CORE: Cognitive Organization for Requirements Elicitation
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CORE: Cognitive Organization for Requirements Elicitation

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Presentation by Joanna Wiebe and Scott Confer at EuroIA 2007 in Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 21, 2007

Presentation by Joanna Wiebe and Scott Confer at EuroIA 2007 in Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 21, 2007

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  • Hi, You are right -- these are typically not cognitive aids that we would share with stakeholders, but rather tools we have found useful for our own thinking as information architects. Joanna
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CORE: Cognitive Organization for Requirements Elicitation CORE: Cognitive Organization for Requirements Elicitation Presentation Transcript

  • A seven-step methodology using cognitive graphing in a soft systems framework Scott M. Confer Joanna Wiebe User Experience Manager Information Architect Sears Holdings Corporation Orbitz Worldwide Download this presentation at: http://onemind.wetpaint.com Creative CommonsCommons license. Wiebe & Confer,2007 Creative license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 Fractal image by Digon3
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  • (Cognitive Organization for Requirements Elicitation) integrates two analytical methodologies Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 Amigurumi photo by Ashley Ringrose (MrTruffle) 3
  • CORE characteristics Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 4
  • CORE has seven steps Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 Amigurumi photo by Ashley Ringrose (MrTruffle) 5
  • First there is is... Example Mess: late night, guests, need stimulant Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 6
  • Example Mess: late night, guests, need stimulant Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 7
  • Example Mess: late night, guests, need stimulant Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 8
  • Good requirements are: Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 9
  • How do we get out of a mess? Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 Fractal image by Digon3 Coffee cup photo by Zesmerelda, at Leonardo’s in Chicago, Illinois 10
  • structure the mess: form your team problem- problem- subject investigator customer/ solver matter owner client expert Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 Amigurumi by anapaulaoli and others 11
  • structure the mess: question methodically Where can I Where it? Where can I What is this What’s What’s happening? What is this What to do? to do? What Where is find out thing? happening? is it? find out more? more? thing? What is this thing? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? Concept State Event Goal Goal / Action Style Location Information What to do? What is this thing? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What does a What happens Is there anyone else What is _____? What causes of Why does _____ Where is _____? before having the person do after How _____? who I should talk to enables _____? occur? about _____? goal of _____? _____? What to do? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Where is it? What is this thing? Where can I find out more? What happens What states of events Where can I find What are the Why does _____ What happens What causes or What is above cause or enable a after having the out more about parts of _____? occur? before _____? enables _____? _____? person to _____? goal of _____? _____? What to do? What’s happening? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What is this thing? What’s happening? What to do? What are the Can you How does a What happens What is below What are the What happens How is the goal of consequences of recommend any person _____? after _____? _____? types of _____? before _____? _____ attained? _____? books? What to do? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What is this thing? What are the What state or Can you What are the What does a What happens What happens if What is to the left consequences of event initiates the recommend any properties of _____ person do before after _____? not _____? of _____? that distinguish it _____ occurring? goal of _____? web sites? _____? from _____? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What is this thing? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Are there any What are the What is the What prevents What are specific What is to the journals dealing instances or consequences of outcome of you from being right of _____? examples of _____? with _____? _____ occurring? _____? able to _____? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What are the Is there a manual What is the goal What contains consequences of dealing with of _____? _____? _____? _____? What to do? Why does a person _____? What to do? Questions from: (Gordon et al.) What happens if you do not Image Source: San Diego State University _____? Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 http://coe.sdsu.edu/EDTEC544/Images/probes.gif 12
