Desenho De Interfaces Joao Jose Saraiva Da Fonseca

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Desenho de Interfaces educacao a distancia desenho de interfaces

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The user interface is the system which helps users communicate with the computer system and/or the application system

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João José Saraiva da Fonseca

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  • Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 08/22/09 Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca
  • Desenho De Interfaces Joao Jose Saraiva Da Fonseca

    1. 1. Desenho de Interfaces João José Saraiva da Fonseca http://joaojosefonseca1.blogspot.com/ Apresentação elaborada no âmbito de estudo sobre a temática
    2. 2. Designing the User Interface <ul><li>Ben Shneiderman </li></ul><ul><li>3rd edition - Addison Wesley, New York, U.S. 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>companion web site: htttp://www.aw.com/DTUI maintained by Blaise Liffick </li></ul><ul><li>3 pointers to www resources on the topics of the book are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://usableweb.com/hciel (Keith Instone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://is.twi.tudelft.nl/hci/ (Hans de Graaf) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ida.liu.se/labs/aslab/groups/um/hci (Mikael Ericsson) </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    3. 3. Chapter 18 Designing User Interfaces Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Fifth Edition João José Saraiva da Fonseca
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    5. 5. The User Interface <ul><li>The user interface is the system which helps users communicate with the computer system and/or the application system </li></ul>João Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
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    10. 11. Present Situation <ul><li>computer pervasiveness implies many, ≠ users </li></ul><ul><li>which, in turn, means many, ≠ interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>web, games, databases, simulation, business, training, education, etc. are but a few of the applications </li></ul><ul><li>impacting on: info organization, query languages, 3d representations, animation, direct manipulation, telepresence, virtual realities...(sw) </li></ul><ul><li>novel keyboards, high resolution colour displays, speech i/o, gestural inputs, force-feedback devices, touchscreen & stylus...(hw) </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
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    13. 15. Goals of User-Interface Design <ul><li>If the previous issues have been addressed then developers must focus on design and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Careful determination of the user community and benchmarks for testing </li></ul><ul><li>five measurable human factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speed of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate of errors by users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retention over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subjective satisfaction </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    14. 16. Motivations for Human Factors Design <ul><li>Life critical systems </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial and commercial uses </li></ul><ul><li>Office, home and entertainment applications </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory, creative and cooperative systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CSCW, distance learning, videoconferencing... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high motivation but also high expectation... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearable computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the computer should vanish... </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    15. 17. User Interface Design Objectives <ul><li>To design a better user interface, use the following objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness as achieved through design of interfaces that allow the user to access the system in a way that is congruent with their individual needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency as demonstrated through interfaces that increase speed of data entry, and reduce errors </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    16. 18. User Interface Design Objectives <ul><li>Further interface design objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User consideration as demonstrated in designing suitable interfaces, and providing appropriate feedback to users from the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating usable queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity as shown through following sound principles of design for user interfaces and work spaces </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
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    27. 29. Components of the User Interface <ul><li>The user interface has two main components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation language, which is the computer-to-human part of the transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action language that characterizes the human-to-computer portion </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    28. 30. Types of User Interfaces <ul><li>There are several types of user interfaces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural-language interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question-and-answer interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A menu interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form-fill interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-language interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    29. 31. Natural-Language Interfaces <ul><li>Natural-language interfaces permit users to interact with the computer in their everyday or &quot;natural&quot; language </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    30. 32. Question-and-Answer Interfaces <ul><li>Question-and-answer interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer displays a question for the user on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The user enters an answer via the keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer acts on that input information in a preprogrammed manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New users may find the question-and-answer interface most comfortable </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    31. 33. A Menu Interface <ul><li>A menu interface, which provides the user with an onscreen list of available selections </li></ul><ul><li>A nested menu is a menu which can be reached through another menu </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    32. 34. Advantages of Nested Menus <ul><li>The advantages of nested menus are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nested menus give a less cluttered screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nested menus eliminate menu options which do not interest a user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nested menus allow users to move quickly through the program </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    33. 35. Graphical User Interface (GUI) Menus <ul><li>GUI menus guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main menu is always on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main menu uses single words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main menu should have secondary menus grouped into similar features </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    34. 