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I. Introduction
With the flourishing recognition that store design is one of the restaurants’ most
important concerns, store designing has emerged as top management priority in most
restaurant businesses nowadays. Various gizmos are employed to attract clientele, thus
increasing profitability.
With its highly competitive nature, store design can be equally and especially important
to influence customers’ perception and drive store choice and loyalty aside from other
standards such as the location of a store, the distance the customer must travel and of
course the price plus the healthful conditions of the place, primary reason why the
management of De La Salle University- Dasmarinas sees to it that every canteen inside
the campus is clean and every food served is safe and fresh. These are the basic criteria
in consumers’ canteen choice decisions.
Every store manager should take time in strategically building and positioning a food
stall’s image for the customers to have a good perception about the business. Store
design is one of the attributes that influence the overall image of a store (Lindquist,
1974, Mazursky and Jacoby, 1986). Store image not only includes the location,
affordability of food prices, cleanliness of the place and food preparation but store design
and layout as well.
Emplacement or positioning of the canteen is equally significant. This is not however, to
say that location is unimportant, canteen choice seem to be discrepant with a framework
where customers optimize their food costs, where effort to access the canteen location
being one component of their budget. Bell, Ho, and Tang, (1998), find that location no
longer explains most of the variance in store choice decisions. Consumers’ store choice
may be based on different criteria such as the availability of time depending upon the
nature of the travel and schedules although student canteens inside the campus are
conveniently situated in an area accessible to the students that’s why location may not
really be a big issue for students of De La Salle University.
Like any other consumer, students too, have their food allowances on a budget. That’s
the reason why almost all of De La Salle University– Dasmarinas Square Canteens’ food
is uniformly priced and is within financial means of students. Students enjoy almost the
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same prices for sandwiches that range from P 25.00 to P 30.00 while student lunch is
served from P 45.00 to P 60.00. Food prices also play an important role in students’
eating preferences and/or purchasing decision. Student consumers measure store
image also by food cost and how the food price fits their budget.
Nevertheless, each student still has different taste and lifestyle. Some prefer delicious
mouth-watering food and affordable prices. Others prefer cozy and classy ambient, not
taking into consideration the prices of the food. Hence, store design is one factor that
can affect the purchasing decision of a student. That’s why; store owners must also take
into consideration their store’s design to build a better store image.
Richardson, Jain, and Dick (1996) said that a pleasing in-store atmosphere provides
substantial hedonic utility to consumers, encourages them to visit more often, stay
longer, and buy more. Although it also improves consumers’ perceptions of the quality of
merchandise in the store, consumers tend to associate it with higher prices. An
appealing in-store atmosphere offers much potential in terms of crafting a unique store
image and establishing differentiation. Even if the products by a retailer are similar to
others, the ability to create a strong in-store personality and rich experiences can play a
crucial role in building retailer equity.
Store layout and design will be the only subject that the researchers will consider in the
University’s Square canteen’s environment. Questionnaires were formulated to fit the
objectives of the research. The respondents were not exclusively directed to a certain
group but to different class levels. The researchers will find out if store design really is
important to consumers of De La Salle University – Dasmariñas. This research will build
a better fundament or groundwork for the necessity of committing to invest on the layout
and designs of stores and canteens to get students’ positive response.
The specific problem and objectives, research framework, scope and limitation and
research hypothesis will be further explained in this paper and at the end of the study, a
further analysis, interpretation and conclusion of the findings will be discussed.
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I. Research Problem
This research study aims to answer the following issues:
General:
Does the University Square Canteen’s food stall design have an impact on the
purchasing decision of students in De La Salle University- Dasmariñas?
Specific:
What are the weekly allowances of students in De La Salle University- Dasmariñas?
How many times in a week do students eat in the University Square Canteen?
What are the factors that contribute to a good design inside a food stall?
What is the percentage of students who are influenced by food stall design in their
purchasing decision?
