Copyright  ©  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 1 LECTURE SLIDES
Biology: The Science of Life <ul><li>Biology unifies much of natural science </li></ul><ul><li>Living systems are the most...
<ul><li>7 characteristics of all living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compl...
<ul><li>Living systems show hierarchical organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><ul><li>Populational level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population, community  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosy...
The Nature of Science <ul><li>Science aims to understand the natural world through observation and reasoning </li></ul><ul...
The Five kingdoms
phylogenetic tree----a work in progress
<ul><li>Science uses both deductive and inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning uses general principles ...
<ul><li>Scientists use a systematic approach to gain understanding of the natural world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation ...
<ul><li>A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mus...
<ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests the hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be carefully designed to tes...
<ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses should make predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictions provid...
<ul><li>Observation and ask questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following questions do you think can be answered sci...
Experiment Design: Example Observation:  Soybean production decreased in fields adjacent to coal-powdered power plants. Hy...
The Dependent Variable:   will be measured or counted or observed. The Independent Variable:  experimental condition to ma...
<ul><li>Philosophical approaches to science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To break a c...
<ul><li>Models in science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way to organize thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts provided by reduc...
<ul><li>Scientific theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a body of interconnected concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is support...
Unifying Themes in Biology <ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
 
<ul><li>Molecular basis of inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequen...
<ul><li>Structure and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study structure to learn function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know a f...
Unifying Themes in Biology <ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Molecular basis of inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequen...
<ul><li>Structure and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study structure to learn function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know a f...
<ul><li>Diversity of life arises by evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying unity of biochemistry and genetics argues f...
<ul><li>Evolutionary conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms today descended from a simple creature 3.5 BYA </li>...
<ul><li>Cells are information-processing systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information in DNA used to direct synthesis of cell...
<ul><li>Nonequilibrium state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living systems are open systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant sup...
<ul><li>Cells are information-processing systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information in DNA used to direct synthesis of cell...
<ul><li>Nonequilibrium state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living systems are open systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant sup...
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Chapt01 lecture

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 1 LECTURE SLIDES
  2. 2. Biology: The Science of Life <ul><li>Biology unifies much of natural science </li></ul><ul><li>Living systems are the most complex chemical systems on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Life is constrained by the properties of chemistry and physics </li></ul><ul><li>Science is becoming more interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining multiple fields </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>7 characteristics of all living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex and ordered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can grow, develop, and reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain and use energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain internal balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for evolutionary adaptation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Living systems show hierarchical organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell is the basic unit of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organismal level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues, organs, organ systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Populational level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population, community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is an ecosystem we call the biosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each level has emergent properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result from interaction of components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be deduced by looking at parts themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Life” is an emergent property </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. The Nature of Science <ul><li>Science aims to understand the natural world through observation and reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Science begins with observations, therefore, much of science is purely descriptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of all life on Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human genome sequencing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Five kingdoms
  11. 11. phylogenetic tree----a work in progress
  12. 12. <ul><li>Science uses both deductive and inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning uses general principles to make specific predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning uses specific observations to develop general conclusions </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Scientists use a systematic approach to gain understanding of the natural world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14.
  15. 15. <ul><li>A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be tested to determine its validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often tested in many different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for predictions to be made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iterative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses can be changed and refined with new data </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests the hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be carefully designed to test only one variable at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of a test experiment and a control experiment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses should make predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictions provide a way to test the validity of hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis must be rejected if the experiment produces results inconsistent with the predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more experimentally supported predictions a hypothesis makes, the more valid the hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Observation and ask questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following questions do you think can be answered scientifically? </li></ul><ul><li>Does binge drinking cause more brain damage in teenagers then in adults? </li></ul><ul><li>Is genetically modified corn safe to eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Do children who wash their hands often and bathe daily have a greater risk of asthma than those who wash their hands less often and bathe every other day? </li></ul><ul><li>Should endangered species be cloned to prevent extinction? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the function of spines on cacti? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the 19-year-old college student develop ulcers because of his stress and fast food diet? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Experiment Design: Example Observation: Soybean production decreased in fields adjacent to coal-powdered power plants. Hypothesis : Sulfur dioxide in high concentrations would reduce reproduction in soybeans. Experiment Design : Filtered air 0.6ppm SO2 Treated Untreated Check: 1) The number of bean pods; 2) the number of seeds per pod; 3) the weight of the pods.
  20. 20. The Dependent Variable: will be measured or counted or observed. The Independent Variable: experimental condition to manipulate The controlled Variable: keep constant or standardized Level of treatment: Replication: Control (group): Blind method: Single & double –blind Procedure: Sample size: Presenting and Analyzing Results: Prepare data table, construct graphs. Conclusion:
  21. 21. <ul><li>Philosophical approaches to science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To break a complex process down to its simpler parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on emergent properties that can’t be understood by looking at simpler parts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Models in science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way to organize thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts provided by reductionist approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model shows how they fit together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest experiments to test the model </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Scientific theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a body of interconnected concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is supported by much experimental evidence and scientific reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expresses ideas of which we are most certain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>·        - A law is a statement of Fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>·        - Describes an action or a set of actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Used to predict an effect but does not explain why the effect occurred. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Unifying Themes in Biology <ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are life’s basic units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells come from preexisting cells </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26.
  26. 27. <ul><li>Molecular basis of inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cell’s information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene – discrete unit of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genome – entire set of DNA instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity of life depends on faithful copying of DNA into daughter cells </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Structure and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study structure to learn function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know a function – look for that structure in other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor on human cell for insulin known </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find similar molecule in a worm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Might conclude this molecule functions the same in the worm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Unifying Themes in Biology <ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms composed of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are life’s basic units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells come from preexisting cells </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Molecular basis of inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cell’s information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene – discrete unit of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genome – entire set of DNA instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity of life depends on faithful copying of DNA into daughter cells </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Structure and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study structure to learn function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know a function – look for that structure in other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor on human cell for insulin known </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find similar molecule in a worm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Might conclude this molecule functions the same in the worm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Diversity of life arises by evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying unity of biochemistry and genetics argues for life from the same origin event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity due to evolutionary change over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria – single-celled prokaryote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea – single-celled prokaryote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eukarya – single-celled or multicellular eukaryote </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33.
  33. 34. <ul><li>Evolutionary conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms today descended from a simple creature 3.5 BYA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some characteristics preserved – use of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation reflects that they have a fundamental role </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Cells are information-processing systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information in DNA used to direct synthesis of cellular components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of gene expression leads to different cells/ tissue types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells process environmental information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose levels, presence of hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells in multicellular organisms must coordinate with each other </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Nonequilibrium state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living systems are open systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant supply of energy needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-organizing properties at different levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergent properties from collections of molecules, cells, and individuals </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Cells are information-processing systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information in DNA used to direct synthesis of cellular components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of gene expression leads to different cells/ tissue types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells process environmental information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose levels, presence of hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells in multicellular organisms must coordinate with each other </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Nonequilibrium state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living systems are open systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant supply of energy needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-organizing properties at different levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergent properties from collections of molecules, cells, and individuals </li></ul></ul>
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