Chapter 12 The Struggle Continues (1897-1898)

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Chapter 12 The Struggle Continues (1897-1898)

  1. 1. CHAPTER 12 THE STRUGGLE CONTINUES THE HONGKONG JUNTA THE RELIEF OF PRIMO DE RIVERA AGUINALDO RETURNS THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR THE STRUGGLE CONTINUES THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY THE SIEGE OF MANILA AGUINALDO GOES TO SINGAPORE THE SECRET AGREEMENT THE INTERVIEW WITH PRATT THE MOCK BATTLE OF MANILA AGUINALDO AND WILDMAN AMERICAN TERMS
  2. 2. The struggle continues (1897-1898)
  3. 3. Governor General Primo de Rivera’s success in the battlefield of Cavite over Aguinaldo’s forces could have ended the Revolution.
  4. 4. Instead a truce agreed upon, apparently an attempt on both sides to recover from their losses and resume fighting later.
  5. 5. Some Filipinos, in fact, continued to engaged the Spanish forces and established a temporary government like the Makabulos “Republic” in Tarlac.
  6. 6. Even before the Filipinos could recover from the battles of 1896, General Emilio Aguinaldo, as the recognized leader of the Filipinos in exile in Hongkong and at Home, negotiated the situation with the Americans to delay confrontation with an obviously more powerful country.
  7. 7. But the united states misled Aguinaldo to believe that the Americans came as an ally of the Filipinos in their fight to end Spanish rule in the country. But in the end, the Filipinos fears and suspicious proved to be true. The American came to stay and eventually took over as the new colonial master.
  8. 8. THE RELIEF OF PRIMO DE RIVERA
  9. 9. GOVERNOR-GENERAL PRIMO de RIVERA’s success in stopping the bloodshed was highly praised in spain. The queen of Spain, who was reigning for her son, rewarded him with the Grand Cross of San Fernando and a pension of about P10,000. GENERAL BASILIO AUGUSTIN sent as governor-general to succeed Primo de Rivera.
  10. 10. GENERAL BASILIO AUGUSTIN
  11. 11. Primo de Rivera knew the Philippines very well because he had serve previously as Governor of the country from 1880 to 1883. With the possibility of a war between the united states and Spain, Governor Primo de Rivera would have been a wise choice to govern the archipelago since he knew the Filipinos well.
  12. 12. GOVERNOR-GENERAL PRIMO DE RIVERA
  13. 13. On April 9, 1898, General Augustine arrived in Manila and the following day Primo de Rivera turned over the reins of government to him.
  14. 14. THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
  15. 15. The Cuban revolution had won the sympathy of the Americans because the latter had big investments in Cuba which they did not want to be destroyed. Some in influential Americans, Theodore Roosevelt, wanted war with Spain so that the American navy could expand. In 1897, he became Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
  16. 16. CUBAN REVOLUTION THEODORE ROOSEVELT
  17. 17. Roosevelt worked for the appointment of Commodore George Dewey as commander of the American Asiatic Squadron. On February 25, 1898, Roosevelt told Dewey to make Hongkong, which was very near in Manila, as his base of operations.
  18. 18. COMMODORE GEORGE DEWEY
  19. 19. On February 15,1898, the American battleship, USS MAINE exploded at Havana Harbor in Cuba. Spain was blamed for the mishap. More two hundred American sailors and officers died. So on April 25,1989, the Congress of the United States formally declared war on Spain.
  20. 20. THE BATTLE of MANILA BAY
  21. 21. Dewey received a message by cable from the Secretary of War. It said: “War has commenced between the United States and Spain. Proceed particularly against the Spanish fleet. You must capture vessels or destroy. Use utmost endeavor.
  22. 22. Dewey ordered his fleet to sail for Manila Bay. Quietly, his fleet entered the bay in the early morning hours of May 1, 1898. The Spanish batteries in Corregidor were too late in detecting passage of the fleet. Spanish squadron, commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo, was waiting near Sangley Point, Cavite.
  23. 23. ADMIRAL PATRICIO MONTOJO
  24. 24. Montojo was watching Dewey’s course as he entered Manila Bay. Dewey spotted the Spanish ships and ordered his fleet to turn back and sail toward Cavite. Standing on the bridge of the flagship USS Olympia.
  25. 25. AGUINALDO GOES TO SINGAPORE
  26. 26. It was early on April of 1898 when rumors has already reached Manila that war between Spain and the United States was to be declared any time. Isabelo Artacho, one of the plagiarists of the Cuban Constitution, went to Hongkong and demanded Aguinaldo to divide the P400,000 indemnity that was given by the colonial government to the rebels.
  27. 27. To avoid a scandal, Aguinaldo was advised by Felipe Agoncillo to leave Hongkong. Two companions, Gregorio Del Pilar and Jose Leyba, Aguinaldo left for Singapore.
  28. 28. THE INTERVIEW WITH PRATT
  29. 29. Aguinaldo and his companions arrived in Singapore on April 23, 1898. An Englishman, Howard Bray, who had lived in the Philippines for a long time, came to visit Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo came to Singapore incognito. Pratt made all the arrangements for Aguinaldo’s return to Hongkong.
