Canadian immigration market in punjab

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The project gives more insight on the market segmentation. The market is broadly divided into two categories; urban market and rural market. One important point is that the rural market is larger with huge opportunities since people are ready to pay the higher price in order to enjoy the service of immigration companies.

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Canadian immigration market in punjab

  1. 1. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Indian diaspora is a geographically diversified diaspora, which is spread in as many as 110 countries. At the same time, the characteristics of this diversified group, varies. It varies to such an extent that we even call some countries as ‘old diaspora’ counties and other countries as ‘new diaspora’ countries. The prominent countries that figure in the old Indian diaspora are Malaysia, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, Guyana, and Suriname. On the other hand, the prominent countries with the new diaspora are all the developed countries like USA, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The common thread between all the three groups of Indian emigrants is that they are labour migrants. Hence they are the labour diaspora with their families established over a period of time. The skilled and highly skilled labour went to the developed countries like the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand and formed a part of new Indian Diaspora. According to Canada Statistics (2001), there were 713, 330 people who classified themselves as being of Indian origin. Though Indian Embassy reports that it is approximately 850,000 (2.74 % of total population).Out of this population, 42% are Hindu, 39% are Sikh, and the rest are Muslim, Christian, Jain, and Buddhist. The main Indian ethnic communities are Punjabis which account for more than half of population as well Gujratis, Tamils, Keralites, Bengalis, Sindhis and others. The high number of Punjabis immigrant to Canada has given a certain enhancement to immigration business since the market in Punjab with more than 50 consultancy companies which record many clients every year. Since the market is very profitable in Punjab, some companies like Mercan Capital Ltd. have decided to deal exclusively in Canadian immigration. Therefore, I have studied broadly the market of Canadian immigration in Punjab. The study has been performed in targeted districts which are known to have high number of immigrant. 1
  2. 2. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all I would like to thank the almighty GOD for his grace and mercy toward my person for the completion of this project. I also take this opportunity to express my gratitude to my dear family for the inestimable assistance and encouragement. Although they are far from me, they are a real support. I am thankful to various dignitaries of the whole AIESEC organisation for their dynamism in providing international work experience to students and fresher graduates. And I also owe sincere thanks to Mr. Karandeep Singh, Marketing manager of Mercan Capital Ltd. who gave me the chance to undertake this project. I will be unfair if I do not I mention those who have adopted me and helped me when to make my stay in India comfortable. I sincerely thank Prof. Shalini Gupta, Director General of Desh Bhagat Group of Institutions, Dr. Gurcharan Singh Ghotra, Mr. H.S. Sidhu, incharge of MBA II (B), and the whole faculty of DBIMCS, Mandi Gobindgrah for extending all the help and cooperation. Kodjané Jean Michel (MBA 20011-2013) 2
  3. 3. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3
  4. 4. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab INTRODUCTION As the partial fulfilment of MBA, the summer training is very important because it gives as an insight of the corporate world. In the state of Punjab the immigration is a growing business with a huge profitability so a good market analysis will be beneficial to take adequate decisions. Market analysis studies the attractiveness and the dynamics of a special market within a special industry. It is a tool companies use in order to better understand the environment in which they operate. David J. Freiman stated in his book What Every Manager Needs to Know about Marketing. "It is remarkable and alarming how little managers of businesses really know about their market and the other elements of their outside environments." So knowing the market is one of the main steps in the development of a marketing plan. I chose this topic for many reasons the most important is that to conduct a market analysis, one needs hard work and many skill. As there was no objection from them management to carry on the project, I decided to undertake it in order to develop those competences. I. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY Just as one would not build a house on sand, one should never undertake a marketing program that is not built on a firm foundation of market knowledge. So the primary objective of the study is to help the company to undertake a marketing strategy. Aside, following are the objectives second objective of the study:  To provide insight into the Canadian immigration market.  To process to a segmentation of the Canadian immigration market in Punjab.  II. To gain familiarity with the immigration business. SCOPE OF STUDY The benefit of a study for the research is that it helps the later to gain knowledge and experience. Thus, the overall study has been operated under the marketing functional area of Mercan Capital and we have to complete it within nine (9) weeks. Therefore, the scopes of the study are: 4
  5. 5. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab  To carry out market survey of population perception for immigration in selected geographical areas through a structured questionnaire.   III. To have an idea of the financial capacity of the market. To help the company target the market. COMPANY PROFILE Mercan Capital Ltd. is one of the largest and most successful professional immigration consulting companies with head office in Canada but operates in Asia, the Middle East, Europe, Africa and South America. Mercan Capital has been established in 1989 by Jerry Morgan (accredited member of the Canadian Society for Immigration Consultants no. M014555) and now, it has become one of the leaders in the field of immigration, with a reputation for integrity, honesty and efficiency. The mission of the company is to help clients and their families from around the world to get a better life and fulfil their dreams. Mercan Capital Ltd. has a team of over 90 highly experienced staff including business consultants, immigration lawyers, professional accountants, and support staff. Considered a pioneer and industry leader in Skilled Workers, Permanent Resident visas, Investors and Temporary Work Permit programs and it provides different services like; initial assessment of qualification, program selection, documentation, file preparation and submission, unwavering commitment, practical advice. The India office deals only with permanent residency. The vision of the company is to help people achieve their dreams of better life in Canada in the best way possible so they don’t charge their client until they get immigrate. MERCAN CAPITAL LTD. (Headquarter) MERCAN CAPITAL LTD. (India Office) 390 Notre-Dame West. Suite 410 #2012 Phase 10 Mohali Montreal, QC H2Y 1T9 Chandigarh, 160064 Canada India Telephone: +1(514)282-9214 Telephone: (+91)1722213805 Fax: +1(514) 282-1084 Fax: (+91)1722231068 5