36. Graphical User Interface (GUI) Menus <ul><li>Further GUI menus guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The secondary drop-down menus often consist of more than one word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary options perform actions or display additional menu options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menu items in gray are unavailable for the current activity </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    35. 37. Form-Fill Interfaces <ul><li>Form-fill interfaces are onscreen forms displaying fields containing data items or parameters that need to be communicated to the user </li></ul><ul><li>Form-fill interfaces may be implemented using the Web </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    36. 38. Advantages and Disadvantages of Web Forms <ul><li>Advantages of using a Web-based form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User enters the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data may be entered 24 hours a day, globally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of a Web-based form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The user may not know what to enter if the form is not clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User might be nervous about using a credit card over the Internet </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    37. 39. Command-Language Interfaces <ul><li>Command-language interfaces are more popular than the previous ones </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the user to control the application with a series of keystrokes, commands, phrases, or some sequence of these </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    38. 40. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) <ul><li>GUIs provide a strong metaphor of the application </li></ul><ul><li>Allow direct manipulation of the graphical representation on the screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be accomplished with keyboard input, joystick, or mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more system sophistication than other interfaces </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    39. 41. Dialog <ul><li>Dialog is the communication between a person and the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Three key points to be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal user action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard operation and consistency </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    40. 42. Communication <ul><li>Communication means that the user understands the information that is being presented </li></ul><ul><li>Users with less skill require a greater amount of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provide easy to use help screens </li></ul><ul><li>Often these contain hyperlinks to other related help topics </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    41. 43. Minimal User Action <ul><li>Minimal user action is achieved by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entering codes instead of code meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter only data that are not stored on files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not requiring users to enter editing characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplying default values on entry screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing inquiry programs with short entry fields </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    42. 44. Minimal User Action <ul><li>Further key points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing keystrokes for selecting menu options that are normally selected using a mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting codes from a pull-down menu on a GUI screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide context-sensitive menus, displayed when the right mouse button is clicked on an object </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    43. 45. Standard Operation <ul><li>Standard operation is achieved by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping header and footer information in the same locations for all screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the same keystrokes to exit a program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the same keystrokes to cancel a transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a standard key for obtaining help </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    44. 46. Standard Operation <ul><li>Further key points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized use of icons when using graphical user interface screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent use of terminology within a screen or Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a consistent way to navigate through the dialog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent font alignment, size, and color on a Web page </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    45. 47. Tab Control Dialogue Boxes <ul><li>Tab control dialog boxes are a feature of GUI design </li></ul><ul><li>They should have logically grouped functions on each tab </li></ul><ul><li>Each tab dialog box should have OK, Cancel or Apply, and perhaps Help buttons </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18-
    46. 48. Voice or Speech Recognition <ul><li>Voice or speech recognition systems are developing rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>There are two different types of voice recognition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous speech systems, allowing for dictation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker independence, so people can enter commands or words at a given workstation </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18-
    47. 49. Evaluating User Interfaces <ul><li>The five useful standards in evaluating the interfaces are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The training period for users should be acceptably short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users early in their training should be able to enter commands without thinking about them, or referring to a help menu or manual </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    48. 50. Evaluating User Interfaces <ul><li>Continued evaluation guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interface should be &quot;seamless&quot; so that errors are few, and those that do occur are not occurring because of poor design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time necessary for users and the system to bounce back from errors should be short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrequent users should be able to relearn the system quickly </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    49. 51. Feedback <ul><li>All systems require feedback in order to monitor and change behavior by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing current behavior with predetermined goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving back information describing the gap between actual and intended performance </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    50. 52. Types of Feedback <ul><li>Feedback to the user is necessary in seven distinct situations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer has accepted the input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The input is in the correct form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The input is not in the correct form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There will be a delay in processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The request has been completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer cannot complete the request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More detailed feedback is available </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    51. 