being that they swing in an almost constant, steady interval. Later, scientists used those principles to design pendulum clocks.REPRODUCIBLE HANDOUT • PAGE 3 OF 4 W W W . P B S . O R G / N O VA / G A L I L E O
  4. G a li l eo’s Ba ttle f or t he He ave n s AIRING OCTOBER 29, 2002The Tick Tock of a Water Clock Learning More Llewellyn, Claire.For ages 10 and older. What to do My First Book of Time. New York: DK Publishing, 1992. 1 On a sheet of paper, start from the bot-Water clocks measure time by using the Covers such topics as days, seasons, sim- tom and mark up four inches, drawingfact that water will flow at a constant rate ple fractions, clocks, measuring time, and lines at every half inch. Label the linesthrough a certain size hole.The same time zones. and cut out your ruler.amount of water flows into its receiving 2 Have an adult help you remove the A Walk through Time: Early Clockscontainer every second. By measuring the bottle label and cut the bottle in half. of water in the container, it is Tape your paper ruler onto the bottle early.htmlpossible to measure how much time has so that the bottom of the ruler lines up Provides a descriptive look at the historypassed. In this experiment, you will build a with the bottom of the bottle. Tape the of timekeeping from ancient to modernwater clock that measures time. bottle onto the front of the cardboard methods. shoebox top.You will need 3 Use the ballpoint pen to make a small Clock a History• cardboard shoebox top hole in the bottom of the paper cup.• 1 paper cup Make the hole about a quarter-inch Includes information on who invented the• 1-liter flat-bottomed clear plastic bottle from the outer edge of the bottom. Use clock, the world’s official timekeepers, and• 1-cup measuring cup tape to secure the cup to the shoebox various types of clocks, such as the sand,• 1/2 cup of water lid so that the hole in the cup is closest Sun, water, and candle clocks, and more.• scissors to you.• clear tape 4 Hold your finger under the hole in the• stop watch or watch with second hand top container and pour in about 1/2 Telling Time• notepaper cup of water.• ballpoint pen 5 Remove your finger and begin timing. Today it is difficult not Time how long it takes the water to fill to be conscious of time. the bottom container a half inch. Can Wall clocks, radio you make a scale that measures time announcements, com- periods of one minute? How accurate puter monitors, watches, and cell is your clock? What affects the accura- phones all tell us how much time is cy? Try changing the variables, such as passing. Thousands of years ago, the size of the hole or the number of measuring time was more cups you use. What happens? Make difficult.The ancient observations and note what you see. Egyptians, Greeks, What are some ways you could use Romans, and Chinese your clock? used clocks that depended on nature. For instance, the sundial kept track of the time during daylight hours. To measure smaller increments of time, or when the Sun was not shining, ancient peo- ple used different variations of clocks, such as water, sand, or candle clocks. ® “Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens” is a production by Green Umbrella,Ltd., for WGBH/Boston in association with Channel 4. Major funding for “Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens”provided by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions,findings,and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Major funding for NOVA is provided by the Park Foundation, the Northwestern Mutual Foundation,and Sprint. Additional funding is provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and public television viewers. Illustrations by Hannah BonnerREPRODUCIBLE HANDOUT • PAGE 4 OF 4 WWW.PBS.ORG/NOVA/GALILEO