  6. 6. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab IV. INDUSTRY PROFILE India is one of the pioneers in recognising the importance of its overseas population and establishing an institutional framework for a sustainable and mutually beneficial engagement with its Diaspora. By creating an independent and effective Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs, India has given mainstream attention to its estimated 25 million strong Overseas Indian community. This experience too has helped us develop appropriate and well-calibrated institutional responses, through bilateral and multilateral engagements, to meet the challenges of capacity-building for better migration management. During the past few decades international migration has taken new strides in India. Hundreds of thousands of Indians are immigrating every year to the developed countries in search of better quality of life and higher income. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 1992-93 also collected information on international migration from two most emigrating states of India, namely Kerala and Punjab. It is estimated that around 15 million Indians live abroad (World Migration Report, 2000). Every year hundreds of thousands of Indians emigrate. In 1997 alone 416 thousand Indians left the country to join their compatriots working abroad (Govt of India, 1999). Indian professionals and technical workers migrate in large numbers, more or less permanently, for jobs in USA, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia. Last year only more than 23000 Indians got the US immigration visa and more than 17000 got the Canadian immigration visa. (Dutta-Sachdeva and Baruah, 2001). Australia and New Zealand are the new emerging destinations for Indians, with more than 2000 arrivals every year for permanent settlement in each of these countries (World Migration Report, 2000). Canadian Immigration in the recent times is most sought after due to the opportunities that Canada offers. With the multi-cultural diversity offered by this vast country and the high standards of living, Canada has become a favourite for those wanting to relocate. 6
  7. 7. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 7
  8. 8. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab The East Indian diaspora in Canada has been studied in various ways. A review of the literature reveals that there are diverse ways of thinking about this population. Some studies work on historical approaches to the Indian diaspora, while others focus on the structures of diasporic communities, and yet others emphasize the agency of immigrants. Some studies focus on the social adjustment of immigrants in Canada. They explore cultural persistence as well as the dynamics of family change, religion, language, ethnicity and culture. The studies approaching East Indian diaspora as social form investigate immigrants’ ethnic identity, generational difference, the level of prosperity and education in their communities, their background and relations with the authorities in their countries of origin, the level of their integration or adherence to the home culture in Canada (see Dhruvarajan, 1995; Kurian, 1987; Ramcharan, 1983; Srivastava, 1983). For instance, Spink (1999) explores the question of ethnic identity in second generation Indo-Canadian students, and its relationships to matters of religion, gender, marriage, multiculturalism and educational experience. Examining participants’ perceptions to Canadian culture, she argues that the level of the integration of students’ parents into Canadian culture plays a significant role in the students’ integration. Her study indicates that female students have higher levels of integration than male students. 1. Vertovec (n.a) argues that “Practically all of the general works concerning South Asian communities (including specifically religious groups) outside of South Asia concentrate, in one way or another, on “diaspora” as social form, particularly by way of the kinds of social relationships noted above. Therefore it is neither possible nor necessary to recapitulate this large body of information…” (p. 232) 2. The more recent studies also tend to examine the role of East Indian diasporic communities in the contemporary context of globalization. These trace the conceptions of such theorists as Rudolph and Piscatori (1997) who argue that the global system has been facing a period of “transnational religion and fading states.” Along with globalization and the surge in power of multinational corporations, nations are losing their sovereignty; instead, ethno-religious groups and related movements take on a more significant role in the new “transnational civil society” of world politics (p. 255). Research with a focus on transnationalism argues that technological development has resulted in an exponential increase in social networks among members of East Indian communities dispersed around the world, and within their motherland. 8
  9. 9. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3. Walton-Roberts (2003) describes this phenomenon: India-Canada immigration patterns are overwhelmingly shaped by social linkages that are transnational in nature, since communities, families and individuals maintain and reinforce connectivity between sending and receiving regions through a variety of processes. (p. 236) She asserts that a transnationalist approach develops our understanding of diverse flows of immigration to Canada. It helps us to contextualizes the phenomenon and examine multiple aspects of diaspora. Highlighting the transnational nature of diaspora makes East Indian immigrants the center of attention for scholars interested in multidisciplinary research with a policy orientation. One of the significant components of these studies is the impact of East Indian Diaspora on the economic ties between Canada and India. These studies approach diaspora as a matter of “human capital” and focus on individual bearers of economic capital. They hold that networks of IndoCanadian communities mutually benefit both communities in India as well as Canada. Indeed, Indian diaspora’s social, political and cultural impact has not received the scholarly and political attention in the degree to which economic capital has. (Abd-El Aziz, et al, 2005). 