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Using phrases and clauses
 

Using phrases and clauses

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    Using phrases and clauses Using phrases and clauses Presentation Transcript

    • Using Phrases and Clauses Parts of Sentences, Part 2
    • The Sentence • Sentence—a group of words that has at least one independent clause and expresses a complete thought. • It should contain a subject and a verb that work together to form a complete thought.
    • The Subject • Subject—word or words that indicate who or what is doing the action (the main verb) in the sentence. There can be more than one subject. • • • • • Bob ran out the door. Bob and the dogs went on a walk. She is short. During his biology lab, Tommy danced on the table. The big, hungry, green Martian grabbed a student from the back row.
    • Phrases & Clauses • Sentences are made up of phrases and clauses.
    • Phrases • Phrase—a group of words without a subject and verb. The words in phrases can act as the subject or verb in a sentence, or they can add information to other parts of the sentence. • Playing outside can be fun for many children. • Fran, an experienced skydiver, has just completed her 100th jump. • They would have been skydiving if they were in the plane.
    • Clauses • Clause—a group of related words that has a subject and a verb. A sentence always has at least one clause, but it can have more. • Independent Clauses • Dependent Clauses (also called a subordinate clause)
    • Clauses • Independent clause—a clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence, a complete thought (it does not depend on anything to complete the thought). • Some things to remember: • 1) an independent clause can be its own sentence • 2) two independent clauses can form one sentence (if properly punctuated) • 3) independent clauses can be joined with a dependent clauses
    • Independent Clauses independent clause She is five years old.
    • Independent Clauses independent clause independent clause She is five years old, and she has imaginary friends.
    • Independent Clauses independent clause independent clause She is five years old; she has imaginary friends.
    • Independent Clauses Dependent/subordinate clause independent clause Because she is five years old, she has imaginary friends.
    • Dependent Clauses Dependent Clause (also called a subordinate clause)—a clause that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence or complete thought (it depends on another clause to make it complete). • The students, who enjoy writing as well as the ones who despise it, are all going to be successful. • We are writing papers, which happen to be challenging. • Although I have assigned you challenging writing projects, you have risen to the challenge. • Because I have given you challenging assignments, you will grow as a student.
    • Subordinating Conjunctions* after although as because before even if even though if in order that once provided that rather than since so that than that though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why *Note: Take a close look at the adverb clause marker chart on page 208 in the Reference Guide.
    • Practice Dependent/ subordinate clause independent clause Whenever lazy students whine, Mrs. Russell throws chalk erasers at their heads.
    • Practice independent clause Dependent/ subordinate clause Anthony ran for the paper towels as cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter.
    • Practice Dependent/ subordinate clause independent clause Because my dog loves pizza crusts, he never barks at the deliveryman.
    • Sentence Purposes 1. Make a statement (declarative sentence) • This is a sentence. It is cool. 2. Ask a question, which will always end in a question mark (interrogative sentence) • What is a sentence? 3. Give a command, which is always second person (imperative sentence) • • You will place a period at the end of a statement. Write a sentence. 4. Express a strong feeling , which is an exclamation and usually ends with exclamation mark (exclamatory sentence) • I can write a good sentence now!
    • Sentence Structures Simple sentence—has one independent clause. independent clause • She plays outside. Compound sentence—has two independent clauses. independent clause independent clause • She plays outside, and she is happy.
    • Sentence Structures Complex sentence—has one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Dependent/subordinate clause • Because she enjoys playing outside, independent clause she spends a lot of time out of the house.
    • Sentence Structures Compound-complex sentence—has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. Dependent/subordinate clause • Because she enjoys playing outside, independent clause she spends a lot of time out of the house, and independent clause it makes her happy.
    • Punctuation for Sentence Types Complete thought Complete thought . ; Complete thought. complete thought. Complete thought and incomplete thought. Complete thought , and (but, for, or, nor, yet, so ) complete thought. Complete thought ; however, (moreover, therefore, etc.) complete thought. , Dependent clause complete thought. Complete thought dependent clause. Complete thought, non-essential clause. Part of thought, non essential clause, the rest of the thought.
    • Common Errors: Comma Splices • Comma splice—a punctuation error in which a comma is placed between two independent clauses. It is one way to write a run-on sentence (a grammatical error).  Complete thought, complete thought.
    • Comma Splices
    • Example • • • • The sun is high, put on some sunblock. The sun is high; put on some sunblock. The sun is high, so put on some sunblock. The sun is high. Put on some sunblock.
    • Example • This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it, you should start studying right away. • This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it; you should start studying right away. • This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it, so you should start studying right away. • This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it. You should start studying right away.
    • Common Errors: Run-on Sentence • Run-on sentence—when two or more independent clauses are joined together with incorrect punctuation.  Comma splices  Two independent clauses joined together with incorrect punctuation  More than two independent clauses in the same sentence