  • structure the mess: question methodically Where can I Where it? Where can I What is this What’s What’s happening? What is this What to do? to do? What Where is find out thing? happening? is it? find out more? more? thing? What is this thing? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? Concept State Event Goal Goal / Action Style Location Information What to do? What is this thing? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What does a What happens Is there anyone else What is _____? What causes of Why does _____ Where is _____? before having the person do after How _____? who I should talk to enables _____? occur? about _____? goal of _____? _____? What to do? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Where is it? What is this thing? Where can I find out more? What happens What states of events Where can I find What are the Why does _____ What happens What causes or What is above cause or enable a after having the out more about parts of _____? occur? before _____? enables _____? _____? person to _____? goal of _____? _____? What to do? What’s happening? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What is this thing? What’s happening? What to do? What are the Can you How does a What happens What is below What are the What happens How is the goal of consequences of recommend any person _____? after _____? _____? types of _____? before _____? _____ attained? _____? books? What to do? What’s happening? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What is this thing? What are the What state or Can you What are the What does a What happens What happens if What is to the left consequences of event initiates the recommend any properties of _____ person do before after _____? not _____? of _____? that distinguish it _____ occurring? goal of _____? web sites? _____? from _____? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What is this thing? What’s happening? What to do? What to do? Are there any What are the What is the What prevents What are specific What is to the journals dealing instances or consequences of outcome of you from being right of _____? examples of _____? with _____? _____ occurring? _____? able to _____? What to do? What to do? Where is it? Where can I find out more? What are the Is there a manual What is the goal What contains consequences of dealing with of _____? _____? _____? _____? What to do? Why does a person _____? What to do? Questions from: (Gordon et al.) What happens if you do not Image Source: San Diego State University _____? Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 http://coe.sdsu.edu/EDTEC544/Images/probes.gif 13
  • Example: Rich Picture for making coffee draw a Rich Picture 2 Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 14
  • Rich Picture example Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 15 P.J. Lewis, 'Rich Picture building in the SSM,' European Journal of Information Systems
  • Rich Picture example Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 16
  • define the system . . . Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 Coffee cup photo by Zesmerelda, at Leonardo’s in Chicago, Illinois 17
  • building understanding of user decisions Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 18
  • conceptualize the problem space . . . Event: Need Concept: Coffee Goal: stay awake stimulant Refers-to Initiates Means Goal - Action: Goal: Brew Decide to make your coffee Reason own Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 19
  • example network diagrams of concepts 2 1 theyrule.net Network Diagrams of Conspiracy Mark Lombardi 3 4 The Budget Graph Internet Search Jesse Bachman Dubberly Design Office Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 20
  • closeup network diagram: no grammar Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 21
  • conceptual graphs don’t have to be fancy Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 22
  • a CGS of the CGS process Concept: Overall Map rty Prope Refers-t Concept: structure Has Event: o Goals & Concept:: Goal: Learn Invited to Relationshi Concept: Conceptual how to read Has Property CGS ps Map Details Graph and create presentatio Refers-to Initiates Structure CGS Concept: Re n fer Concept: IsConcept: Is-a s- 6 types - Is-a to Concept: a Nodes Concept: Concept: Has Task Has Concepts, Property Diagram Mental Analysis Part Ideas, R Process ns on Concept: Artifact Has Part Concept: ea State: See Means nouns son a s so 18 types Me Refe Arcs t Rea ar M rs-to Event: Ask some n Has Rea ea sP about CG concept Propert ns Concept: Ha Or Concept: graphs y Task Concept: substructur Analysis Goal Concept: In Refers-to es H Ha Definition Hierarchy itia Init Goal/ Templates sP iate Goal/ Goal/ te a art Refe Concept: s Action: s Concept: s sa Ha Action: Action: H Declarative Concept: Part sP to Watch Taxonomy rs- Learn Creating a art P Knowledge Presentatio During Before Causal Net r t o r s- basics CGS a Concept: Concept: Re n fe t Refers-to Spatial many T.A. Re Goal: s fer Mean Re Relations Concept: s-t methods R Co Understand fe efe rs o n Ha uen Procedural -to why use -to rs se Goal: Use -to Refers s Knowledge q CGS Concept: s Checklist / Mean Refers Concept: Refers-to State: Init Goal: Legal Roadmap ns c iate Examples Become e s -to ea Support Has Node-Arc- Goal: familiar with Concept: M Travel