What are other factors aside from store design that may influence student’s purchasing
decision?
II. Research Objectives
This study aims to achieve the following goals:
General:
To determine if the University Square Canteen’s food stall design has an impact on the
purchasing decision of students in De La Salle University- Dasmariñas.
Specific:
To identify the weekly allowances of students in De La Salle University- Dasmariñas.
To know how many times in a week students eat in the University Square Canteen.
To know the factors that contributes to a good design inside a food stall.
To measure the percentage of students who are influenced by food stall design in their
purchasing decision.
To know other factors aside from store design that may influence student’s purchasing
decision.
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III. Research Methodology
This study was made to describe the impact of University Square Canteen’s food stall
design on students’ purchasing decision. Descriptive design will be utilized to describe
student’s social status by the rate of their weekly allowances. In relation with their
perception of store image, a linear regression design will also be used to determine
significance of the relationship of Square Canteen’s stall design and purchasing
decision.
Survey will be the tool used for data collection. The social survey questionnaire will
comprise close-ended questions that will be answered through multiple choices and
dichotomous choices. Data collection strategy will be cross sectional wherein
respondents will be individually given questionnaire surveys at a different time. On the
other hand, data type will be both qualitative and quantitative. Social status and those
that students see as a factor which can influence their purchasing decision will be in
qualitative form. Percentage of students influenced by store design and relationship of
store design on the purchasing decision of students will be in quantitative form.
The number of respondents will be wisely chosen using convenience sampling to be
able to control and adjust to the arrivals of first year respondents of De La Salle
University- Dasmarinas. This non-probability sampling would be convenience sampling.
The sample size will be computed based on the whole population of DLSU-D students
for the year 2009- 2010. For convenience, survey questionnaires will be distributed to
students found in the Square Canteen at the time of surveying. There are 12,452
students welcomed by De La Salle University- Dasmariñas for the Academic Year 2009-
2010 according to the Students Admission Office (Heraldo Filipino, Vol. 24 Issue 1). The
sample size will be 100 students computed using the Slovin’s formula with 0.10 errors.
Data from the survey will be the primary source of data. The questionnaire distributed to
the respondents will determine the relationship of store design and students’ store
preference. The weekly allowances and number of visit in a week on the Square
Canteen will be expressed in categories or as ordinal data while purchasing decisions
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influenced by store design nominal quantitative data or simply by yes and no during data
measurement.
Related literatures from internet articles will be used to establish the movement of
variables such as social status, store design and store preference. These articles from
the internet will support the objectives, conceptual framework, and research design of
the study.
For data analysis and interpretation, Cross Tabulation will be used to determine number
of times a week students eat in the University Square Canteen and perception towards
stall design’s importance on their purchasing decision. Other variables such as weekly
allowance, number of times in a week students’ eat in Square Canteen, factors that
contributes to a good design and other factors that affects purchasing decision of
students will be interpreted through tables and bar or pie charts.
Data that answers the specific problems of the study will be measured in an ordinal level
to be able to rank the most common allowances, number of times students eat a week
and factors that affects students’ purchasing decision.
For the testing of the hypothesis on the relationship of store design and student’s
purchasing decision, linear regression analysis will be used. Level of significance that
will be used for hypothesis testing will be 0.05 to have a 0.95 confidence level. P-value
will then be compared with the significance level to determine the truthfulness of the null
hypothesis. If P-value will be lower than the significance level, then we will reject the null
hypothesis. If not, we will accept null hypothesis.
IV. Scope and Limitation
The scope of the study is about the impact of different designs at Square Canteen’s
food stalls towards the purchasing decision of students in De La Salle University.
The research study will be focusing mainly on the students of De La Salle University-
Dasmariñas, Cavite and their eating or purchasing behavior observed in the
University Square Canteen area situated at the west part of the campus.