4. Bhat and Sahoo (2003) address diasporic mutual benefit in their essay, Diaspora to Transnational Networks: The Case of Indians in Canada. In this paper, they examine the emergence of transnational networks among the two most important East Indian diasporic communities, i.e. Punjabis and Gujaratis. They argue that: The Punjabis and the Gujaratis in Canada are in the threshold of forming “transnational communities” through their socio-economic, political and religious networks. Language, regional culture and religion offer the ideological base for their identities and bondage for fusion at the global level. The networks formed by the dispersed members of Punjabis and Gujaratis transcend the boundaries of the national states wherein they are currently situated but fall within the legislated norms of international relations. (p. 162) 9
  10. 10. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 5. Patel and Rutten (2000) study family networks of Gujaratis dispersed among several countries. In this regard, Helweg writes: “Family business, founded on the absolute confidence that unifies members of the same family, particularly among the Sikhs, sometimes assumes global dimensions.” 6. In sum, Jayaram’s (2003) identification of themes and issues in the study of the Indian diaspora in Canada can guide our approach these studies: (i)Demography of Indian emigration to Canada, (ii)Cause of and conditions for migration to Canada, (iii) The background of Indian immigrants, (iv)The process of emigration, (v) Changing composition of Canadian population, (vi)Dynamics of the Canadian society, (vii)Social organization of the diasporic community, (vii)Cultural dynamics of Indians in Canada, (ix)The question of identity, (x)The struggle for power, (xi)Orientation of the Indians in Canada to the ancestral land, (xi)Orientation of the ancestral land to the diasporic Indians. Jayaram believes that raising these issues will result in an understanding of “the multicultural experience both from the points of view of Canada and that of the diasporic Indians there” (p. 29). The Indians’ immigration to Canada has always been a continuous phenomenon. In this regard, Jayaram (2003) writes: Unlike the migration of Indian workers to West Asia in the wake of the “oil boom,” with little or no possibility of permanent settlement in many countries there, immigrants in Canada have by and large settled down there though with varying immigrant status. (p. 27) 7. Indo-Canadian community is fairly diverse in terms of their ethnic, linguistic, religious, and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, despite this heterogeneity, the Indian diaspora in Canada has many commonalities across its sub-ethnic groups (Maharaj, 2003). For instance, they all indicate the value of family, the preservation of sharply defined family roles, and a priority of family interests (Jain, 1993). They also share common traditions of decoration, cooking, clothing, etc. Indo-Canadians provide an important node in a global network of Indian diasporas. They have social and economic links with their home country as well as Canada. This attribute demonstrates the significant role that Indio-Canadian can play at political, social, cultural and economic level nationally and internationally. 10
  11. 11. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 8. The history of Indian immigration to Canada begins with an active exclusion of Indian migrants. This exclusion becomes more obvious in the 1908 continuous passage Order-in-Council, Dutton (1989); Walton Roberts (1998). Restrictive immigration laws against non-white Asians were in place until the middle of the twentieth century. The immigration Act of 1953 reinforced the constraints for migration of Asians. In May 1914, the Komagata Maru incident drew attention to this discriminatory law, and attempts to challenge this law began to occur. In 1967, with the elimination of discrimination based on race, religion or national origin, a point system based on various qualifications began to work. From then on, as Bagley (1984) holds, immigrants to Canada have been selected based on of their professions and the needs of economy: Canadian ethnic policies work because the population has been highly selected in terms of commitment to the social relation required by capitalism … immigrants (including ethnic minorities) have been specially selected for their combination of professional experience, education, youth, linguistic ability, and their willingness to fit in with a social structure based on individuality and individual enterprise. (p. 2-3) 9. Ministry of overseas indian affairs (2012) in the study title, “india, diaspora and migration: an overview” states that the indian diaspora, as india itself, constitutes a diverse, heterogeneous and eclectic global community, representing diversity of forms, types, geographies and times of formation. It, therefore, requires diverse and distinct approaches to engage them and connect with india. The common thread that binds them together is the idea of india and its intrinsic values. Overseas indians — comprising people of indian origin and non-resident indians, stretching across all oceans and continents have considerably added to knowledge, innovation and development across the globe by making significant contributions to their countries of residence. Historically, the dispersion of people from india and the formation of indian diaspora communities is the result of different waves of migration over hundreds of years driven by a variety of reasons: slavery under mercantilism, indentured labour under colonisation, and guest work programmes post colonialism. This transnational engagement of people, riding on the processes of globalisation has been reinforced through global networks of families, friends and businesses, which are symbiotic and which enable the exchange of shared ideas of cultural, social and economic interests. In retrospect, the formation of the indian diaspora makes up an engaging saga of trials, 11