ns Node Refe Deliver on Con CGS Procedure e a ea to s- Commerce triplets Equiv Brand fer Goal/ grammar M s for Refe rs-to ns Concept: sequ Re rs-to Promise Action: Creating Means Problem of alent- Goal: M Consider & CGS o ence the s-t Define Discuss Means (secret fe r unobservab Refers-to to procedures Concept: o requirement rs-t fe Concept: sauce) Re efe Re -to le Visio .VSS s State: R Cheat sheet Refers-to Concept: s Goal/ Goal: r Stencil Re ns Concept: to Vetted Layout rs- Organize Refers-to Action: fers Mea Brand ef e Refers-to concepts Re -to Perform R -to Promise fe s s- fer Document Concept: Concept: State: Concept: r Propert Re Has e Analysis to Has Functional Business Refined Question Goal: Goal: equ Requireme Cons Has Property Requireme Requireme Probes Discover Innovate Re nce Befor Refers Refers-to nts nts nts f solutions er e -to s- Concept: Has R Concept: Ha s rty to ef Concept: Goal: Do Prop rope o -t ers er Explicitly erty Goal/ Goal/ Prope Faster Concept: as P Ref rty s- Re CG Cognitive H to stated Action: Sell Action: Buy R Concept: fer Implicitly ef approach to Task Refers-t to er Travel Travel s- Refers-to In s-t gaps stated CTA Analysis er s- itia o ef
  • a diagram of nodes connected by arcs Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 24
  • Family Orbitz requirements sources FamilyOrbitz requirements ID Area of Focus sources BR1 General BR2 Purchase Travel BR3 Family Travel Deals BR4 Exclusive Family Content BR5 Enhanced Mapping BR6 Enhanced Filtering BR7 Care BR8 Community Building BR9 Road Trip Tool BR10 Trip Builder BR11 Recommendation Engine BR12 Shopping Cart BR13 Budget Calculator Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 25
  • Family Orbitz conceptual graph structure Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 26
  • Family Orbitz visual layout concept Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 27
  • Another Orbitz Worldwide project Relevant system Version Conceptual Graph Structure V. 1.0 Customer perspective: A system to enable customers to book and V. 2.0 manage travel online at the same time that they register for meetings, Meeting Site Integration without having to make a second login. Taxonomy Causal network Goal hierarchy Goal - Action: Single sign on Event: Has consequence Goal: Manage Goal: Confirm user passed to event travel traveler itinerary Before Initiates system Has property rs-to R ef e Has consequence Be Means fo Concept: Email re address Goal: Display traveler itinerary Concept: Third Concept: Roles party event site Has part Goal - Action: Apply travel policy Has part Ha Concept: Third Event: User data Concept: part sp party database enters system unregistered user Has Refers-to art rt role Means pa s Ha M an Concept: registered consequence n Concept: Travel e r user role Arranger role Style: behind the Has scenes Concept: customer Goal - Action: service agent role Create policy Ha s pa State: data rt validated After Spatial relations Concept: Archived policy nce co eque ns Has cons eq Has ue Goal - Action: nc State: temp profile e Create participant State: registered Concept: Concept: Payment Concept: Service created for types role profile Reservation page module fees unregistered role Has part Has prepopulated part Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 28
  • back to the coffee example: goal hierarchy Goal hierarchy Event: need Goal: stay awake stimulant Initiates Event: want to be State: Sleepy stimulated Or Means Reason Reason Reason Means Means Initiates Initiates Goal - Action: Goal - Action: Get Goal - Action: Drink Decide to make stimulant coffee During Before your own Before Goal: Brew hot coffee Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 29
  • back to the coffee example: taxonomic network Goal hierarchy Taxonomic network Event: need Concept: Coffee Goal: stay awake stimulant Refers-to Initiates Is-a Is-a Event: want to be State: Sleepy stimulated Concept: Or Concept: Food stimulating drink Means Reason Reason Reason Means Means Initiates Initiates Has-instance-of Has-part Goal - Action: Has-part Has-instance-of Goal - Action: Get Goal - Action: Drink Decide to make stimulant coffee During Before your own Concept: Coffee Concept: espresso grounds Concept: brewed Concept: water coffee Before Goal: Brew hot coffee Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 30
  • back to the coffee example: more detailed goals Goal hierarchy Taxonomic network Event: need Concept: Coffee Goal: stay awake stimulant Refers-to Initiates Is-a Is-a Event: want to be State: Sleepy stimulated Concept: Or Concept: Food stimulating drink Means Reason Reason Reason Means Means Initiates Initiates Has-instance-of Has-part Goal - Action: Has-part Has-instance-of Goal - Action: Get Goal - Action: Drink Decide to make stimulant coffee During Before your own Concept: Coffee Concept: espresso grounds Concept: brewed Concept: water coffee Before Goal hierarchy: more detailed level goal Event: decide to Goal: Brew hot make own coffee coffee Initiates State: coffee grounds left in maker Or Means Means Event: coffee used Means up Initiates Goal - Action: make Initiates Goal - Action: start Goal - Action: fresh pot with new brew empty out old Before water and grounds Before coffee and grounds Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 31
