Week 3: Getting TogetherExplaining Theories of Group Communication
 Groups versus Teams Group: a system of three or more individuals focused  on achieving a common purpose and who influen...
 Systems Perspective Interaction Process Analysis/SYMLOG Symbolic Convergence Theory Functional Theory
 Watzlawick, Bavelas, & Jackson Premise: in order to understand group behavior, one must examine the interdependence tha...
 Assumptions   System defined: a group of individuals who interrelate to    form a whole      Subsystem      Suprasyst...
 Assumptions continued   Homeostasis   Equifinality
 Five axioms of communication  1.   Impossibility of not communicating  2.   Content and relationship levels  3.   The pr...
 Bales Premise: explains patterns of group discussion, particularly in terms of leadership. Led to the development of SY...
 Groups seek to achieve two goals:   1.   Task goals   2.   Relationship maintenance goals Dual Leadership   IPA sugges...
 Using IPA principles, Bales developed SYMLOG (System for the Multiple Level Observations of Groups) SYMLOG is simultane...
 Group members evaluate themselves and other members  based on three dimensions:   Forward—Backward    (accepting author...
 Bormann Premise: Symbolic convergence theory is founded on the idea that group members cooperatively create and sustain...
 Central Concepts   Fantasy theme: a creative understanding of events that    fulfills a psychological or rhetorical nee...
 Gouran & Hirokawa Premise: explains the four requisite functions for optimal group decision making.   Function: refers...
 Functional model explains why groups make certain  decisions Effective decision making relies on the group’s  successfu...
 Three types of communication exist in small groups These types either support or inhibit the group’s ability  to realiz...
Explaining Theories of Organizational Communication
 Organization: group of people who coordinate  activities to achieve individual and collective goals Communication withi...
 Organizational Culture Organizational Assimilation Theory Organizational Identification & Control Organizing Theory
 Perspective 1 Deal & Kennedy Premise: organizations become high-performing when they have strong culture; managers can...
 Deal & Kennedy continued Four central elements to culture:   1.   Values   2.   Heroes   3.   Rites and rituals   4.   ...
Deal & Kennedy’s Four Organizational Cultures                                             Risk                            ...
 Perspective 2 Schein Premise: understanding the processes of communication that create, sustain, and constrain interac...
 Schein continued Culture: pattern of shared assumptions  invented, discovered, or developed by a given group  and are t...
 Schein continued Three levels of culture:   1.   Artifacts   2.   Values   3.   Assumptions
Schein’s Levels of Culture              • Identified though: architecture; technology; dress; forms of                addr...
 Jablin Premise: explains how individuals become integrated  into the culture of an organization   Socialization proces...
 Four stages of assimilation   1.   Vocational anticipatory socialization   2.   Anticipatory socialization   3.   Encoun...
 Tompkins & Cheney Premise: OIC explains how an individual’s connection to the organization influences behavior and deci...
 Three types of organizational control   1.   Identification   2.   Control           Simple control           Technolo...
 Weick Premise: organizing theory assumes that organizations exist in an information environment; communication is what ...
 Organizations must deal with equivocality   Rules   Double interacts      act      response      adjustment
 If organizations can’t adapt to changes and new  challenges, they won’t survive Sociocultural evolution   1.   Enactmen...
Explaining Theories of Leadership
 Management: formal position in organizational  hierarchy Leadership: not based on a structural position   Major challe...
 Likert Premise: Explains four different systems, or approaches, to leadership and the resulting consequences
 System 1: Exploitive authoritative system   Leaders motivate through threats and fear   Communication is downward     ...
 System 2: Benevolent authoritative system   Classical approach to organizations, but leaders tend to    be less control...
 System 3: Consultative system   Leaders use rewards to motivate workers; occasional    punishment   Leadership charact...
 System 4: Participative system   Incorporates genuine participation among all levels in      decision making and goal s...
 Bass Premise: global economy has shifted the type of leadership needed in today’s organizations. Explains two leadershi...
 Two types of leaders   1.   Transactional leaders           Seek solid, consistent performance from subordinates       ...
2.   Transformational leadership        Founded on particular attitudes and behaviors that         support organizational...
 Goleman Premise: counters traditional notions of intelligence, which privilege knowledge, training, and expertise in a ...
 Five Qualities of EQ   1.   Self-awareness   2.   Self-regulation   3.   Motivation   4.   Empathy   5.   Social skill
 Fiedler Premise: Contingency theory (model) explains situational factors in leadership effectiveness; there are two dis...
 Task leader: focuses primarily on accomplishing  particular organizational goals Relationship leader: emphasizes positi...
 Three Situational Constraints  1.    Leader-member relations  2.    Task structure (four dimensions):        1.   Clarit...
 Combination of three constraints leads to prediction of control over the situation   Eight possible combinations of thr...
 Graen & Associates Premise: leadership consists of an interpersonal relationship between a superior and a subordinate; ...
 The LMX Continuum     Leader Member                           Supervisory     Exchange (LMX)                         Exc...