  12. 12. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab tribulations and the eventual triumph of determination and hard work. It pleases all indians when the overseas indian community is respected for its work culture, discipline, and successful integration with the local community as much as being counted for its outstanding contributions in their countries of residence. This community having overcome considerable adversity represents an eminently successful diaspora in the host countries with several of its representatives occupying leadership positions there. We look at them as a significant strategic resource for India. Contemporary flows from India are of two kinds. The first is the emigration of the highly skilled professionals, workers and students with tertiary and higher educational qualifications migrating to the most advanced OECD countries, particularly to the USA, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This flow started after indian independence in pursuit of better career prospects and living and gathered momentum with the emigration of it professional in the 1990’s. The second was the flow of unskilled and semi-skilled workers going mostly to the gulf countries and Malaysia following the oil boom in the gulf countries, mainly from Kerala and other south indian states. Of late, northern states in India like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have emerged as the leading states of origin. Put together, these migratory flows have resulted in diverse communities of people of indian origin in various parts of the world: east Asia, the middle-east Asia, south and eastern Africa, Europe, north America, Australia, the northern part of south America and the Caribbean islands. These distinct communities of people of indian origin as well as indian nationals living abroad constitute the vast indian diaspora. There is no single homogeneous overseas indian community; there exist diversities within them as well as in the level and degree of their engagement with India, defined by the lapse of time, generations and distance that separate them from their country of origin. 10. Stuart Soroka (McGill University) and Sarah Roberton (Environics) (2009) in their study titled “A literature review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian attitudes towards multiculturalism and immigration, 2006-2009” state that Canadians express consistently positive views about the impact that immigrants have on Canada. The 2008 Canadian Election Study found that more than eight in ten (85%) agree that immigrants make an important contribution to this country, a perception that has remained largely unchanged since 2000. Positive perceptions are also widespread when Canadians are asked about the effect of immigration on their city or community. 12
  13. 13. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab In a 2007 survey for the Canada West Foundation, majorities of eight in ten or more residents of cities from Toronto to the west agree that immigration from other countries is good for this city. The 2009 CIC tracking survey finds that half (50%) of Canadians say immigration has a very or somewhat positive effect, compared to 15% who say it has a negative effect (one-third chose to say neither when given the option, Figure 43). Since 2007, positive views of the impact of immigration on the community have declined (by 9 percentage points), offset by a growing proportion who feel the impact has been neither positive nor negative; negative views have remained consistently low over the past five years. Majority support for the contributions made by newcomers is also evident in the public’s rejection of negatively-worded statements about immigrants; Figure 44 includes three such examples. A 2007 Ipsos-Reid survey finds that two-thirds (66%) of Canadians disagree that the fabric of Canadian society is being threatened by the influx of visible minority immigrants. The vast majority (89%) also disagree with the somewhat inflammatory statement included in a 2006 Ipsos-Reid online survey that Canada would be a lot better off if immigrants went back to where they came from‖; in fact, two-thirds (67%) strongly disagreed, while only 9% agreed. Focusing on perceptions of immigration and the economy does not greatly change Canadians’ impressions of immigrants’ contributions. Canadians feel that immigrants have a positive impact on the Canadian economy: in a 2008 Environics survey, for instance, a large majority (82%) agreed that the economic impact of immigration is positive, while 15% disagreed. These data suggest that the proportion who are optimistic about the effect of immigration on the economy may have grown slightly since 2006 (up 4 percentage points, from 78% to 82%), returning to the record-high level previously reached in 2003 (83%). Moreover, only a minority of Canadians believe immigrants are a threat when it comes to employment. In a 2008 Environics survey, the proportion of those polled who agreed with the idea that immigrants take away jobs from other Canadians (20%) reached an all-time low. These impressions are reflected in a number of related polling questions, some of which are included in Figure 47. Agreement that new immigrants take too many jobs from Canadians is limited to a small minority of respondents (18%) in a 2007 Ipsos-Reid survey. A question included in a 2006 IpsosReid online survey switched the focus slightly to the types of jobs immigrants fill upon coming to Canada. The results of this survey indicate that Canadians are most 13
  14. 14. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab likely to say immigrants take jobs Canadians don’t want (46%) or create new jobs for themselves (19%); once again, only two in ten (22%) believe they take away jobs from Canadians. Moreover, the 2009 CIC tracking survey found that most (66%) Canadians believe immigration makes a positive impact on Canada’s economy; only two in ten (19%) think the impact is negative, while 14% say the impact is neither positive nor negative. This result of the CIC 2009 Tracking Survey, compared to the result of the Environics 2008 survey reported above, may lead to think that there has been a decline in the proportion of Canadians who think the contribution of immigrants to the economy is positive, from 82% to 66%. However, it is important to note 30 that the Environics and CIC survey questions employ different response scales In other words, the results of the two questions are not directly comparable. In general, the results of the 2009 CIC Tracking Survey show that, even under the influence of the 2008 economic recession, the attitudes of Canadians regarding the contribution of immigrants to the economy remained to a great extent positive. Although younger Canadians express greater support for immigration overall, views about the impact of immigration on communities, on the Canadian economy and on jobs are similar across all age groups. 14