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The study will comprise of the weekly allowances received by the students for the
researchers to determine their buying capability, the times a week students’ eat in
the Square Canteen and students’ purchasing response to stall designs and
perception to food stall design’s impact on their purchasing decision..
V. Hypothesis
Both the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis of the study will be analyzed using
the survey data at the end of the paper to prove which hypothesis is correct.
Ho: Square Canteen’s food stall design has no impact on the purchasing decision of De
La Salle- Dasmariñas’ students.
Ha: Square Canteen’s food stall design has an impact on the purchasing decision of De
La Salle- Dasmariñas’ students.
VI. Conceptual Framework
The theoretical framework of this study explains food stall design’s relationship with the
purchasing decision of a student which is also influenced by student’s perception of the
overall store image. Store image is built through many factors that a canteen is
composed of, and one of those is design.
As Lindquist (1974) and Mazursky & Jacoby (1986) said, store image allows customers’
perception on the business to be built. Store design is one of the attributes that influence
the overall image of a store.
Store image not only includes the affordability of food prices, the cleanliness of the
place, food preparation and promotion, but store design and layout as well (Lindquist,
1974, Mazursky and Jacoby, 1986).
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Store layout and design includes the wall color, table and chair setup, ambience, lighting
and spacing. That’s why; store owners must also take into consideration their store’s
layout and design to build a good store image because store image allows businesses to
gain more customers and receive positive purchasing response or decision.
The framework states that how a student perceives store design’s importance in building
store image has a relationship with their purchasing response. Good perceptions then
affects purchasing behavior of a student leading to a decision to eat or dine while a bad
perception otherwise. This theoretical framework will be further proven by a thorough
analysis of the research survey. The independent variable is student’s perception on the
importance of store design and the dependent variable is their purchasing decision,
store design itself being the intervening variable.
Perception on
Stall Design’s Stall Design Purchasing
importance in and Layout Decision
building Store
Image
VII. Research Findings
Weekly allowances of students in De La Salle University- Dasmariñas
For the demographical characteristic of the respondents, their weekly allowance rate
was determined through a survey. There are 27 different weekly allowance rates
according to the survey. Out of the 100 respondents, 5 didn’t indicate their weekly
allowance rate that’s why there are only 95 valid answers in the survey data.
Statistics
Weekly Allowances
N Valid 95
Missing 5
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Survey data show that 17.9 percent of the first year De La Salle University students
have a weekly allowance of P 1,000. Also, 13.7 percent of students have a weekly
allowance of P 1,500 or P 300 daily allowance for a five-day a week classes. The
third most common weekly allowance for the students of De La Salle is P 750 a week
that is P 150 a day rate for a five-day a week classes. The fourth is P 1,250, which is
P 250 a day in a five-day a week classes. The fifth is P 600 which is P 120 daily
allowance rate while the sixth is P 900 and P 500 which is P 180 and P 100 daily.
The mean of students’ weekly allowance is P 1,158.26.
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Weekly 95 250 5,000 1,158.26 689.237
Allowances
Valid N (listwise) 95
A chart of the students demographical characteristic or weekly allowance rates
shows that P 1000, P 1500, P 750, P 1250, P 600, P 900 and P 500 are the top six
most common weekly allowance rates. The figure is shown below.
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Number of times a week students eat in Square Canteen
All respondents indicated the number of times a week they eat in the Square
Canteen allowing no missing or invalid answers to appear in the data sheet of the
SPSS. Valid data is 100 percent.
Statistics
No. of times students eat
in Square Canteen
N Valid 100
Missing 0
According to survey data, 47 percent of the students eat in the Square Canteen
every day, 23 percent eats thrice a week, 18 percent eats twice a week and only 12
percent eats once a week. Almost half of the students eat everyday at the Square
Canteen and minority eats once a week in the Square Canteen. There is also none
of the students who never eat in the Square Canteen. Complete data from the survey
about how many times in a week students of De La Salle University- Dasmariñas eat
in the Square Canteen is shown in the table below.