 Managers respond to employees in different ways   Develop strong interpersonal ties with some employees    (LMX relatio...
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COM310-Week 3 Lecture Slides

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COM310-Week 3 Lecture Slides

  1. 1. Week 3: Getting TogetherExplaining Theories of Group Communication
  2. 2.  Groups versus Teams Group: a system of three or more individuals focused on achieving a common purpose and who influence each other Team: in an organizational setting, a team is an ongoing, coordinated group of people working together
  3. 3.  Systems Perspective Interaction Process Analysis/SYMLOG Symbolic Convergence Theory Functional Theory
  4. 4.  Watzlawick, Bavelas, & Jackson Premise: in order to understand group behavior, one must examine the interdependence that develops between members
  5. 5.  Assumptions  System defined: a group of individuals who interrelate to form a whole  Subsystem  Suprasystem  Communication creates and sustains systems  Nonsummativity  Positive synergy  Negative synergy  Interdependence
  6. 6.  Assumptions continued  Homeostasis  Equifinality
  7. 7.  Five axioms of communication 1. Impossibility of not communicating 2. Content and relationship levels 3. The problem of punctuation 4. Digital and analogic communication 5. Complementary and symmetrical communication
  8. 8.  Bales Premise: explains patterns of group discussion, particularly in terms of leadership. Led to the development of SYMLOG
  9. 9.  Groups seek to achieve two goals: 1. Task goals 2. Relationship maintenance goals Dual Leadership  IPA suggests that the same group can have two different leaders  Task leader and Relationship leader Group communication can be coded into one of 12 categories (see figure 5.1 in text)
  10. 10.  Using IPA principles, Bales developed SYMLOG (System for the Multiple Level Observations of Groups) SYMLOG is simultaneously a theory of group dynamics and a practical method for measuring and changing group behavior
  11. 11.  Group members evaluate themselves and other members based on three dimensions:  Forward—Backward (accepting authority—rejecting authority)  Positive—Negative (friendly behavior—unfriendly behavior)  Upward—Downward (dominance—submissive) Scores for each member are plotted on a field diagram and analyzed  Field diagram can identify: group coalitions and networks; perceptual barriers that impede group effectiveness
  12. 12.  Bormann Premise: Symbolic convergence theory is founded on the idea that group members cooperatively create and sustain shared consciousness, including shared meaning, through interaction
  13. 13.  Central Concepts  Fantasy theme: a creative understanding of events that fulfills a psychological or rhetorical need 1. Dramatizing message 2. Fantasy chain 3. Group cohesion (symbolic convergence) 4. Rhetorical vision
  14. 14.  Gouran & Hirokawa Premise: explains the four requisite functions for optimal group decision making.  Function: refers to what communication does
  15. 15.  Functional model explains why groups make certain decisions Effective decision making relies on the group’s successful completion of four functions, called requisite functions 1. Problem analysis 2. Goal setting 3. Identify alternatives 4. Evaluate and select
  16. 16.  Three types of communication exist in small groups These types either support or inhibit the group’s ability to realize the requisite functions 1. Promotive discussion 2. Disruptive communication 3. Counteractive communication
  17. 17. Explaining Theories of Organizational Communication
  18. 18.  Organization: group of people who coordinate activities to achieve individual and collective goals Communication within organizations serves three functions:  Relationship function  Organizing function  Change function
  19. 19.  Organizational Culture Organizational Assimilation Theory Organizational Identification & Control Organizing Theory
  20. 20.  Perspective 1 Deal & Kennedy Premise: organizations become high-performing when they have strong culture; managers can develop these qualities
  21. 21.  Deal & Kennedy continued Four central elements to culture: 1. Values 2. Heroes 3. Rites and rituals 4. Cultural network
  22. 22. Deal & Kennedy’s Four Organizational Cultures Risk Low High Feedback & Reward Rapid Work hard—play Tough-guy macho hard culture culture Low Process culture Bet the company culture
  23. 23.  Perspective 2 Schein Premise: understanding the processes of communication that create, sustain, and constrain interaction within the organization
  24. 24.  Schein continued Culture: pattern of shared assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group and are taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and behave May be conscious or subconscious
  25. 25.  Schein continued Three levels of culture: 1. Artifacts 2. Values 3. Assumptions
  26. 26. Schein’s Levels of Culture • Identified though: architecture; technology; dress; forms of address; decision-making; communication patterns Artifacts • Identified through everyday practice and behavior: e.g., innovation/change v. stable/rigid Values • Implicit beliefs about the “right” way to do thingsAssumptions
  27. 27.  Jablin Premise: explains how individuals become integrated into the culture of an organization  Socialization process is complex and occurs over years  Can be planned or unplanned
  28. 28.  Four stages of assimilation 1. Vocational anticipatory socialization 2. Anticipatory socialization 3. Encounter 4. Metamorphasis  Socialization: internalize values and behaviors to accomplish org expectations  Individualization: member wants to have an impact on her/his role and work environment
  29. 29.  Tompkins & Cheney Premise: OIC explains how an individual’s connection to the organization influences behavior and decision making in team-based structures