  30. 30. FELIPE AGONCILLO
  31. 31. AGUINALDO AND WILDMAN
  32. 32. On April 26, 1898, Aguinaldo and his companions sailed for Hongkong. Dewey had already left for Manila when Aguinaldo arrived in the Brirish colony.
  33. 33. The American consul at Hongkong, Rounseville Wildman, told him that Dewey had left instructions for the return of Aguinaldo to the Philippines. Aguinaldo should established a government like that of the United States.
  34. 34. THE HONGKONG JUNTA
  35. 35. When Dewey won the Battle of Manila Bay and News about it reached all parts of the world, the Filipino patriots in Hongkong met to discuss the steps to be taken to take over the Philippines.
  36. 36. Aguinaldo told the Junta that the situation in the Philippines was very serious and sought their opinions over the matter. There was an exchange of points of view and the Junta unanimously decided that Aguinaldo should return to the Philippines.
  37. 37. AGUINALDO RETURNS
  38. 38. Aguinaldo accepted the Junta’s decision, for he had faith and confidence in its members. Members of Junta, were Felipe Agoncillo as President with Doroteo Lopez as secretary; Teodoro Santico, Anastacio Francisco, Mariano Llanera, Miguel Malvar, Andres Garchitorena, Severo Buenaventura, Maximo Kabigting, Faustino Lichauco, and Antonio Montenegro.
  39. 39. On May 17, 1898, Aguinaldo boarded the American revenue cutter McCulloch, which was bound for Manila. The ship arrived in Manila Bay two days later.
  40. 40. THE STRUGGLE CONTINUES
  41. 41. When Aguinaldo had finished disembarking the war equipment which were purchased in Hongkong, Filipino rebels came to pay him a visit. On May 21, Aguinaldo issued a proclamtion saying that, “ Everything appears favorable for attaining independence … I urge that we strive to unite our efforts, and let us fire our hearts with the idea of vindicating our country. Many nations are on our side.”
  42. 42. The end of May, Aguinaldo’s armed forces had captured about 5,000 prisoners. Town after town, in Cavite and Morong, fell into the hands of the Filipino rebels. In Pampanga, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan , Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, Bataan and Camarines, the people were up in arms against Spain.
  43. 43. June 1898, practically the whole of Luzon, with the exception of the Port of Cavite, which was in American hands, and the City of Manila, which was under the Spaniards, was in the hands of the Filipino rebels. On June 12,1898, Aguinaldo signed the Proclamation of the Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite.
  44. 44. THE SIEGE OF MANILA
  45. 45. The defeat of the Spanish fleet discouraged the Spanish officials in the City to prevent the Filipino population from siding with Aguinaldo, Governor-General Basilio Augustin issued a circular saying that the unity of the Philippines and its liberties lay with Spain.
  46. 46. The Filipino rebels besieged Manila, which was then called Intramuros or the Walled City. Dewey could not deploy troops in Manila because he did not have enough soldiers aboard the battleship.
  47. 47. THE SECRET AGREEMENT
  48. 48. In June and July, however, American troops arrived in Manila Bay. They landed in Paranaque and encamped south of Pasay. General Arthur MacArthur, believed that they could fight the Spaniards. Governor was ready to surrender to the Americans, but the government of Spain did not like this. He was relieved of his duty and was succeeded by General Fermin Jaudenes.
  49. 49. Jaudenes believed that the Spanish position was very weak. He entered into a secret agreement with Dewey and General Wesley Meritt.
  50. 50. THE MOCK BATTLE OF MANILA
  51. 51. It was August 13, 1898, there was a downpour because the rainy season had arrived. The American soldiers walked quietly towards the walls of the city in preparation for the “battle”.
  52. 52. When the firing started, the Filipino soldiers advanced. General Meritt ordered General Francis V. Greene to stop the Filipinos.
  53. 53. THE AMERICAN TERMS
  54. 54. At five o’clock in the afternoon of August 13, the Spanish governor-general agreed to sign the surrender document. Meanwhile, in Washington, D.C., the protocol of peace was signed by the representatives of Spain and the United States. According to this protocol, both nations would appoint not more than five commissioners each.
  55. 55. These commissioners were to meet on October 1, 1898 in Paris, France to discuss the terms of peace treaty. On August 12, Washington time, President William McKinley of the United States issued a proclamation ordering that “all military operation was cabled to General Meritt in Manila. However because Dewey cut the cable linking in Manila with the outside world after the battle of Manila Bay.
  56. 56. Meritt received the proclamation on August 16, three days after the mock battle of Manila. The Americans who had promised friendship and alliance to Aguinaldo’s forces had taken over the Philippines.
  57. 57. Submitted By: JOANA MARIE R. PEREZ & JUDECEL CLAVERIA

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