No. of times students eat in Square Canteen
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid once 12 12.0 12.0 12.0
twice 19 19.0 19.0 31.0
thrice 23 23.0 23.0 54.0
everyday 46 46.0 46.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0
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A chart of the survey data about how many times a week students eat in the Square
Canteen is shown in the figure below. A high number of students, as shown in the
figure below, eat everyday in the Square Canteen while none of the students who
never eat in the Square Canteen.
Students eat in the Square canteen on a mean of thrice a week, having 1 for once a
day, 2 for twice a day, 3 for thrice a day and 4 for every day.
Descriptive Statistics
Std.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation
No. of times students 100 1 4 3.03 1.068
eat in Square
Canteen
Valid N (listwise) 100
Factors that contributes to a good design inside the store
The factors that are included in the composition of a good design are wall color, table
and chair setup, lighting and spacing. In the survey data, 36.3 percent states wall
color as the factor that contributes most to a good design inside the store. Table and
chair setup is the second factor that students think contributes to a good design. It is
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29.8 percent of the survey data, which is not so far from the percentage of wall color.
Third is the lighting of the store, which is 24.4 percent of the survey data. Last, but
not the least, is the store spacing, which is 9.5 percent of all the survey data. All the
answers are valid and complete as sample data were input in the SPSS. Complete
survey data is shown in the table below.
Case Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
$Contributorsa 100 100.0% 0 .0% 100 100.0%
a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.
Data show that students see wall color as the most important factor that makes a
store design good and store spacing as the least of all the factors that can make a
store design good. The data is then input as a multiple set of variables in which
respondents were able to answer as many contributors which they see can
contribute to a good design inside a food stall.
$Contributors Frequencies
Responses Percent of
N Percent Cases
factors that wall color 61 36.3% 61.0%
contributes to good
table and chair setup 50 29.8% 50.0%
designa
lighting 41 24.4% 41.0%
spacing 16 9.5% 16.0%
Total 168 100.0% 168.0%
a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.
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Percentage of students whose purchasing decision are influenced by store design
Survey data shows that 80 percent of the students are influenced by store design in
their purchasing decision and only 20 percent are not influenced by store design in
their purchasing decision as shown in the table below.
Statistics
Store Design influences
Purchasing Decision
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Store Design influences Purchasing Decision
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid no 20 20.0 20.0 20.0
yes 80 80.0 80.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0
Other factors that influence the students’ purchasing decision
According to the survey data, there are 13 factors aside from store design that can
affect students’ purchasing decision, food taste being the top in the rank. Food taste
is 36 percent of all survey answers on other factors that affect students’ purchasing
decision. The second factor that affects students’ purchasing decision the most is
price or the affordability of the food, which is 21 percent of all survey answers. The
third factor that mostly affects the purchasing decision of students is the number of
tables and chairs or the number of people the store can accommodate. It is 9.1
percent of all survey answers. There are only 2 missing values because respondents
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didn’t indicate their corresponding answer to the question in the survey. There are a
total of 98 valid answers to be counted in the frequency.
Case Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
$factorsa 98 98.0% 2 2.0% 100 100.0%
a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.
Complete details of the survey data is shown in the table below. Ambience or the
music and mood inside the store are the least of all factors considered.
$factors Frequencies
Responses Percent of
N Percent Cases
other ventilation 15 8.1% 15.3%
factorsa sanitation and cleanliness 15 8.1% 15.3%
food taste 67 36.0% 68.4%
nos. of table and chairs 17 9.1% 17.3%
price 39 21.0% 39.8%
friendly staffs 9 4.8% 9.2%
choices and menu 9 4.8% 9.2%
good service 3 1.6% 3.1%
amount of servings 5 2.7% 5.1%
utensils 1 .5% 1.0%
food presentation 1 .5% 1.0%
place and location 3 1.6% 3.1%
ambience 2 1.1% 2.0%
Total 186 100.0% 189.8%
a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.