53. Program Help <ul><li>Program help comes in a variety of ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressing a function key, such as F1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A GUI pull-down menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-sensitive help, specific for the operation being performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic help, obtained when a cursor is left over an icon for a few seconds </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    52. 54. Program Help <ul><li>Program help options, continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wizards, which provide a series of questions and answers when trying to perform an operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone help desks provided by the software manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software forums on nation wide bulletin boards </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    53. 55. Ecommerce Dialog <ul><li>Extra considerations are needed when developing ecommerce Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback needs to be solicited from customers, using either of two methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch the user’s email program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a blank feedback template with a submit button labeled “feedback” </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    54. 56. Intuitive Navigation for Ecommerce Sites <ul><li>Intuitive navigation should be designed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a rollover menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building a collection of hierarchical links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing a site map on the home page and emphasizing the link to it from every page on the site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing a navigational bar on every inside page that repeats the categories used on the entry screen </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    55. 57. Types of Queries <ul><li>There are six different types of queries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain specified data for a particular entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a group of entities that have certain characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find attributes for an entity for certain characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display all the attributes for a certain entity </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    56. 58. Types of Queries <ul><li>Different types of queries (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find all entities with a certain characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List attributes for all entities for certain characteristics </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    57. 59. Query Notation <ul><li>V is value, E is entity, A is attributes, variables in parentheses are given: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query type 1: V <--- (E,A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query type 2: E <--- (V,A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query type 3: A <--- (V,E) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query type 4: V <--- (E, all A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query type 5: E <--- (V, all A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query type 6: A <--- (V, all E) </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    58. 60. Methods for Implementing Queries <ul><li>There are two methods for implementing database queries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query By Example (QBE), which allows users to select fields and specify conditions using a grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Query Language (SQL), which uses a series of keywords and commands to select the rows and columns that should be displayed </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    59. 61. Parameter Queries <ul><li>A parameter query allows users to enter a value to select records without changing the query syntax </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    60. 62. Web Searches <ul><li>Web searches use search engines to answer a query </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for searching the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide whether to search or surf the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of the key terms before searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct the search questions logically, with attention to the use of AND and OR search logic </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    61. 63. Web Searches <ul><li>Further guidelines for searching the Web are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a search engine that saves your searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a search engine that informs you of changes in the Web sites you select </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for new search engines periodically </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    62. 64. Data Mining <ul><li>Data mining is gathering a large amount of information about a person and their habits and using that information as a predictor of future behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It must be carefully and ethically used to avoid infringing on an individual’s privacy </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    63. 65. Ergonomics <ul><li>Systems analysts should consider an ergonomically sound working environment even though they usually don't have much control over the design of the workspace </li></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    64. 66. Ergonomics <ul><li>Some of the important working environmental variables to be considered are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Room color and lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VDT or LCD screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User keyboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer desks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User seating </li></ul></ul>Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca 18- João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    65. 67. Accomodation of Human Diversity <ul><li>Physical abilities and physical workplaces </li></ul><ul><li>American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-surface and display support height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearance under work surface for legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-surface width and depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustability of heights and angles for chairs and work surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture-seating depth and angle, back-rest height and lumbar support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of armrest footrest and palmrests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of chair casters </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    66. 68. Room layout and sociology of human interaction <ul><li>multiple workstations - encourage/hinder social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>privacy versus open space office </li></ul><ul><li>physical design of workplaces belongs to ergonomics </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    67. 69. Cognitive and perceptual abilities <ul><li>Ergonomics Abstracts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term memory and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention and set (scope of concern) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time perception </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    68. 