BITS: Introduction to linux, distributions and installation
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BITS: Introduction to linux, distributions and installation

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This slide is part of the BITS training session: "Introduction to linux for life sciences."...

This slide is part of the BITS training session: "Introduction to linux for life sciences."

See http://www.bits.vib.be/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=17203890%3Abioperl-additional-material&catid=84&Itemid=284

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BITS: Introduction to linux, distributions and installation BITS: Introduction to linux, distributions and installation Presentation Transcript

  • Dive into Linux
    • Introduction
    • Distributions
    • Installation
    BITS/VIB Bioinformatics Training – 3 oktober, 2011 – Joachim Jacob (archive: Luc Ducazu <luc@daphnia.com>) http://www.bits.vib.be/training
  • Who has used Linux?
  • What is Linux?
    • In a strict sense, Linux is a freely distributable, Unix-like operating system kernel (Linux kernel)
    • In a broader sense, Linux is a freely distributable, Unix-like operating system that includes a kernel, system tools, applications and a complete development environment (GNU/Linux distribution)
  • Linus Thorvalds
    • Student at the University of Helsinki, Finland in 1991
    • Inspired by Minix (Andrew Tanenbaum)
    • Started Linux as a simple UNIX-like OS on the Intel 80386 processor
    • Today Linus still decides what gets into the kernel and what not: Benevolent Dictator for Life .
  • Why should I bother?
    • Since Linux is
      • free (as in beer)
      • open (as in science)
      • user-friendly (depending on the definition)
    • it gets a lot of attention in academic circles
    • Linux is the preferred software development platform for eg NCBI
    • Linux drives innovation
  • Linux Distributions
    • A Linux Distribution ( Distro ) bundles:
      • the OS kernel (Linux)
      • tools and applications
      • software package manager
      • initialization & configuration scripts
      • commercial support
    • There are many distributions (600+), but only a few that really matter
    • http://www.distrowatch.com
  • 'Big' distributions
    • Red Hat:
      • RHEL http://www.redhat.com
      • Fedora http://fedoraproject.org
      • CentOS http://centos.org
    • Novell
      • SLES http://www.novell.com/linux/
      • openSuSE http://www.opensuse.org
    • Debian
      • Debian http://www.debian.org
      • Ubuntu http://www.ubuntu.com
  • http://nicolas.barcet.com/
  •  
  • Mini-distros
    • Live CD / DVDs: burn an .iso image to a CD and Linux starts from the CD without changing your system http://www.livecdlist.com
      • Recovery: SystemRescueCD http://www.sysresccd.org/
      • Bio-informatics: bioknoppix http://bioknoppix.hpcf.upr.edu/ biolinux http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/nebc/tools/bio-linux
  • Mini-distros
    • A live CD / DVDs can also be written to a bootable USB stick using the Unetbootin http://unetbootin.sourceforge.net/
    • This tool is available for Linux and MS Windows
  • Distrowatch
    • Exhaustive collection of information on (Linux) distributions: http://distrowatch.com
    • Distro Popularity Statistics
    • 2011
      • (1) Ubuntu
      • (2) Fedora
      • (3) Mint
      • (4) openSuSE
      • (5) Debian
      • (14) CentOS
      • (24) RedHat
  • Linux Installation
    • Goal: desktop vs. server
    • Desktop: check whether your hardware
      • meets the system requirements
      • is supported
    • Obtain installation media on website of distro
    • Make sure you have some free disk space. (See later about installing next to or in Windows)
  • Supported Hardware
    • Do your home work
    • Hardware Compatibility List http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/HCL
    • Fedora 15 is in itself available as a live CD, this is a quick way to check what hardware is supported
  • Fedora 15
    • “ Bleeding Edge” distribution. Popular with Bioinformatics developers, latest, but potentially unstable.
    • http://fedoraproject.org
  • Fedora 15
    • “ Bleeding Edge” distribution. Popular with Bioinformatics developers, latest, but potentially unstable.
  • System requirements
    • Minimum system requirements for Fedora 15: http://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/15/html/Release_Notes/sect-Release_Notes-Welcome_to_Fedora_15.html
      • CPU:
        • Pentium Pro @ 400MHz system
      • Memory:
        • Minimal 256 MB
        • Recommended for a graphical desktop 640 MB
        • Full graphical for graphical: 1152 MB
      • Disk space
        • Minimal 90 MB
        • Recommended 10 GB
  • Obtaining installation media
    • The most comprehensive page to start from is http://fedoraproject.org/en/get-fedora-all
      • Download CD or DVD iso-images using HTTP
      • Download torrent files for bittorrent downloads
    • Once the iso-images are downloaded
      • burn the images on CD or DVD
      • put the image on a USB stick ( UNetbootin )
  • Windows
    • If you want to install Linux next to MS Windows, there are a few alternatives:
      • Dual-boot : Windows and Linux on separate disk partitions
      • Run Linux in a virtual machine under MS Windows
      • Run Windows as a virtual machine under Linux
        • Virtual Box http://www.virtualbox.org/
    • For this session, we will run linux as a virtual machine on Windows.
  • Windows/Linux dual boot
    • With dual boot, upon start-up of your computer, you have the choice to start up linux OR windows
    • Windows occupies all disk space, you need to free up disk space
      • You should be aware that changing disk partitions is risky and can result in data loss – take a backup first
      • In Windows, defragment the drive(s)
      • Reduce the Windows partition – a handy tool is gparted , which can be launched from a live CD http://gparted.sourceforge.net/
    • For a Windows/Linux dual-boot installation you should install Windows first
  • Virtual linux
    • We will make use of VirtualBox, a software that can be installed on your computer and that allows you to install another OS in it. Alternatives: VMWare, KVM.
    • www.virtualbox.org
  • For example, on my laptop
  • Installation walk-through
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  • Installation walk-through !
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  • Installation walk-through
  • Installation walk-through Search for the .iso file on the USB stick you received.
  • Installation walk-through
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  • Installation walk-through Important! Please fill in: bitstraining as password
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  • Uncouple the .iso file for installation
    • PRESS SPACE
  • Uncouple the .iso file for installation
    • PRESS SPACE
  • Start the virtual machine
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  • Installation walk-through
  • Installation walk-through
  • Installation walk-through Fill in as password: b!t$
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  • Installation walk-through
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  • Linux
    • Put the fun back into computing