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On the perception of students on store design’s importance and the number of times
a week students eat in Square canteen showing their purchasing behavior, there are
no missing or invalid sample data entered on the cross tabulated data of the number
of times a week students eat in Square Canteen or the students’ purchasing
behavior and their perception on the importance of stall design in influencing their
purchasing decision.
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
No. of times students 100 100.0% 0 .0% 100 100.0%
eat in Square Canteen *
Perception on Stall
Design's Importance
For the minority of the respondents, data from the sample show that only 3 out of 12
respondents who eat once in a week in the Square Canteen don’t see stall design
important in making purchasing decision and 9 respondents sees it important.
However, majority who eats almost every day in the Square Canteen, only 8 out of
46 doesn’t see stall design’s importance while the rest, otherwise.
No. of times students eat in Square Canteen * Perception on Stall Design's
Importance Crosstabulation
Count
Perception on Stall Design's Importance
no yes Total
No. of times once 3 9 12
students eat in twice 5 14 19
Square
thrice 4 19 23
Canteen
everyday 8 38 46
Total 20 80 100
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Figure below is a chart of the cross tabulated perception of students on stall design’s
importance and student’s purchasing decision measured by the number of times a
week they eat in Square Canteen. According to the chart, majority of the students
see the importance of stall design in influencing their purchasing decision in the
Square Canteen.
Hypothesis testing
Summary of the linear regression model shows that the independent variable which
is student’s perception on stall design’s importance has R value of .085 and R
square value of .007. Standard error of this estimate is equal to 1.070.
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The computation is based on the cross tabulated data of our independent and
dependent variable. Summary model is shown in the table below.
Model Summary
Adjusted R Std. Error of
Model R R Square Square the Estimate
1 .085a .007 -.003 1.070
a. Predictors: (Constant), Perception on Stall Design's
Importance
ANOVA of the dependent variable which is student’s purchasing behavior or number
of times to eat in the Square Canteen shows 112.910 Sum of Squares and 99
degree of freedom. This statistical data is useful in the computation of the P-value
which will determine the truthfulness of the null hypothesis.
ANOVAb
Sum of
Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression .810 1 .810 .708 .402a
Residual 112.100 98 1.144
Total 112.910 99
a. Predictors: (Constant), Perception on Stall Design's Importance
b. Dependent Variable: No. of times students eat in Square Canteen
Co-efficient of the dependent variable shows the slope (B) of the linear regression
model as .225 and the standard error as .267. These two statistical data came from
the sample survey. This will also be helpful in the computation of the P-value to help
the researchers decide in accepting or rejecting null hypothesis.
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Coefficientsa
Unstandardized Standardized 95.0% Confidence
Coefficients Coefficients Interval for B
Std. Lower Upper
Model B Error Beta t Sig. Bound Bound
1 U
(Constant) 2.850 .239 11.917 .000 2.375 3.325
s
iPerception on .225 .267 .085 .841 .402 -.306 .756
nStall Design's
g
Importance
a. Dependent Variable: No. of times students eat in Square Canteen
U
Using the linear regression analysis of the statistical spreadsheet SPSS, a standard
error of .267, slope of .225, 99 degree of freedom, and test statistics which is slope
divided by the standard error was used to compute the P-value or probability of the
relationship of De La Salle University- Dasmariñas students’ purchasing behavior
and perception on the importance of Square Canteen’s stall design. The test statistic
which is 0.843 is then used to compute P-value together with the degree of freedom
or df. The P-value computed is P (T < .843) 0.7994. The P-value is then compared
with the significance level 0.05 to test the truthfulness of the null hypothesis. The T-
test of the P-value shows that the null hypothesis is true since P-value is greater than
the significance level 0.05.