70. Factors affecting perceptual and motor performance <ul><li>Arousal and vigilance </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual (mental) load </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of results </li></ul><ul><li>Monotony and boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety and fear </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Circadian rhythms </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    69. 71. Personality Differences <ul><li>Men/women </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction styles </li></ul><ul><li>Pace of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics versus Text </li></ul><ul><li>Dense versus sparse </li></ul><ul><li>Step-by-step versus all-at-once </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    70. 72. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>Extroversion vs introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing versus intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptive versus judging </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling versus thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Many other psychological scales have been suggested... </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking versus risk avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Internal versus external locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective versus impulsive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent versus divergent thinking... </li></ul>
    71. 73. Cultural and international diversity <ul><li>Cultural, ethnical, racial, linguistic background </li></ul><ul><li>User interface design concerns for internationalization include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characters, numerals, special characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>left to right vs right to left (vertical vs horizontal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>date and time formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numeric and currency formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telephone numbers and addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>names and titles (Mr., Mrs., Mme., Dr.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social security, national identification, passport # </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capitalization and punctuation </li></ul></ul>
    72. 74. ...plus <ul><ul><li>sorting sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>icons, buttons, colours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pluralization, grammar, spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etiquette, policies, tone, formality, metaphors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies should run usability studies in each country, culture and language community </li></ul>
    73. 75. Users with disabilities <ul><li>for low vision (even blind) </li></ul><ul><li>for hearing impairments </li></ul><ul><li>for mobility impairments </li></ul><ul><li>can all be acomodated </li></ul><ul><li>special i/p devices </li></ul><ul><li>speech recognition </li></ul><ul><li>eye-gaze control </li></ul><ul><li>head-mounted optical mouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>were pioneered for disabled users </li></ul></ul>
    74. 76. Elderly users <ul><li>growing population of senior citziens </li></ul><ul><li>Writing, accounting, education, entertainment, social interaction, communication and challenge </li></ul><ul><li>increased access of the society </li></ul><ul><li>increased participation through networks </li></ul><ul><li>improved chances for productive employment </li></ul><ul><li>government agencies, universities, medicalcenters, law firms could use senior experience </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail connection enriches family life </li></ul>4 aprile 2003
    75. 77. examples <ul><li>larger street signs </li></ul><ul><li>brighter traffic lights </li></ul><ul><li>better nighttime lighting </li></ul><ul><li>larger fonts </li></ul><ul><li>higher display contrast </li></ul><ul><li>easier-to-use pointing devices </li></ul><ul><li>louder audio tones </li></ul><ul><li>simpler command languages </li></ul><ul><li>golden age software + kidware: large opportunities </li></ul>
    76. 78. Human Interfaces <ul><li>need to understand and measure human performance </li></ul><ul><li>awareness to human-factors issues </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge and techniques of traditional psychology to be used for studying human-computer interaction </li></ul><ul><li>information science, business and management, education, sociology, anthropology are allcontributing and benefitting by their study of human-computer interaction </li></ul>
    77. 80. João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    78. 81. Directions of Study I <ul><li>Reduced anxiety and fear of computer usage </li></ul><ul><li>Graceful evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methods to smooth the transition from novice to knowledgeable user to expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adaptation and evolution are open topics addressed in the re-design of control panels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specification and implementation of interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building tools reduce 10% if the tool is adapted to the task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specification and implemtation of interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building tools for interface construction </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    79. 82. Directions of Study II <ul><li>Direct manipulation - which is the “best” metaphor? - new forms: visual languages, spatial visuallization, remote control, telepresence, virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>Input devices - high-precision touchscreen, stylus, pen, voice, eye-gaze, gestural; mouse, dataglove, force feedback joystick </li></ul><ul><li>Online assistance - limited understanding for novices, knowledgeable and expert users - JIT: just-in-time training </li></ul><ul><li>Information exploration - navigation, browsing, searching of multimedia digital libraries - filter </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    80. 83. Tools, techniques and knowledge for system implementers <ul><li>new tools (environments & prog. languages) </li></ul><ul><li>guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>iterative usability studies </li></ul><ul><li>feedback from users </li></ul><ul><li>online user consultants </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    81. 84.  computer consciousness of the general public <ul><li>media boosts computer power </li></ul><ul><li>yet people feel uncomfortable about the computer </li></ul><ul><li>people are afraid of mistaking </li></ul><ul><li>people feel incompetent </li></ul><ul><li>people feel threatened </li></ul><ul><li>all these fears are generated by bad design </li></ul><ul><li>designers should be more concerned about users </li></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    82. 85. João José Saraiva da Fonseca
    83. 86. Practioner’s summary <ul><li>thorough task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>attention to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability, availability, security, integrity, standardization, schedules & budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>evaluation of design alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short learning times, rapid task performance, low error rates, ease of retention, high user satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>for refined design test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accomplishment of goals, expert reviews, usability tests, acceptacne tests </li></ul></ul>João José Saraiva da Fonseca

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