ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
An Introduction
DEFINITIONS
Anatomy is the study of the shape and structure of
the body and all of its parts as well as their
relationship...
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING
ORGANISMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Composed of cells (one or more)
Different levels of organization...
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
BODY SYSTEMS
The study of anatomy and physiology teaches
that the human body is organized into different
systems. These sy...
QUESTION
The heart is a (an) ___________ that belongs in
the _____________ system.
a) Tissue; cardiovascular
b) Organ; res...
Homeostasis
A condition in which the internal
environment of the body remains relatively
constant despite changes in the e...
Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to reestablish
homeostasis when there is an imbalance.
The Home Heating System
1. When...
There are three components to a homeostatic system:
1. The Sensor which detects the stress.
2. The Control Center which re...
Homeostatic Regulation of Body Temperature through Negative
Feedback
Hyperthermia
Stress

Heat receptors in
the skin

Cont...
Homeostasis Using a Neural Pathway

Control center

Many homeostatic
mechanisms use a nerve
pathway in which to
produce th...
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Homeostatic systems utilizing positive feedback exhibit two primary
characteristics:
1. Time ...
Homeostatic Regulation of Child Birth through Positive
Feedback
Pressure of Fetus on the
Uterine Wall

Nerve endings in th...
ANATOMICAL POSITION
QUESTION
The feedback in which the output quantity or
signal increases the input quantity or signal is
called negative fee...
ANATOMICAL POSITION
The body is assumed to be standing, the feet
together, the arms to the side, and the head and
eyes and...
PLANES
DIRECTIONAL TERMS
QUESTION
The vertical plane which passes from ventral
(front) to dorsal (rear) dividing the body into
right and left halve...
QUESTION
The shoulders are ___________to the navel,
but ___________ to the eyes.
a) Inferior; superior
b) Distal; proximal...
BODY LANDMARKS
BODY LANDMARKS
QUESTION
A nurse is administering an IV medication on the
anterior area of the elbow. What is the correct
anatomic termino...
BODY CAVITIES
SEROUS MEMBRANES
QUESTION
The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity and
surrounded by the pericardium.
a) True
b) False
The liver is loc...
ABDOMINAL REGIONS
QUESTION
Appendicitis pain is most likely to appear in the
a) RLQ
b) LLQ
c) LUQ
d) RUQ
…or in the
a) Right iliac region
b)...
MEDICAL TERMS

PREFIX + ROOT + SUFFIX
MEDICAL TERMS
hyperlipoproteinemia
hyper- (prefix) = excessive
lipo (root) = fat
protein (root) = protein
emia (suffix) = ...
MEDICAL TERMS
pericarditis
peri- (prefix) = around
cardi (root) = heart
itis (suffix) = inflammation
What is the meaning of…
1. Amniocentesis?
2. Pneumothorax?
3. Sinusitis?
4. Ectopic?
5. Mastectomy?
6. Laparoscopy?
7. Lap...
STUDY
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medical_ro
ots,_suffixes_and_prefixes
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Intro a & p 2013