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  16. 16. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab INTRODUCTION Research methodology is the philosophy or a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. It is also view as the overall approach to studying the topic and includes issues we need to think about such as the constraints, dilemmas and ethical choices within the research. It comprises the defining and redefining of problem formulating hypothesis, collection and evaluating data, making detection and reaching conclusion. This research consists of following element:  Research design,  Universe,  Sampling design,  Sample size,  Methods of sampling,  Data collection,  Data analysis. I. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting a research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve marketing research problems. Decision regarding what, when, where, how much, by what mean, concerning an enquiry, constitute a research design. The term “research design” refers to procedural detail of the study by which data is collected. It aims to develop a set of method and procedure which help to test the research hypotheses with high degree of confidence (Bieger and Gail, 1996). In this study, the collected data was used to get an insight of the immigration market in Punjab, especially Canadian immigration market. There is a possibility to choose among several research designs but since the study objective is to provide insights and understanding of the Canadian immigration market in Punjab. The research design was exploratory type because it is flexible enough and aims to gain familiarity with a problem, or phenomenon, or situation not known before. 16
  17. 17. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab II. UNIVERSE In the methodological language, the universe is defined as the place where relevant data is collected. Selection of the universe is very important in a research study as it provides more accuracy and precision. In statistical sense, the tern “universe” means the aggregate of person or objective of study. Universe is theoretical or hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given research (Babbie, 2001). The universe of this study is the population of Punjab state in four straight districts namely: Ludhiana, Moga, Jalandhar and Mohali. According to 2011 census provisional data, the total population in these districts is 7,648,071 which are 27.61% of Punjab total population. Each district was selected as a unit of study and from every district, different places were selected as the universe from were questionnaires was executed for the purpose of data collection. III. SAMPLE DESIGN In research terms a sample is a group of people, objects, or items that are taken from a larger population for measurement. The sample should be representative of the population to ensure that we can generalise the findings from the research sample to the population as a whole. In this study, the sample is the people who live in permanently in those four districts selected as universe. 1. Sample size A sample size is a finite part of statistical population whose properties are studies to gain information about the whole. When dealing with people, it can be defined as a set of respondents (people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of a survey (Neuman, 1997). Sample size is simply the number of people or units available to be studied. In order to make present study perfect, a stratified random sample of 250 respondents were drown adopting the procedure of proportional allocation. 17
  18. 18. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab The selection of the research sample has important consequences for the validity of research findings (Vaus, 2001). The major purpose of conducting a research is to be able to make some claims about the larger population. Therefore, it is essential to choose a sample that enable to generalize findings for that larger population. 2. Methods of sampling Sampling essentially refers to choosing a proportion of a target population for research rather than studying the entire population. The primary advantages of sampling are feasibility and convenience. In cases where the target population is sufficiently small and also accessible, it may be preferably to conduct the research using the entire population. In the present study, stratified sampling method has been used. The universe of the present study focused on four districts of Punjab. One city and two villages were randomly selected from each district. Sampling process has been made simple considering the percentage of population of that district. District-wise percentage of the population is described in the following table. District Ludhiana Jalandhar Moga Mohali Total Population 3487882 2181753 992289 986147 7648071 d 0,46 0,29 0,13 0,13 n 250 250 250 250 Sample 114 71 32 32 250 The table above indicate the number of respondents selected from the universe. As time available for such research was limited, I decided to draw a stratified random sample of n (n=250). The value of d was drawn from the actual figure of the total number of the respondent from every district. The following formula was used to pick up the value of d. Then Thus the number of respondents from all the four districts was selected according to the population of that district. 18
  19. 19. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab IV. DATA 1. Data collection In this study, it was only primary which has been used. Primary data is one which is collected first time and original in nature, it can be done in following ways: observation, personal interview, telephone and questionnaire. The method used for data collection in this research was structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was containing 11 questions to be field by the respondents. 2. Data analysis Once data has been collected in the research, the next step usually involves the analysis of those data. The choice of analytical procedure depends on several factors, including type of research question which was asked originally and the characteristics of the data which was collected (Sowel & Casey, 1982). Different analytical tools and techniques were used to draw the accuracy result. 19
  20. 20. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 20
  21. 21. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab I. LUDHIANA DISTRICT 114 questionnaires were dispatched in Ludhiana district, and the number of respondents was 100 out of 114 means 87.72%. Since the study was focused on Punjab market, we have decided to target only those who live in Punjab, thus out of 100 respondents, 73 have been the object of our study. 1. Number of immigrant Out of 73 persons in Ludhiana, 38 plan to immigrate abroad and 35 do not plan to immigrate but among those who do not plan to immigrate, 16 may immigrate if they have the opportunity. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Do you plan to immigrate? Nb of respondents Yes 38 No 19 Yes if there is a possibility 16 Total 73 Table 1.1 Plan to immigrate Yes No Yes if opportunity 22% 52% 26% Diagram 1.1 21
