Summary of elements of a
Method
Parrolistic approach
Grammar-translationGrammar-translation
approachapproach
Instruction in the native
language of the
learners
There is little use of the
target language for
communication
There is e...
A typical exercise to
translate sentences
from the Tlge into the
mother tongue
(viceversa)
Inability to use the Lge
for co...
Direct
approac
h
No mother tongue (teacher
does not need to know the
student’s native language)
Lesson begin with
dialogues and anecdotes i...
Grammar inductively
learned
Literary texts are read for
pleasure and are
analyzed grammatically.
The target a native
speak...
ReadingReading
approachapproach
Grammar for reading
comprehension
Vocabulary is controlled
at first (frequency and
usefulness) and then
expanded.
Translat...
Reading
comprehension
language skill
emphasized.
Teacher does not
need to have a good
oral proficiency in
the target langu...
Total Physical
Response
coordination of speech and
action.
language through physical
(motor) activity.
Several traditions:
Developmental
psycholog...
Asher, “adult second
language learning is
parallel to child first
language acquisiton”
CommandsPhysical
ResponseVerbal
R...
• Grammar based
• Skillful use of imperativeGrammatical
structure and vocabulary
• The more intensively and the more ofte...
AudiolingualisAudiolingualis
mm
Lessons begins with
dialogues
Mimicry and
memorization - habit
formation
Grammatical
structures are
sequenced and rules
ar...
Skills sequence: listening, speaking-reading, writing
postponed. Pronunciation is stressed from the begining
Language no m...
Communicative approach
““There is no single text or authority onThere is no single text or authority on
it, nor any single model that isit, nor a...
CA is deemed a
success if the teacher
understands the
student.
errors resulting from an
influence from their first
langu...
The communicative approach or
Communicative Language
Teaching (CLT) is the name
which was given to a set of
beliefs which ...
• Meaning is paramount
• Dialogs, if used center around communicative
functions and are not normally memorized.
• Contextu...
CLT
Non-communicative activities
No communicative desire
No communicative purpose
Form not content
One language item only
...
Krashen´theory (language
acquisition)
“Acquisition refers to the
unconscious developmnet of the
target language system as ...
CLT: At the level of procedure
• Mechanical, meaningful, and communicative practice.
 Mechanical practice:
He ___________...
CLT: At the level of procedure
• Some types of activities
Information gaps (Activity 2)
Information gathering (Activity ...
Task-based
Instruction
Task-based
video
tasks for hundreds of
years.
Old tasks: piece of
translation often from
a literary source.
New tasks: posters,
brochures,
...
Jane Willis, the traditional
PPP (presentation,
practice, production)
lesson is reversed.
In A Framework for
Task-Based
Le...
Intermediate levels and
beyond, but many
teachers question its
usefulness at lower
levels.
Change in the traditional
teach...
Meaningful tasks using
the target language:
visiting the doctor
conducting an
interview
calling customer
services for help...
Content-based Instruction (CBI-
Content-based Instruction (CBI)
(Davies, 2003)
(Shang, 2006)
 
Met’s Analysis (2004)
 Content-Driven
  
Content is taught in L2.
 
Content learning is priority.
 
Language learning is...
Sheltered
method
Theme-based
method
Language Content 
CB-course 
ClilContent and
Language
Integrated
Learning
CLIL
Reflective format
Session
• Communication
• Content
• Culture
• Cognition
Content and Language
Integrated Learning
+
Language
Study
Subject
Study
Educational
approach with dual
focus
Integration
A successful CLIL lesson should
combine elements of the following:
Content Progression in knowledge, skills and
understand...
Lesson plan
Dialoguing
• 4cs aims
–Content: sources – material
–Communication: language development
–Culture: otherness?
–...
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Improved approaches presentation

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Transcript of "Improved approaches presentation"