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VIII. Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions
1. Survey data show that 17.9 percent of the first year De La Salle University students
have a weekly allowance of P 1,000. Also, 13.7 percent of students have a weekly
allowance of P 1,500. The third most common weekly allowance for the students of
De La Salle is P 750 a week. The fourth is P 1,250. The fifth is P 600 while the sixth
is P 900 and P 500. The mean students’ weekly allowance is P 1,158.26.
2. According to survey data, 47 percent of the students eat in the Square Canteen
every day, 23 percent eats thrice a week, 18 percent eats twice a week and only 12
percent eats once a week. Almost half of the students eat everyday at the Square
Canteen and minority eats once a week in the Square Canteen. The mean number
of times a week students eat in the Square Canteen is thrice a week.
3. In the survey data, 36.3 percent sees wall color as a factor that contributes most to a
good design inside the store. Table and chair setup is the second factor that students
think contributes to a good design which is 29.8 percent of the survey data. Third is
the lighting of the store, which is 24.4 percent of the survey data. Lastly is the store
spacing, which is 9.5 percent of all the survey data. Therefore, wall color is what
students consider as the number one factor that contributes to a good design.
4. Survey data shows that 80 percent of the students are influenced by store design in
their purchasing decision and only 20 percent are not influenced by store design in
their purchasing decision as shown in the table below. Therefore, most of the
students in De La Salle University- Dasmariñas are influenced by store design in
their purchasing decision.
5. According to the survey data, there are 13 factors aside from store design that can
affect students’ purchasing decision, food taste being the top in the rank. Food taste
is 36 percent of all survey answers on other factors that affect students’ purchasing
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decision. The second factor that affects students’ purchasing decision is price or the
affordability of the food, which is 21 percent of all survey answers. The third factor
that affects the purchasing decision of students is the number of tables and chairs or
the number of people the store can accommodate. It is 9.1 percent of all survey
answers. Other factors that can influence students purchasing decision are
ventilation, sanitation and cleanliness, friendly staffs, choices and menu, good
service, amount of servings, utensils, food presentation, place and location, and
ambience.
6. The P-value computed is P (T < .843) 0.7994. The P-value is then compared with the
significance level 0.05 to test the truthfulness of the null hypothesis. The T-test of the
P-value shows that the null hypothesis is true since P-value is greater than the
significance level 0.05. Therefore, Square Canteen’s food stall design has no direct
impact on the purchasing decision of De La Salle University- Dasmariñas students.
Recommendations
The researchers therefore recommend that University Square Canteen
concessionaires should also focus in enhancing food taste, price and adding space
for additional tables and chairs to attract customers and attain a positive purchasing
response since stall design does not really affect the purchasing decision of
students. These top three factors are those which students find to be satisfying their
needs and budgets. Canteen manager, therefore, should optimize food taste and
offer quality even in a lower price.
Also, the success of a food stall is not dependent on one factor alone that’s why food
stall manager and food canteen entrepreneurs should focus on different factors that
may improve business image or store image. Factors such as store ventilation,
sanitation and cleanliness, friendly staffs, choices and menu, good service, amount
of servings, utensils, food presentation, place and location, and ambience are other
factors store managers should take into consideration in strategizing for a good
marketing position for a food or canteen business.
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IX. Appendix
Name: ________________________________________ College: _______________________
Daily Allowance: ________________________________
1. How many days a week do you go to school? (Check your answer).
2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days
2. How many times in a week do you eat in Square Canteen? (Check your answer).
Once Twice Thrice Everyday Never
3. Which do you think is the best designed food stall in the Square Canteen?
______________________________________
4. Based on your answer above, what factor/s inside that stall that you think contributes to
its good design? (Check as many boxes you want).
Wall color Table and chair setup Lighting Spacing
5. Do you think their design is important in your purchase decision making or eating?
(Check your answer).
Yes No
6. What other factors aside from store design that you think influences your decision to eat
or purchase inside a food stall in the Square Canteen? (Ex. food taste, ventilation, staffs,
etc.)
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________