  22. 22. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 2. Countries of destination The people who want to immigrate have been divided according to their country of destination. 54 respondents have the interest to immigrate, 17 to Canada, 11 to USA, 14 to Australia, 8 to New Zealand, and 4 to others countries. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you want to Nb of respondents immigrate? Canada 17 USA 11 Australia 14 New Zealand 8 Others Countries 4 Total 54 Table 1.2 Destination Canada USA Australia New Zealand Others 7% 15% 32% 26% 20% Diagram 1.2 22
  23. 23. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3. Living areas Since our study if focus on Canadian Immigration, we have divided the respondents according to their living areas means urban and rural. 6 live in urban area and 11 live in rural area. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you live? Nb of Respondents Urban 6 Rural 11 Total 17 Table 1.3 Areas Urban Rural 35% 65% Diagram 1.3 23
  24. 24. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 4. Purpose of immigration We have divided the respondents according to the purpose of their immigration so we got 9 respondents for job, 5 for family, 3 for business and none for study. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Why do you want to immigrate? Nb of respondents Job 9 Family 5 Business 3 Study 0 Total 17 Table 1.4 Purpose Job Family Business Study 0% 18% 53% 29% Diagram 1.4 24
  25. 25. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab II. JALANDHAR DISTRICT 71 questionnaires were dispatched in Jalandhar district, and it was successful at 100%. Since the study is focus on Punjab market, we have decided to target those who live only in Punjab, thus out of 71 respondents, 60 have been the object of our study. 1. Immigrate plan Out of 60 persons in Jalandhar district, 48 plan to immigrate abroad and 12 do not plan to immigrate but among those who do not plan to immigrate, 5 may immigrate if they have the opportunity. Do you plan to immigrate? Nb of respondents Yes 48 No 7 Yes if there is a possibility 5 Total 60 Table 2.1 Plan to immigrate Yes No Yes if opportunity 8% 12% 80% Diagram 2.1 25
  26. 26. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 2. Countries of destination The people who want to immigrate have been divided according to their country of destination. 53 respondents have the interest to immigrate, 19 to Canada, 12 to USA, 11 to Australia, 5 to New Zealand, and 6 to others countries. Where do you want to Nb of respondents immigrate? Canada 19 USA 12 Australia 11 New Zealand 5 Others Countries 6 Total 53 Table 2.2 Destination Canada USA Australia New Zealand Others 11% 9% 36% 21% 23% Diagram 2.2 26
  27. 27. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3. Living areas Since our study if focus on Canadian Immigration, we have divided the respondents according to their living areas means urban and rural. 4 live in urban area and 15 live in rural area. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you live? Nb of Respondents Urban 4 Rural 15 Total 19 Table 2.3 Areas Urban Rural 21% 79% Diagram 2.3 27
  28. 28. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 4. Purpose of immigration We have divided the respondents according to the purpose of their immigration so we got 10 respondents for job, 6 for family, 2 for business and 1 for study. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Why do you want to immigrate? Nb of respondents Job 10 Family 6 Business 2 Study 1 Total 19 Table 2.4 Purpose Job Family Business Study 5% 10% 53% 32% Diagram 2.4 28
  29. 29. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab III. MOGA DISTRICT 32 questionnaires were sent in Moga district, and the number of respondent was 32 out of 32 means 100%. Since the study is focus on Punjab market, we have decided to target those who live only in Punjab, thus out of 32 respondents, 27 have been the object of our study. 1. Immigrate plan Out of 27 persons in Moga, 21 plan to immigrate abroad and 6 do not plan to immigrate but among those who do not plan to immigrate, 3 may immigrate if they have the opportunity. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Do you plan to immigrate? Nb of respondents Yes 21 No 3 Yes if there is a possibility 3 Total 27 Table 3.1 Plan to immigrate Yes No Yes if opportunity 11% 11% 78% Diagram 3.1 29
  30. 30. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 2. Countries of destination The people who want to immigrate are divided according to their country of destination. 24 respondents have the interest to immigrate, 10 to Canada, 4 to USA, 6 to Australia, 4 to New Zealand. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you want to Nb of respondents immigrate? Canada 10 USA 4 Australia 6 New Zealand 4 Others Countries 0 Total 24 Table 3.2 Destination Canada USA Australia New Zealand Others 0% 17% 41% 25% 17% Diagram 3.2 30
  31. 31. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3. Living areas Since our study if focus on Canadian Immigration, we have divided the respondents according to their living area means urban and rural. 3 live in urban area and 7 live in rural area. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you live? Nb of Respondents Urban 3 Rural 7 Total 10 Table 3.3 Areas Urban Rural 30% 70% Diagram 3.3 31
  32. 32. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 4. Purpose of immigration We have divided the respondents according to the purpose of their immigration so we got 7 respondents for job, 2 for family, 1 for business and none for study. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Why do you want to immigrate? Nb of respondents Job 7 Family 2 Business 1 Study 0 Total 10 Table 4.3 Purpose Job Family Business Study 0% 10% 20% 70% Diagram 3.4 32
  33. 33. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab IV. MOHALI DISTRICT 33 questionnaires were sent to Mohali district and it was also successful 100%. Since the study is focus on Punjab market, we have decided to target those who live only in Punjab, thus out of 33 respondents, 25 have been the object of our study. 1. Immigrate plan Out of 25 persons in Mohali district, 14 plan to immigrate abroad and 11 do not plan to immigrate but among those who do not plan to immigrate, 4 may immigrate if they have the opportunity. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Do you plan to immigrate? Nb of respondents Yes 14 No 7 Yes if there is a possibility 4 Total 25 Table 4.1 Plan to immigrate Yes No Yes if opportunity 16% 56% 28% Diagram 4.1 33
  34. 34. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 2. Countries of destination The people who want to immigrate are divided according to their country of destination. 18 respondents have the interest to immigrate, 5 to Canada, 3 to USA, 5 to Australia, 4 to New Zealand, and 1 to others countries. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you want to Nb of respondents immigrate? Canada 5 USA 3 Australia 5 New Zealand 4 Others Countries 1 Total 18 Table 4.2 Destination Canada USA Australia New Zealand Others 5% 28% 22% 17% 28% Diagram 4.2 34
