Clause—a group of words containing a subject
and a verb
1.

Independent clause—a clause that is a complete
thought. A sent...
You should know how to break your
sentences into parts.
If you can do this, it will help you in
learning punctuation rules...
1.

2.

3.

4.

Simple sentence—a sentence made up
of 1 independent clause
Compound sentence—a sentence made
up of 2 indep...
Complex Sentences
Complex sentence—a sentence made up of
1 (or more) dependent clause(s) and one
independent clause
How can I find a dependent clause in a sentence?


Look for key words, called subordinating
conjunctions, at the beginnin...
Meaning

Subordinating
Conjunctions

Example

Cause or Reason

as, because, since, so
that

Since I turned my draft on tim...










When he handed in his homework, he forgot to
hand the teacher the last page.
The teacher returned the homew...










When he handed in his homework, he forgot to hand
the teacher the last page.
The teacher returned the homew...
Comma
If a dependent clause with a subordination
conjunction appears at the beginning of a
sentence, include a comma at th...
No comma
If a dependent clause with a subordinating
conjunction appears at the end of a sentence,
then you do NOT include ...
Which of these sentences are punctuated correctly?






Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus
station before n...
Which of these sentences are punctuated correctly?








Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus
station before...
There are some other kinds of
dependent clauses you need to watch
out for.


Dependent clauses that begin with
relative p...
That
This is used to add information about
something
 Do NOT use commas to set off these kinds of
clauses
 Example: I we...
Which



Use this to add non-essential information about
something.
In general, you will use commas to set off these
kin...
Who/Whom/Whomever/ Whose



Use this to add information about a person.
You may or may not need commas with these kinds
...
Compound-Complex Sentences
The last possible sentence structure is the
compound-complex sentence, which is a sentence
made up of two independent clau...
Example: Because Mary and Samantha arrived
at the bus station before noon, I did not see
them at the station, so I decided...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Complete thought . Complete thought.
Complete thought ; complete thought.
Complete thought, and (but, for,...
Complex sentences
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Complex sentences

  1. 1. Clause—a group of words containing a subject and a verb 1. Independent clause—a clause that is a complete thought. A sentence always contains at least one independent clause.  I went to the store.  He is a smart cookie. 2. Dependent clause—a clause that is not a complete thought.  because I needed groceries  if I study
  2. 2. You should know how to break your sentences into parts. If you can do this, it will help you in learning punctuation rules.  It will also be easier to check for sentence variety. 
  3. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. Simple sentence—a sentence made up of 1 independent clause Compound sentence—a sentence made up of 2 independent clauses Complex sentence—a sentence made up of 1+ dependent clause(s) and an independent clause Compound-complex sentence—a sentence made up of 2 independent clauses and 1+ dependent clause(s).
  4. 4. Complex Sentences
  5. 5. Complex sentence—a sentence made up of 1 (or more) dependent clause(s) and one independent clause
  6. 6. How can I find a dependent clause in a sentence?  Look for key words, called subordinating conjunctions, at the beginning of dependent clauses: after as though if though where although because provided that unless whereas as before since until wherever as if even if so that when whether as long as even though That whenever while
  7. 7. Meaning Subordinating Conjunctions Example Cause or Reason as, because, since, so that Since I turned my draft on time, I will be able to continue revising it. Condition or Result as long as, even if, if, provided that, only if, so that unless Even if I am not happy with the score on my paper, I can keep trying to improve. Contrast although, even though, if, though, whereas, unless Although I find this class challenging, it pushes me to improve. Place where, wherever Our study group can meet wherever it is most convenient for everyone. Time After, before, once, since, until, when, whenever, while We earned high scores on our essays after our visit to the on-campus tutoring.
  8. 8.      When he handed in his homework, he forgot to hand the teacher the last page. The teacher returned the homework after she graded it. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. After they finished studying, Jordan and Michael went to the movies. Jordan and Michael went to the movies after they finished studying.
  9. 9.      When he handed in his homework, he forgot to hand the teacher the last page. The teacher returned the homework after she graded it. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. Although they had a test the next day, Jordan and Michael went to the movies. While they were taking their test, Jordan and Michael regretted going to the movies the night before.
  10. 10. Comma If a dependent clause with a subordination conjunction appears at the beginning of a sentence, include a comma at the end of the dependent clause.  Example: Because my dog ate my homework, I was not able to turn it in.
  11. 11. No comma If a dependent clause with a subordinating conjunction appears at the end of a sentence, then you do NOT include a comma before it.  Example: I was not able to turn in my homework because my dog ate it.
  12. 12. Which of these sentences are punctuated correctly?     Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station. Joe realized he was late, as he waited for the train. After they left on the bus, Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station. Joe realized that he would not make it to work on time, because his train was late.
  13. 13. Which of these sentences are punctuated correctly?     Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station. Correct! Joe realized he was late, as he waited for the train.  You don’t need a comma before a subordinating conjunction. After they left on the bus, Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station. Correct! Joe realized that he would not make it to work on time, because his train was late.  You never need a comma before “because.” It’s a subordinating conjunction.
  14. 14. There are some other kinds of dependent clauses you need to watch out for.  Dependent clauses that begin with relative pronouns: who, whom, whomever, whose, which, that
  15. 15. That This is used to add information about something  Do NOT use commas to set off these kinds of clauses  Example: I went to the store that was across the street from my house. 
  16. 16. Which   Use this to add non-essential information about something. In general, you will use commas to set off these kinds of clauses.  Example: The store, which was across the street, is a nice store.  Example: We will be having apple pie for dessert, which happens to be my favorite. NOTE: Don’t confuse “which” and “that.” When you start a dependent clause with “that,” no commas are used.
  17. 17. Who/Whom/Whomever/ Whose   Use this to add information about a person. You may or may not need commas with these kinds of clauses.  If you need the clause to make the sentence make sense, then do not use a comma.  Example: Students who cheat harm themselves.  If you do not need the clause to make the sentence make sense (it’s extra information), then you do need the comma.  Example: Julie, who I’ve heard cheats on tests, finds herself in trouble often.
  18. 18. Compound-Complex Sentences
  19. 19. The last possible sentence structure is the compound-complex sentence, which is a sentence made up of two independent clauses, and at least one dependent clause.   Example: Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station, so I decided to wait for them. Dependent clause, independent clause, so independent clause.
  20. 20. Example: Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station, so I decided to wait for them.  Dependent Clause: Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon,  Independent Clause: I did not see them at the station, so  Independent Clause: I decided to wait for them.
  21. 21. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Complete thought . Complete thought. Complete thought ; complete thought. Complete thought, and (but, for, or, nor, yet, so) complete thought. Dependent clause, complete thought. Complete thought dependent clause. Hint: Feel free to print or copy this. You might even consider taping this on the wall near your computer, to help in your proofreading process.

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