  • nodes EXAMPLES NODE TYPE DEFINITION Goal: A goal node indicates a circumstance, situation, state of affairs or event desired by a person or an agent Stay awake Goal: (such as a software application). It does not indicate how the goal is accomplished. A goal-action node indicates either: Goal - Action: - action(s) performed by the person or agent to attain a goal, or Goal - Action: Make coffee - a mix of both goal and activity/activities of a person or agent toward a goal. Event: An event node indicates a condition of transition between one stable state and another stable state. Event: Coffee brews Concept: A concept node indicates a single entity, idea or construct, with a single name, which can be a word or Stimulating Concept: phrase. drink State: A state node indicates a relatively stable situation, circumstance, manner or condition of being. State: Hot coffee ready Style: A style node indicates: - a quality of a goal-action, such as duration or speed, or Home-brewed Style: - an instrumentality of a goal-action (what agent or person does it?) From: (Gordon et al.) Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 32
  • arcs ARC TYPE DEFINITION Why or how something is done. Reason How something is done, or the action by which a goal or goal-action is performed. Means Something happens or exists before something else. Before Two things happen or exist simultaneously; neither happens or exists before the other. During Something happens or exists after something else. After Something starts, cues, or causes an agent to acquire a goal or perform an action. Initiates Indicates an action has had some result. Has-consequence Indicate that a node is composed of at least one other concept. Refers-to Two things co-occur, order not important, and a temporal relationship between the nodes does NOT exist. And Indicates that only one of a group of things, usually two, occurs, but NOT both. Or A specific way in which something is done. Manner A concept is one in a group of similar concepts that are types or kinds of another broader based concept. Is-a A concept is functionally the same as another concept, and differs only name. Equivalent-to Indicates that there is a specific, concrete example or illustration of a concept. Has-instance-of The presence of particular characteristics or dynamic features of a concept. Has-property A concept is one in a group of physical or conceptual pieces, or components, of another concept. Has-part When the presence of a particular state, event, or style infers another is present, but is not caused by the first. Implies on, contains, above, below, left-of, right-of, etc. for common locations Spatial relations From: (Gordon et al.) Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 33
  • legal combinations Causal network substructure Taxonomy substructure Goal hierarchy substructure SOURCE NODE ARC TYPE TERMINAL NODE ARC TYPE TERMINAL NODE SOURCE NODE ARC TYPE TERMINAL NODE SOURCE NODE Reason Event: Event: Concept: Concept: Is-a Before Goal: Goal: Implies Has-part During Has-consequence State: State: After Goal - Goal - Action: Action: And Concept: Concept: And Style: Style: Or Or Equivalent-to Event: Event: Has-instance-of Goal: Event: Goal - Action: Event: Means State: State: Manner Goal - Action: Style: Event: Event: Style: Style: Manner Goal: State: State: Concept: Initiates Event: Event: Has-property Goal - Before Action: Goal: Style: During State: State: Goal - After Action: Goal - Action: Goal - Goal: Action: Manner Spatial relations substructure Style: Goal - SOURCE NODE ARC TYPE TERMINAL NODE Action: Event: Concept: Concept: < any spatial relation > Event: Goal - Concept: State: Action: Has-consequence Refers-to Concept: Download Visio smartstencils TM and view examples of Cognitive Graph Structures Style: at http://onemind.wetpaint.com State: Style: From: (Gordon et al.) Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 34
  • how to make context Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 35 Amigurumi book by Weenah3
  • how to make Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 36
  • write requirements agree on requirements implement into information architecture Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 20 37
  • CORE works in all design contexts Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 38 Photo by papixulooo 37
  • downloads FREE TM http://onemind.wetpaint.com y Amy Clampitt Joanna Wiebe Scott M. Confer User Experience Manager Information Architect Sears Holdings Corporation Orbitz Worldwide joanna.wiebe@orbitz.com sconfer@searshc.com Key references Checkland, P.B. (1981). Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. John Wiley & Sons. Gordon, S. E. & Gill, R. T. (1997). Cognitive Task Analysis. In C. Zsambok & G. Klein, (Eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making (pp. 131-140). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Gordon, S.E., Schmierer, K.A., & Gill, R. T. (1993). Conceptual graph analysis: Knowledge Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 acquisition for instructional system design. Human Factors, 35, 459-481. Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007 20
  • y Amy Clampitt Creative Commons license. Wiebe & Confer, 2007