  30. 30.  Three types of organizational control 1. Identification 2. Control  Simple control  Technological control  Bureaucratic control Traditional control  Unobtrusive  Concertive 3. Discipline Team-based control
  31. 31.  Weick Premise: organizing theory assumes that organizations exist in an information environment; communication is what constitutes an organization; focus on organizing information
  32. 32.  Organizations must deal with equivocality  Rules  Double interacts  act  response  adjustment
  33. 33.  If organizations can’t adapt to changes and new challenges, they won’t survive Sociocultural evolution 1. Enactment 2. Selection 3. Retention  See figure 6.1
  34. 34. Explaining Theories of Leadership
  35. 35.  Management: formal position in organizational hierarchy Leadership: not based on a structural position  Major challenge of leadership is to cope with change (Kotter, 1990)  Leaders must demonstrate vision, motivate people, and empower people
  36. 36.  Likert Premise: Explains four different systems, or approaches, to leadership and the resulting consequences
  37. 37.  System 1: Exploitive authoritative system  Leaders motivate through threats and fear  Communication is downward  All decision making made at upper levels  Leaders pass down orders issued by the highest levels of the organization.  Satisfaction and productivity typically are not high; high turnover rate
  38. 38.  System 2: Benevolent authoritative system  Classical approach to organizations, but leaders tend to be less controlling  Communication tends to be downward  Decision making at top levels  Lower level employees may attempt upward communication, but messages tend to be distorted  Leaders tend to “sell” their point of view rather than tell employees what to do  Motivation through rewards and punishments  Satisfaction and turnover slightly better than System 1, although productivity is fair to good
  39. 39.  System 3: Consultative system  Leaders use rewards to motivate workers; occasional punishment  Leadership characterized by involving lower level employees in some decision making and goal setting  Workers are empowered to make lower level decisions that affect their specific realm of work.  Leaders set goals after discussing problems and plans with subordinates (“Consulting”)  Communication moves both upward and downward  Productivity is good in this system, as are satisfaction and employee turnover rates.
  40. 40.  System 4: Participative system  Incorporates genuine participation among all levels in decision making and goal setting  Communication is extensive, regardless of rank; all employees are encouraged to interact with each other.  Motivation through compensation systems, and by valuing all workers’ skills and performance  Hierarchy may exist, but all organizational members are respected and have a say in operations  Highest productivity and satisfaction and the least employee turnover
  41. 41.  Bass Premise: global economy has shifted the type of leadership needed in today’s organizations. Explains two leadership styles, arguing that, although both can assist organizations in achieving goals, transformational leadership is superior.
  42. 42.  Two types of leaders 1. Transactional leaders  Seek solid, consistent performance from subordinates  Use bilateral exchange to achieve goals  Work with subordinates to develop clear and specific objectives  Exchange rewards and promises of rewards for employee effort  Responsive to immediate self-interests of workers, particularly if needs can be met while getting job done
  43. 43. 2. Transformational leadership  Founded on particular attitudes and behaviors that support organizational change  Seeks to inspire exceptional performance  Idealized influence  Inspirational motivation  Intellectual stimulation  Individualized consideration
  44. 44.  Goleman Premise: counters traditional notions of intelligence, which privilege knowledge, training, and expertise in a particular field; instead, leadership is about how well one works with and motivates others
  45. 45.  Five Qualities of EQ 1. Self-awareness 2. Self-regulation 3. Motivation 4. Empathy 5. Social skill
  46. 46.  Fiedler Premise: Contingency theory (model) explains situational factors in leadership effectiveness; there are two distinct approaches to leadership—task and relational. Neither is better than the other.
  47. 47.  Task leader: focuses primarily on accomplishing particular organizational goals Relationship leader: emphasizes positive relations between all members of the group
  48. 48.  Three Situational Constraints 1. Leader-member relations 2. Task structure (four dimensions): 1. Clarity of goals 2. Path multiplicity 3. Effect verifiability 4. Specificity of decisions to made 3. Leader’s position power
  49. 49.  Combination of three constraints leads to prediction of control over the situation  Eight possible combinations of three variables  See Table 8.3  In conditions of high control over the situation, task leadership style is more effective  In conditions of moderate control, relational leadership is more effective
  50. 50.  Graen & Associates Premise: leadership consists of an interpersonal relationship between a superior and a subordinate; not all relationships are created equally.
  51. 51.  The LMX Continuum Leader Member Supervisory Exchange (LMX) Exchange (SX) Leadership Leadership Middle Group High trust, mutual Leadership Low trust, formal influence, high authority, low rewards, high rewards, low support, latitude in support, tasks based task development on job description
  52. 52.  Managers respond to employees in different ways  Develop strong interpersonal ties with some employees (LMX relationships)  Simple interpersonal liking is a big factor  LMX relationships associated with positive outcomes  Other employees are out-group members; supervisor’s relationship is strictly based on organizational rules and roles

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