The Cell Theory1. All living things are made of cells2. Cells are the basic unit of structure for organisms3. All cells come from preexisting cells *Exception to the Cell Theory = The First cell Mitochondria/Chloroplasts Viruses
Cells• Have specific structures with specific functions• The specific structures are called ORGANELLES
The Cell Membrane• Surrounds the inside of the cell – Separates cell from outside environment – Controls what enters and exits – Recognizes chemical signals with receptor molecules
Plant Cells• Chloroplasts – Sites of photosynthesis/autotrophic nutrition• Cell Wall – Structure and support; outside the membrane
Plant Cell Diagrams
Animal Cell Diagrams
Levels of organizationLeast complex 1. Organelle 2. Cell 3. Tissue 4. Organ 5. Organ system 6. OrganismMost Complex
Cell Transport• Passive Transport – Movement from high to low concentration – Does not require energy• Active Transport – Movement from low to high concentration – Requires energy
Types of Passive Transport• Diffusion – Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Types of Passive Transport• Osmosis – Movement of water from an area of lower solutes to higher solutes
Contractile vacuoles maintain water balance by pumpingexcess water out of some single-celled pond organisms. Inhumans, the kidney is chiefly involved in maintaining waterbalance. These facts best illustrate that1. tissues, organs, and organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis in all living things2. interference with nerve signals disrupts cellular communication and homeostasis within organisms3. a disruption in a body system may disrupt the homeostasis of a single-celled organism4. structures found in single-celled organisms can act in a manner similar to tissues and organs in multicellular organisms
In a cell, information that controls theproduction of proteins must pass from thenucleus to the1. cell membrane2. chloroplasts3. mitochondria4. ribosomes
Which statement describing the cells in a body system iscorrect?1. Each cell in the system is identical to the other cells in the system, and each cell works independently of the other cells.2. Some cells in the system may be different from the other cells in the system, but all cells are coordinated and work together.3. Each cell in the system is different from the other cells in the system, and each cell works independently of the other cells.4. All cells in the system are identical to each other and work together.
Which statement regarding the functioning of the cellmembrane of all organisms is not correct?1. The cell membrane forms a boundary that separates the cellular contents from the outside environment.2. The cell membrane is capable of receiving and recognizing chemical signals.3. The cell membrane forms a barrier that keeps all substances that might harm the cell from entering the cell.4. The cell membrane controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.
Most of the reactions of aerobic cellularrespiration occur within the organelle known asthe1. lysosome2. nucleus3. mitochondrion4. vacuole