  35. 35. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3. Living areas Since our study if focus on Canadian Immigration, we have divided the respondents according to their living area means urban and rural. 2 live in urban area and 3 live in rural area. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you live? Nb of Respondents Urban 2 Rural 3 Total 5 Table 4.3 Areas Urban Rural 40% 60% Diagram 4.3 35
  36. 36. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 4. Purpose of immigration We have divided the respondents according to the purpose of their immigration so we got 3 respondents for job, 2 for family, none for business and for study. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Why do you want to immigrate? Nb of respondents Job 9 Family 5 Business 3 Study 0 Total 17 Table 4.4 Purpose Job Family Business Study 0% 0% 40% 60% Diagram 4.4 36
  37. 37. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab V. PUNJAB In all, 250 questionnaires were sent in four (4) districts recognized as high immigration district in Punjab, and the number of respondent was 236 out of 250 means 94.4% but 185 have been the object of our study. 1. Immigrate plan Out of 185 persons in Punjab, 121 plan to immigrate abroad and 64 do not plan to immigrate but among those who do not plan to immigrate, 28 may immigrate if they have the opportunity. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Do you plan to immigrate? Nb of respondents Yes 121 No 36 Yes if there is a possibility 28 Total 185 Table 5.1 Plan to immigrate Yes No Yes if opportunity 15% 20% 65% Diagram 5.1 37
  38. 38. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 2. Countries of destination The people who want to immigrate have been divided according to their country of destination. 149 respondents have the interest to immigrate, 51 to Canada, 30 to USA, 36 to Australia, 21 to New Zealand, and 11 to others countries. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you want to Nb of respondents immigrate? Canada 51 USA 30 Australia 36 New Zealand 21 Others Countries 11 Total 149 Table 5.2 Destination Canada USA Australia New Zealand Others 8% 14% 34% 24% 20% Diagram 5.2 38
  39. 39. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 3. Living areas Since our study if focus on Canadian Immigration, we have divided the respondents according to their living areas means urban and rural. 15 live in urban area and 36 live in rural area. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Where do you live? Nb of Respondents Urban 15 Rural 36 Total 51 Table 5.3 Areas Urban Rural 29% 71% Diagram 5.3 39
  40. 40. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 4. Purpose of immigration We have divided the respondents according to the purpose of their immigration so we got 29 respondents for job, 15 for family, 6 for business and 1 for study. The proportions are shown in the diagram below. Why do you want to immigrate? Nb of respondents Job 9 Family 5 Business 3 Study 0 Total 17 Table 5.4 Purpose Job Family Business Study 2% 12% 29% 57% Diagram 5.4 40
  41. 41. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 41
  42. 42. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab The immigration market is a growing market in Punjab, every year, people register with the immigration agencies with the hope to get the chance to be selected for immigration. After many days of hard work, the following facts have been drawn from our study: 1. The proportion of the potential candidates to immigration is very high in Punjab; mostly in Jalandhar district followed by Moga district and Ludhiana. 2. Canadian immigration has the largest share of the potential immigration market, estimated at 34%, followed by Australian immigration around 24%. This high potential market is due to number of opportunities which are available in Canada. Since so many decades, Canada is the privileged destination for Indian immigrants especially from Moga district and Jalandhar district. 3. Going further in our study, we found that the market can be segmented on the basis of geographical segmentation, so we found that the Canadian immigration market is divided into two (2) major segments:  Rural segment, it represents the people who live in villages.  Urban segment, it represents people who live in cities. 4. From the segmentation, we found that the Canadian immigration market is dominated by rural segment. Approximately 70% of the total potential market share. 5. I have tried to understand the reason of this high wish to immigrate and two (2) main reasons have been retained. The first reason is job researching; more than 50% of the immigration candidates apply for job purpose. People of Punjab want to improve their quality of life and since the workers in Canada are very well paid and the currency is higher compare to Indian rupee, they want to immigrate there. The second reason is for family purpose because they have their relative in Canada so they want to join them over there. 6. The Canadian immigration market is very high in Moga district, followed by Jalandhar district, then Ludhiana district and Mohali district. 42
  43. 43. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 43
  44. 44. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab CONCLUSION At the end of this report, I would simply like to share a brief summary of, what I believed to be, the most interesting pieces of information that I attained while being part of Mercan capital Ltd. for nine (9) weeks. Mercan capital Ltd. is a company with a multicultural environment which makes it different from others immigration companies. Hence, the training was a very good experience for me as a foreign student. I faced some difficulties to collect of data from the sample due to language problem but it has been very fruitful for me since I learnt many things about corporate world which Ignored before. I gained the experience of conducting a marketing research in an International environment; I also got autonomy at work place. Moreover, I have improved my analytical skills as well as my communication skills. Further study can be conducted to understand why Canada is most privileged destination for Indian immigrants. 44
