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<ul><li>An Exploration of Listening Instruction in the K-12 Curriculum  Joanne E. Hopper  Doctoral Student Central Michiga...
Administrators’ Support of Listening <ul><li>Dependent Upon: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the importance of listening <...
Listening Defined <ul><li>“ A receptive skill comprising both a physical and an interpretive, analytical process.”  </li><...
Communication  <ul><li>A two-way process  </li></ul><ul><li>True communication does not occur “unless there is understandi...
Importance of Listening  <ul><li>Important interpersonal skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success in the world and the job mark...
Importance of Listening <ul><ul><li>Critical to a child’s success in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Early literacy dev...
High Scope Preschool Curriculum Problem-Solving Approach to Conflict Resolution   <ul><ul><li>Approach calmly, stopping an...
The New Standards Project <ul><ul><li>Research-based early childhood standards for speaking and listening  </li></ul></ul>...
Michigan K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for Speaking and Listening...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for Speaking and Listeni...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four ...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand...
<ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard 3, Benchmark 2 – the two-way process of effect...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand...
K-12 Standards for  Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and Lea...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (2004)  </li></ul><ul>...
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (2004)  </li></ul><ul>...
Listening Content Expectations in Michigan
Michigan’s K-12 Standards  for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards for K-12 Schools...
Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards   <ul><li>Clarify  classroom assignments with teacher and/or peers (L.1.4a...
Implementing Standards  in the Classroom  <ul><li>Where can teachers find resources to support listening instruction? </li...
Table 1  Google “Listening Skills” Search   Source: Google search retrieved March 5, 2005, from  http://www.google.com
Table 1 WebQuests –  LANGUAGE ARTS  -- Listening Skills in Language Arts WebQuests Source:  Dodge, B. WebQuest website. Sa...
A variety of sites emphasize the importance of listening.
There were sites offering parents tips to help their child become a better listener.
The State of Texas Department of Human Resources recognizes the importance of effective listening skills.
<ul><li>Conclusions:  </li></ul><ul><li>A gap exists between educational and  real-world expectations and: </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>A Plan to Address the Problem is Needed:  </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Administrators’ Knowledge/Awareness of:  </li...
<ul><li>Plan to Address the Problem:  </li></ul><ul><li>Provide professional development focused on:  </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
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Exploration Of Listening Instruction Slideshare

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Examines the gap between the importance of listening skills and K-12 instruction.

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    1. 1. <ul><li>An Exploration of Listening Instruction in the K-12 Curriculum Joanne E. Hopper Doctoral Student Central Michigan University April 2006 </li></ul>
    2. 2. Administrators’ Support of Listening <ul><li>Dependent Upon: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the importance of listening </li></ul><ul><li>Its connection with other language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Effective ways to teach listening </li></ul>
    3. 3. Listening Defined <ul><li>“ A receptive skill comprising both a physical and an interpretive, analytical process.” </li></ul><ul><li>Mead & Rubin, 1984 ¶ 4 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.” International Listening Association, 2005 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Communication <ul><li>A two-way process </li></ul><ul><li>True communication does not occur “unless there is understanding of what those who send messages intend.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Gilbert, 2004, p. 8) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Importance of Listening <ul><li>Important interpersonal skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success in the world and the job market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to managerial success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45% of day listening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% of salary listening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raudsepp, n.d., ¶ 4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Importance of Listening <ul><ul><li>Critical to a child’s success in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Early literacy development and long-term school success hinge on a child’s acquisition of speaking and listening skills.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dickinson, McCabe, and Sprague, 2003; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bridgman, Lane, et. Al., 1999 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. High Scope Preschool Curriculum Problem-Solving Approach to Conflict Resolution <ul><ul><li>Approach calmly, stopping any hurtful actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge children’s feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restate the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for solutions and choose one together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared to give follow-up support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.highscope.org/ </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The New Standards Project <ul><ul><li>Research-based early childhood standards for speaking and listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preschool through third grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by National Center on Education and the Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dickinson, McCabe, and Sprague, 2003; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Michigan K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for Speaking and Listening (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards for K-12 Schools (2004) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for Speaking and Listening (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six listening sub skills addressed: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceiving and discriminating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four specific standards focusing on listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers four grade spans: early elementary, later elementary, middle school, high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six of 55 (11%) of ELA benchmarks </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards 1, 2, 3 - Meaning and Communication: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The essence of the English language arts is communication – exchanging and exploring information and insights… Only when we understand or when we are understood are we communicating .” (emphasis added) (Michigan Curriculum Framework, 1996, p. 4) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard 3, Benchmark 2 – the two-way process of effective communication: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Consistently uses strategies to regulate the effects of variables on the communication process. An example is designing a communication environment for maximum impact on the receiver .” (p. 10) </li></ul></ul>Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening
    14. 14. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard 3, Benchmark 4: “ Consistently uses effective listening strategies (e.g. discriminating, assigning meaning, evaluating, and remembering) and elements of effective speaking (e.g. message content, language choices, and audience analysis).” (p. 10). </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard 7, Benchmark 2: “ Monitor their progress while using a variety of strategies to overcome difficulties when constructing and conveying meaning, and demonstrate flexible use of strategies across a wide range of situations.” (p. 15) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Curriculum Framework (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and Learning Standards - Substantive Conversation “ Students engage in extended conversational exchanges with the teacher and/or peers about subject matter in such a way that builds an improved and shared understanding of ideas or topics. ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(p. 2) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening and Viewing – Second Grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventions - “Give, restate, and follow three- and four-step directions.” (L.CN.02.01, GLCE, pg. 9) NASL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response – “Listen to or view and discuss a variety of genres.” (L.RP.02.01, GLCE, pg. 9) NASL NASL means Not Assessed at State Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While listening standards exist, the majority are not assessed by state-level assessments. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening and Viewing – Eighth Grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventions - “Demonstrate the appropriate social skills of audience behavior (e.g. eye contact, quiet and still, attentive, supportive) during speeches and presentations.” ( L.CN.07.02 , GLCE, pg. 38) NASL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response – “Identify, state, and react to a speaker’s point of view and bias.” (L.RP.07.01, GLCE, pg. 9) NASL </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Listening Content Expectations in Michigan
    20. 20. Michigan’s K-12 Standards for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards for K-12 Schools (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Based upon the TESOL (pg. 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed for English Language learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To realize their personal, social, and long-term career goals, individuals will need to be able to communicate with others skillfully, appropriately, and effectively.” (p. 3) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Michigan English Language Proficiency Standards <ul><li>Clarify classroom assignments with teacher and/or peers (L.1.4a) </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to messages by asking questions, challenging statements or offering examples that affirm the message (L.2.4b) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret speaker’s messages, purposes, and perspectives (L.5.3.a) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Implementing Standards in the Classroom <ul><li>Where can teachers find resources to support listening instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Resources – Starting with Google </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18% K-12 Education (5% actual lessons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>78% Adult Learners </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Table 1 Google “Listening Skills” Search Source: Google search retrieved March 5, 2005, from http://www.google.com
    24. 24. Table 1 WebQuests – LANGUAGE ARTS -- Listening Skills in Language Arts WebQuests Source: Dodge, B. WebQuest website. San Diego State University. www.webquest.org 217 0 223 0 152 0 43 0 Total Viewed Re: Listening Total Viewed = 635 138 0 156 0 108 0 31 0 Total Viewed Re: Listening New 17 0 23 0 17 0 6 0 Total Viewed Re: Listening Mid - Quality 62 0 44 0 27 0 6 0 Total Viewed Re: Listening Top - Quality 9-12 6-8 3-5 K-2 Type
    25. 25. A variety of sites emphasize the importance of listening.
    26. 26. There were sites offering parents tips to help their child become a better listener.
    27. 27. The State of Texas Department of Human Resources recognizes the importance of effective listening skills.
    28. 28. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>A gap exists between educational and real-world expectations and: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A student’s K-12 experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional resources for teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvement will not occur by accident </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>A Plan to Address the Problem is Needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Administrators’ Knowledge/Awareness of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps in written/taught/tested curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on best practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling and practice (Goulden, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ready to Learn curriculum (2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery Listening (Wilson, 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Models from music instruction (Cavner & Gould, 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul>Written Taught Tested
    30. 30. <ul><li>Plan to Address the Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide professional development focused on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skills of effective communication – Process Communication Model (Kahler) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies to improve communication effectiveness as a building/district </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support administrators in leading the way as effective communicators themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model/practice effective communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary situations </li></ul></ul></ul>
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