POL 102 PHILIPPINE HISTORY MODULE 2: HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS
OBJECTIVES:• 1. Discuss the various theories on Philippine evolution.• 2. Identify the distinct traits of Filipinos different from the people of other neighbouring countries.• 3. Look for something indigenous/ cultural value and show it in the class.
A. Origin of the Philippines• 1. Land bridge theory- according to this theory, the earth is was made up of huge landmasses that connected each piece of land to one another through land bridges located above big bodies of water
• 2. Big Bang theory- a massive explosion from within the landmass are believed to have been origin of the present-day countries including the Philippines
• 3. Biblical Theory-this theory states that God created heaven and earth, after which the first man and woman named Adam and Eve. It was from these two living creatures of God that various races sprouted.
• 4. Darwinian Theory-traces man’s origin from apes, the ancestors of man (homo erectus)left Africa- cradle of man’s remote past and scattered throughout the world crossing the land bridges.
• 5. Theory of Continental Drift- Philippines once was a part of Mainland China. According to the scientists, during the Ice Age, the waters surrounding the Philippines dropped to about 156 feet below the present levels, exposing large bodies of land. These became land bridges connecting the Philippines to the Asian mainland.
B. Legendary Beginnings of the Filipino Ancestors• 1.Myth of Malakas and Maganda• 2. Baked Clay figures of white, black and brown race
C. Racial Origins• 1. Negritos( aetas or pygmies). They are short, round-headed with kinky hair, small flat nose with thick lips and dark complexion.At present descendants of Negritos live in Bataan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Pamapanga, Mindoro, Palawan, Negros, Panay.
• 2. Indonesians-tall,slender in physique, light complexion, thin lips and high aquiline nose. Their strain is very strong in ethnic groups in Apayao, Ibanag, Ilongots, Gaddangs and Ilongots.
• 3. Malays-they are carried by balangays they are medium in height, slim but well built, brown skin and with black hair and dark brown eyes.•
D. Major Groups of Inhabitants• 1. Visayans• 2. Tagalog• 3. Ilocanos• 4. Bicolanos
E. Ethnic Groups• Ivatan are found in Batanes . They have close cultural links with Taiwanese Aborigines.
BADJAOBadjaos arefound in the SuluArchipelago.
Igorot• The Igorot(Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga, Kankana- ey,Kalanguya), live in the highlands of Luzon
Ilongots• The Ilongot is a headhunting ethnic group found in the Caraballo Mountains.
Lumad• The Lumad of Mindanao includes several tribes such as the Manobo, the Tasaday, the Mamanwa, the Mandaya, and the Kalagan. They primarily inhabit the eastern parts of Mindanao such as the Caraga and Davao Regions
Mangyan• The Mangyan are found in Mindoro.
BATAK• The Batak is a group of indigenous Filipino people that resides in the northeast portion of Palawan.
MOLBOG• The Molbog means "murky or turbid water". The Molbog are probably a migrant people from nearby North Borneo. They are found in Palawan.
MANOBO • Most numerous of ethnic group in the Philippines. They live on Sarangani Island to the Mindanao mainland.
Maranao • “People of the Lake” • They build houses near the Lanao Lake • They are known for weaving and wood and metal crafts • Among their popular design is the sarimanok and naga.
F. Other Characteristics of the Filipino Society• Population:• Language: The official language of the country is Filipino. There are about 80 native languages and 142 dialects.• Economy: Agriculture: Farming, forestry and fishery are major agricultural activities in the country.
Cultural Traits:• Acculturation- embraces limited concept. It is purely absorption and adaptation of foreign influences in totality.• Inculturation- It is a process where foreign influences are gradually subjected to a kind of filtration or segregation.
G. Core Values of Filipinos• 1. close family ties- a strong bond among family members• 2. respect for elders-usage of po and opo, kissing of the hand of the elders (pagmamano). Obeying elders and following their advice.• 3. loyalty- true allegiance (padrino)
• 4. sensitivity- onion-skinned or the tendency to be hurt easily by unpleasant remarks.• 5. religiosity-spirituality or strong faith in God• 6. Resiliency (fatalism) (Bahala na)•
DEBATE• Dapat bang alisin ng mga Pilipino ang ugaling “Bahala Na”?
Assignment• Bring a product that is purely Filipino in nature then discuss it’s nature and importance in the class.
Quiz1. What theory explains the first migration of Filipinos through land bridges?
• 2.What theory states that human race came from Adam and Eve?
• 3. What theory explains that man came from the evolution of an ape?
• 4. What theory explains that Philippines was once a part of Mainland China?