  45. 45. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab RECOMMENDATIONS Once again, I would simply like to offer my gratitude towards all the members that helped me along the way. However, I would like to suggest to the management some new ideas which I have developed throughout my training: 1. The follow up of information should be effective; it can be done only if the information is conveying through proper channel. Therefore, they should be a representative in charge of giving the information to order employees. 2. The responsibilities should be clear to the employees so that they might know what to do or not to do. 3. Employees should be given autonomy at work place so that they can get more confidence and be more productive. 4. They should be a special marketing approach focus on rural areas since the major potential market is from rural areas. Some campaign should be organised with some people who has already immigrate to Canada through Mercan Capital in order to create more trust. 5. Free assessment of eligibility in order to attract more customers. Companies should be careful while developing strategies the segment because the immigration rules are very sensitive and subject to change without pre-notice. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  The research has been conducted in a limited area.  Time was a major constraint.  Smaller sample might not always give better results.  Sample might not be true representative of the whole population.  The possibility of biased responses could not be ruled out.  Due to language problem some of the respondents were not be able to understand the questionnaire.  Lack of availability of full information.  Language barrier between researcher (me) and respondents. 45
  46. 46. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab BIBLIOGRAPHY Reports referred World Migration Report, 2000 Spink, V. J. (1999) “Building Bridges: The Role of the Indian Diaspora in Canada” Stuart Soroka (McGill University) and Sarah Roberton (Environics) (2009) “A literature review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian attitudes towards multiculturalism and immigration, 2006-2009” Books referred David J. Freiman, (1986) “What Every Manager Needs to Know about Marketing” Websites Mercan Capital Ltd. http://www.mercan.com/en/welcome The National Family Health Survey http://www.rchiips.org/NFHS/pub_nfhs-1.shtml Indian Government http://india.gov.in/knowindia/districts/andhra1.php?stateid=PB India Census http://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/punjab.html Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs http://moia.gov.in/index.aspx Citizenship and Immigration Canada http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/index.asp 46
  47. 47. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab 47
  48. 48. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire is to assess the Canadian immigration market share in Punjab. A. IMMIGRATION PLAN 1) Do you plan to immigrate abroad? Yes No 2) If you have the opportunity to immigrate abroad, will you immigrate? Yes No Maybe 3) Where do you want to immigrate? Canada USA Australia New Zealand Other (specify).................................................................................................. 4) Why do you want to immigrate? Business Job Study Other (specify)................................. 5) How do you prefer to immigrate? Through an agency On your own 6) How much are you ready to spend for your immigration procedure? Less than 50,000 50,000-100,000 100,000-150,000 150,000-200,000 200,000-250,000 250,000-300,000 More than 300,000 48
  49. 49. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab B. PERSONAL INFORMATION 1) Do you live in Punjab state? Yes No 2) Where do you live? Urban Rural 3) What is your qualification? 10+2 Undergraduate Graduate Postgraduate Other (specify).................................................................................................. 4) Which field? (specify) ............................................................................................................................... 5) What is your profession? ............................................................................................................................... 49
  50. 50. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab APPENDIX 2 Country -Demographic Features A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a selfgoverning dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US. Canada is a federal multiparty parliamentary state with two legislative houses (Senate and House of Commons) and headed by Prime Minister. Canada is second largest country in terms of its size after Russia. Despite Canada's great size, it is one of the world's most sparsely populated countries. Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska) the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces and the 2 overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary. Capital: Ottawa (fourth largest city of the country) Official Language: English and French Population: 33,098,932 (July 2006 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 2,992,811/female 2,848,388) 15-64 years: 69% (male 11,482,452/female 11,368,286) 65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,883,008/female 2,523,987) (2006 est.) Traditionally Canada has sought to increase its population through immigration in order to expand the workforce and domestic markets. As a result, immigrants now make up about onesixth of Canada's total population. Canada has an aging population. Whereas fewer than one in 10 Canadians were age 65 or older in the 1970s, by the start of the 21st century the figure stood at nearly one in six. Life expectancy in Canada, which averages about 80 years, is among the world's highest. 50
  51. 51. Canadian Immigration Market in Punjab Indian Diaspora 1 Size of Indian Diaspora According to Canada Statistics (2001), there were 713, 330 people who classified themselves as being of Indian origin. Though Indian Embassy reports that it is approximately 850,000 (2.74 % of total population).Out of this population, 42% are Hindu, 39% are Sikh, and the rest are Muslim, Christian, Jain, Buddhist. The main Indian ethnic communities are Punjabis (which account for more than half of population) as well Gujratis, Tamils, Keralites, Bengalis, Sindhis and others. 2 Geographical Spread of the Indian Diaspora Indians are biggest community in and around Vancouver and Toronto. Most Indians choose to immigrate to larger urban centers like Toronto and Vancouver, where more than 70% live. Smaller communities are also growing in Calgary, Montreal, Edmonton and Winnipeg. Indians in Toronto are from diverse locations in India, such as Punjab, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh and Kerala. Brampton, a suburb of Toronto has many Indian residents, and the town of Springdale in Brampton is commonly referred to as “Singhdale” because of the many Sikhs that live there. Indians in Vancouver mainly live in the suburb of Surrey, but can also be found throughout Vancouver. The vast majority of Vancouver Indians are of Sikh Punjabi origin. 51

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