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Reproduction and development






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Reproduction and development Reproduction and development Presentation Transcript

  • Reproduction/Development/ Cell Division
  • Two Types of ReproductionAsexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction – Offspring are genetically – Genetic variation in offspring identical to parent – Get half genetic information from each parent – One parent; two offspring • ½ from father’s sperm – Single or multicellular • ½ from mother’s egg – Essentially, cloning/mitosis – Two parents; one offspring – Complex, multicellular – Involves meiosis
  • Mitosis vs. MeiosisMitosis – Daughter cells are identical – Cells must grow before dividing – Daughter cells have same DNA as parents Function: Division of cells; growth, development, repair Location: Everywhere but sex cells (skin, muscle, brain, liver cells)
  • Mitosis vs. MeiosisMeiosis – Division of sex cells – Cells only get HALF of DNA/chromosomes as parent cells – Source of genetic variation – Extra cell division Function: Division and production of sex cells (sperm, egg) Location: Ovaries, Testes
  • Cancer• Uncontrolled cell division• Caused by – Gene mutations – Exposure to chemicals or radiation
  • Reproductive Hormones• Testosterone – Function: development of male sex cells, male sex characteristics• Estrogen – Function: development of female sex cells, female sex characteristics• Progesterone – Function: involved in menstrual cycle, pregnancy
  • Female Reproductive System1. Ovaries – produces and releases eggs; produces estrogen2. Oviduct – aka fallopian tubes; where fertilization occurs3. Uterus – where the fertilized egg develops; implants in wall4. Umbilical cord – fetus’ link to the mother5. Placenta – source of nutrition, oxygen, and waste exchange for child; connects mother to child by umbilical cord
  • Male Reproductive System1. Testes – produces sperm and testosterone2. Vas Deferens – connects testes to the urethra3. Urethra – brings seamen/urine to external environment; allows for internal fertilization
  • Menstrual Cycle• Monthly cycle in females that prepares woman for a pregnancy – If no fertilized egg implants in uterine wall, uterus lining sheds (bleeds)
  • Fertilization1. Gametes (sperm and egg) meet in fallopian tubes to form zygote2. Fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tubes and implants in the uterus lining to develop
  • Development and DifferentiationDifferentiation - embryonic stem cellsbecome specialized; helps to form organs,tissues, structures – Think about how a single cell – the fertilized egg – becomes many different cells with different functions
  • Development• Over nine months, development of the fetus creates specialized structures• The zygote develops by mitosis to form the specialized cells and eventually tissues, organs, and systems
  • Pre-natal Care• A mother’s exposure to some environmental factors can result in altering embryonic DNA• Examples of risky environmental factors: – Drugs – Alcohol – Cigarettes – Radiation• Examples of reproductive technology – Cloning – Artificial insemination (fertilization without sex) – In vitro fertilization
  • Fertilization• Male deposits sperm in the VAGINA• Sperm travels from TESTES to the UTRETHRA• Fertilization occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBES• Embryo develops in the UTERUS (not the vagina)
  • A woman has a gene that causes a visualdisorder. To prevent the disorder fromappearing in future generations, the defectivegene would have to be repaired in the mother’s1. nervous system2. reproductive cells3. eye4. uterus
  • If an organism reproduces asexually, its offspringwill most likely be1. genetically different from each other2. produced from specialized cells known as gametes3. genetically identical to the parent4. produced as a result of fertilization
  • In humans, which cell is produced most directlyby mitotic cell division?1. a sperm cell2. a skin cell3. an egg cell4. a zygote
  • In most animal species with internaldevelopment, the embryo becomes implantedin the lining of the1. stomach2. liver3. ovary4. uterus
  • In humans, where does the exchange ofrespiratory gases take place between a mother’sblood and the blood of her fetus?1. amnion2. yolk sac3. placenta4. umbilical cord
  • Although all the body cells in an animal contain thesame hereditary information, they do not all lookand function the same way. The cause of thisdifference is that during differentiation1. embryonic cells use different portions of their genetic information2. the number of genes increases as embryonic cells move to new locations3. embryonic cells delete portions of the chromosomes4. genes in embryonic cells mutate rapidly