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Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
Intro a & p 2013
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Intro a & p 2013

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  • 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY An Introduction
  • 2. DEFINITIONS Anatomy is the study of the shape and structure of the body and all of its parts as well as their relationships to each other. The word anatomy is derived from the Greek words tomy, which means to cut, and ana, which means apart. Physiology is the study of how the body and all its parts function. Physiology consists of the words physio, which means nature, and logy, which means the study of.
  • 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Composed of cells (one or more) Different levels of organization Use energy Respond to stimuli Grow Reproduce Adapt
  • 4. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
  • 5. BODY SYSTEMS The study of anatomy and physiology teaches that the human body is organized into different systems. These systems are the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the muscular system, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system and the male and female reproductive systems.
  • 6. QUESTION The heart is a (an) ___________ that belongs in the _____________ system. a) Tissue; cardiovascular b) Organ; respiratory c) Organism; cardiovascular d) Cell; respiratory e) Organ; cardiovascular f) System; digestive
  • 7. Homeostasis A condition in which the internal environment of the body remains relatively constant despite changes in the external environment.
  • 8. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to reestablish homeostasis when there is an imbalance. The Home Heating System 1. When the temperature of a room decreases below a set point, the thermostat electrically starts the furnace. 2. As the temperature of the room rises to the set point, the thermostat shuts down the furnace. 3. As the room cools, step one is repeated. There are three components to this system: 1. The Sensor which detects the stress. 2. The Control Center which receives information from the sensor and sends a message to the Effector. 3. The Effector which receives the message from the control center and produces the response which reestablishes homeostasis.
  • 9. There are three components to a homeostatic system: 1. The Sensor which detects the stress. 2. The Control Center which receives information from the sensor and sends a message to adjust the stress. 3. The Effector which receives the message from the control center and produces the response which reestablishes homeostasis It should be noticed that 1. the heat produced by the furnace shuts the furnace down through the thermostat. 2. the original stress is reduced, i.e., the room warms up. Homeostatic mechanisms that show these two characteristics are operating by negative feedback
  • 10. Homeostatic Regulation of Body Temperature through Negative Feedback Hyperthermia Stress Heat receptors in the skin Control Center Sensors Stress is reduced shutting down mechanism Perspiration evaporates cooling the skin Effect Hypothalamus Increased activity of sweat glands Increased blood flow to the skin Effectors
  • 11. Homeostasis Using a Neural Pathway Control center Many homeostatic mechanisms use a nerve pathway in which to produce their effects. These pathways involve an afferent path which brings sensory messages into the brain and an efferent path which carries outgoing nerve messages to effectors.
  • 12. Positive Feedback Mechanisms Homeostatic systems utilizing positive feedback exhibit two primary characteristics: 1. Time limitation – Processes in the body that must be completed within a constrained time frame are usually modified by positive feedback. 2. Intensification of stress – During a positive feedback process, the initial imbalance or stress is intensified rather than reduced as it is in negative feedback. Typical Positive Feedback Process Stress Intensifies Sensor Control Center Effector
  • 13. Homeostatic Regulation of Child Birth through Positive Feedback Pressure of Fetus on the Uterine Wall Nerve endings in the uterine wall carry afferent messages to the Hypothalamus Intensifies Increasing strength of uterine contractions Production and Release of Oxytocin into the Blood The birth of the child will bring this process to a close. Other examples of positive feedback regulation occur during milk letdown and blood clotting.
  • 14. ANATOMICAL POSITION
  • 15. QUESTION The feedback in which the output quantity or signal increases the input quantity or signal is called negative feedback. a) True b) False
  • 16. ANATOMICAL POSITION The body is assumed to be standing, the feet together, the arms to the side, and the head and eyes and palms of the hands facing forwards. To ensure consistency of description it is important to keep the anatomical position constantly in mind.
  • 17. PLANES
  • 18. DIRECTIONAL TERMS
  • 19. QUESTION The vertical plane which passes from ventral (front) to dorsal (rear) dividing the body into right and left halves. a) Frontal b) Transverse c) Sagittal d) Oblique
  • 20. QUESTION The shoulders are ___________to the navel, but ___________ to the eyes. a) Inferior; superior b) Distal; proximal c) Superior; inferior d) Posterior; anterior
  • 21. BODY LANDMARKS
  • 22. BODY LANDMARKS
  • 23. QUESTION A nurse is administering an IV medication on the anterior area of the elbow. What is the correct anatomic terminology for this area? a) Facial area b) Cervical area c) Antecubital area d) Lumbar area e) Umbilical area f) Elbow area
  • 24. BODY CAVITIES
  • 25. SEROUS MEMBRANES
  • 26. QUESTION The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity and surrounded by the pericardium. a) True b) False The liver is located in the __________ cavity and surrounded by the ____________. a) Thoracic cavity; peritoneum b) Abdominal cavity; peritoneum c) Abdominal cavity; pleura d) Thoracic cavity; pleura
  • 27. ABDOMINAL REGIONS
  • 28. QUESTION Appendicitis pain is most likely to appear in the a) RLQ b) LLQ c) LUQ d) RUQ …or in the a) Right iliac region b) Left iliac region c) Epigastrium d) Hypogastrium
  • 29. MEDICAL TERMS PREFIX + ROOT + SUFFIX
  • 30. MEDICAL TERMS hyperlipoproteinemia hyper- (prefix) = excessive lipo (root) = fat protein (root) = protein emia (suffix) = blood condition
  • 31. MEDICAL TERMS pericarditis peri- (prefix) = around cardi (root) = heart itis (suffix) = inflammation
  • 32. What is the meaning of… 1. Amniocentesis? 2. Pneumothorax? 3. Sinusitis? 4. Ectopic? 5. Mastectomy? 6. Laparoscopy? 7. Laparotomy? 8. Parenteral? 9. Epidural? 10.Blepharoplasty?
  • 33. STUDY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medical_ro ots,_suffixes_and_prefixes

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