  1. 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY An Introduction
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS Anatomy is the study of the shape and structure of the body and all of its parts as well as their relationships to each other. The word anatomy is derived from the Greek words tomy, which means to cut, and ana, which means apart. Physiology is the study of how the body and all its parts function. Physiology consists of the words physio, which means nature, and logy, which means the study of.
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Composed of cells (one or more) Different levels of organization Use energy Respond to stimuli Grow Reproduce Adapt
  4. 4. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
  5. 5. BODY SYSTEMS The study of anatomy and physiology teaches that the human body is organized into different systems. These systems are the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the muscular system, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system and the male and female reproductive systems.
  6. 6. QUESTION The heart is a (an) ___________ that belongs in the _____________ system. a) Tissue; cardiovascular b) Organ; respiratory c) Organism; cardiovascular d) Cell; respiratory e) Organ; cardiovascular f) System; digestive
  7. 7. Homeostasis A condition in which the internal environment of the body remains relatively constant despite changes in the external environment.
  8. 8. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to reestablish homeostasis when there is an imbalance. The Home Heating System 1. When the temperature of a room decreases below a set point, the thermostat electrically starts the furnace. 2. As the temperature of the room rises to the set point, the thermostat shuts down the furnace. 3. As the room cools, step one is repeated. There are three components to this system: 1. The Sensor which detects the stress. 2. The Control Center which receives information from the sensor and sends a message to the Effector. 3. The Effector which receives the message from the control center and produces the response which reestablishes homeostasis.
  9. 9. There are three components to a homeostatic system: 1. The Sensor which detects the stress. 2. The Control Center which receives information from the sensor and sends a message to adjust the stress. 3. The Effector which receives the message from the control center and produces the response which reestablishes homeostasis It should be noticed that 1. the heat produced by the furnace shuts the furnace down through the thermostat. 2. the original stress is reduced, i.e., the room warms up. Homeostatic mechanisms that show these two characteristics are operating by negative feedback
  10. 10. Homeostatic Regulation of Body Temperature through Negative Feedback Hyperthermia Stress Heat receptors in the skin Control Center Sensors Stress is reduced shutting down mechanism Perspiration evaporates cooling the skin Effect Hypothalamus Increased activity of sweat glands Increased blood flow to the skin Effectors
  11. 11. Homeostasis Using a Neural Pathway Control center Many homeostatic mechanisms use a nerve pathway in which to produce their effects. These pathways involve an afferent path which brings sensory messages into the brain and an efferent path which carries outgoing nerve messages to effectors.
  12. 12. Positive Feedback Mechanisms Homeostatic systems utilizing positive feedback exhibit two primary characteristics: 1. Time limitation – Processes in the body that must be completed within a constrained time frame are usually modified by positive feedback. 2. Intensification of stress – During a positive feedback process, the initial imbalance or stress is intensified rather than reduced as it is in negative feedback. Typical Positive Feedback Process Stress Intensifies Sensor Control Center Effector
  13. 13. Homeostatic Regulation of Child Birth through Positive Feedback Pressure of Fetus on the Uterine Wall Nerve endings in the uterine wall carry afferent messages to the Hypothalamus Intensifies Increasing strength of uterine contractions Production and Release of Oxytocin into the Blood The birth of the child will bring this process to a close. Other examples of positive feedback regulation occur during milk letdown and blood clotting.
  14. 14. ANATOMICAL POSITION
  15. 15. QUESTION The feedback in which the output quantity or signal increases the input quantity or signal is called negative feedback. a) True b) False
  16. 16. ANATOMICAL POSITION The body is assumed to be standing, the feet together, the arms to the side, and the head and eyes and palms of the hands facing forwards. To ensure consistency of description it is important to keep the anatomical position constantly in mind.
  17. 17. PLANES
  18. 18. DIRECTIONAL TERMS
  19. 19. QUESTION The vertical plane which passes from ventral (front) to dorsal (rear) dividing the body into right and left halves. a) Frontal b) Transverse c) Sagittal d) Oblique
  20. 20. QUESTION The shoulders are ___________to the navel, but ___________ to the eyes. a) Inferior; superior b) Distal; proximal c) Superior; inferior d) Posterior; anterior
  21. 21. BODY LANDMARKS
  22. 22. BODY LANDMARKS
  23. 23. QUESTION A nurse is administering an IV medication on the anterior area of the elbow. What is the correct anatomic terminology for this area? a) Facial area b) Cervical area c) Antecubital area d) Lumbar area e) Umbilical area f) Elbow area
  24. 24. BODY CAVITIES
  25. 25. SEROUS MEMBRANES
  26. 26. QUESTION The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity and surrounded by the pericardium. a) True b) False The liver is located in the __________ cavity and surrounded by the ____________. a) Thoracic cavity; peritoneum b) Abdominal cavity; peritoneum c) Abdominal cavity; pleura d) Thoracic cavity; pleura
  27. 27. ABDOMINAL REGIONS
  28. 28. QUESTION Appendicitis pain is most likely to appear in the a) RLQ b) LLQ c) LUQ d) RUQ …or in the a) Right iliac region b) Left iliac region c) Epigastrium d) Hypogastrium
  29. 29. MEDICAL TERMS PREFIX + ROOT + SUFFIX
  30. 30. MEDICAL TERMS hyperlipoproteinemia hyper- (prefix) = excessive lipo (root) = fat protein (root) = protein emia (suffix) = blood condition
  31. 31. MEDICAL TERMS pericarditis peri- (prefix) = around cardi (root) = heart itis (suffix) = inflammation
  32. 32. What is the meaning of… 1. Amniocentesis? 2. Pneumothorax? 3. Sinusitis? 4. Ectopic? 5. Mastectomy? 6. Laparoscopy? 7. Laparotomy? 8. Parenteral? 9. Epidural? 10.Blepharoplasty?
  33. 33. STUDY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medical_ro ots,_suffixes_and_prefixes

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