  1. 1. Summary of elements of a Method
  2. 2. Parrolistic approach
  3. 3. Grammar-translationGrammar-translation approachapproach
  4. 4. Instruction in the native language of the learners There is little use of the target language for communication There is early reading of difficult texts
  5. 5. A typical exercise to translate sentences from the Tlge into the mother tongue (viceversa) Inability to use the Lge for communication Teacher does not have to be able to use the target Lge.
  6. 6. Direct approac h
  7. 7. No mother tongue (teacher does not need to know the student’s native language) Lesson begin with dialogues and anecdotes in modern conversational style. Actions and pictures: to make meanings clear.
  8. 8. Grammar inductively learned Literary texts are read for pleasure and are analyzed grammatically. The target a native speaker or have native- like proficiency in the target language.
  9. 9. ReadingReading approachapproach
  10. 10. Grammar for reading comprehension Vocabulary is controlled at first (frequency and usefulness) and then expanded. Translation - classroom procedure.
  11. 11. Reading comprehension language skill emphasized. Teacher does not need to have a good oral proficiency in the target language.
  12. 12. Total Physical Response
  13. 13. coordination of speech and action. language through physical (motor) activity. Several traditions: Developmental psychology Learning theory Humanistic pedagogy Language teaching procedures
  14. 14. Asher, “adult second language learning is parallel to child first language acquisiton” CommandsPhysical ResponseVerbal Response The less stress the more learning
  15. 15. • Grammar based • Skillful use of imperativeGrammatical structure and vocabulary • The more intensively and the more often the trace, the stronger memory association will be. APPROACH:THE THEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING
  16. 16. AudiolingualisAudiolingualis mm
  17. 17. Lessons begins with dialogues Mimicry and memorization - habit formation Grammatical structures are sequenced and rules are taught inductively
  18. 18. Skills sequence: listening, speaking-reading, writing postponed. Pronunciation is stressed from the begining Language no meaning or context. Teacher must be proficient only in the structures, vocabulary, etc. That s/he is teaching since learning activities and materials carefully controlled
  19. 19. Communicative approach
  20. 20. ““There is no single text or authority onThere is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that isit, nor any single model that is universally accepted as authoritative.”universally accepted as authoritative.” (Richards, J & Rodgers T. 1999)
  21. 21. CA is deemed a success if the teacher understands the student. errors resulting from an influence from their first language. Accent Simulations Critiques of CLT
  22. 22. The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach but also a shift in emphasis on how to teach! CommunCommunicative Approach
  23. 23. • Meaning is paramount • Dialogs, if used center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized. • Contextualization is a basic premise. • Language learning is learning to communicate. • Comprehensible pronunciation is sought. • Any tecnique which helps the learners is accepted – varying accordins to their age, interest, etc. • Communicative competence is the desired goal.
  24. 24. CLT Non-communicative activities No communicative desire No communicative purpose Form not content One language item only Teacher intervention Materials control Communicative activities A desire to communicate A communicative purpose Content not form Variety of language No teacher intervention No materials control The communication continuum
  25. 25. Krashen´theory (language acquisition) “Acquisition refers to the unconscious developmnet of the target language system as result of uisng the language for real COMMUNICATION”
  26. 26. CLT: At the level of procedure • Mechanical, meaningful, and communicative practice.  Mechanical practice: He _____________ (is/are) a soldier.  Meaningful practice: On the weekend, I’m going to_________________ in the morning. I’m going to _____________ in the afternoon, but I’m not going to __________.  Communicative practice: Ask your classmate about three things he considers when selecting a movie. • Task 2: Identify these types of practice in your coursebook
  27. 27. CLT: At the level of procedure • Some types of activities Information gaps (Activity 2) Information gathering (Activity 1) Role-plays Opinion sharing
  28. 28. Task-based Instruction
  29. 29. Task-based video
  30. 30. tasks for hundreds of years. Old tasks: piece of translation often from a literary source. New tasks: posters, brochures, pamphlets, oral presentations, radio plays, videos, websites and
  31. 31. Jane Willis, the traditional PPP (presentation, practice, production) lesson is reversed. In A Framework for Task-Based Learning, Jane Willis presents a three stage process: Pre-task - Introduction to the topic and task. Task cycle - Task planning and report Language focus -
  32. 32. Intermediate levels and beyond, but many teachers question its usefulness at lower levels. Change in the traditional teacher's role. The teacher is an observer during the task phase and becomes a language informant only during the 'language
  33. 33. Meaningful tasks using the target language: visiting the doctor conducting an interview calling customer services for help. Assessment on task outcome (ie: the appropriate completion of tasks) not language forms. TBLL especially popular for developing target language fluency
  34. 34. Content-based Instruction (CBI-
  35. 35. Content-based Instruction (CBI) (Davies, 2003)
  36. 36. (Shang, 2006)
  37. 37.   Met’s Analysis (2004)  Content-Driven    Content is taught in L2.   Content learning is priority.   Language learning is secondary.   Content objectives determined by  course goals or curriculum.   Teachers  must  select  language  objectives.   Students  evaluated  on  content  mastery.    Language-Driven    Content is used to learn L2.   Language learning is  priority.   Content learning is incidental.   Language objectives determined by L2  course goals or curriculum.   Students evaluated on content to be  integrated.   Students evaluated on language  skills/proficiency.  
  38. 38. Sheltered method Theme-based method Language Content  CB-course 
  39. 39. ClilContent and Language Integrated Learning CLIL
  40. 40. Reflective format
  41. 41. Session • Communication • Content • Culture • Cognition
  42. 42. Content and Language Integrated Learning + Language Study Subject Study Educational approach with dual focus Integration
  43. 43. A successful CLIL lesson should combine elements of the following: Content Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum. Communication Using language to learn whilst learning to use language. Cognition Developing thinking skills which link concept formation, understanding and language. Culture Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen awareness of otherness and self.
  44. 44. Lesson plan Dialoguing • 4cs aims –Content: sources – material –Communication: language development –Culture: otherness? –Cognitive: Bloom-s taxonomy – remember – understand – apply – analyse – evaluate - create
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