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Bioe 6100e service project 1
 

Bioe 6100e service project 1

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    Bioe 6100e service project 1 Bioe 6100e service project 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Do Now
      Ivory products are made from elephant tusks.
      However, people still desire these products and there is a great market for them.
      • How might this demand for ivory affect elephant populations and their environment?
      There are many laws preventing killing of elephants for their tusks.
    • How might this demand for ivory affect elephant populations and their environment?
    • AIM: Why is it important to protect and conserve biodiversity?
    • Why is biodiversity important?Here’s one example…
    • What is biodiversity?
      All of the genetic differences of all organisms in an ecosystem
      Biodiversity is precious and valuable for a number of reasons…
    • Types of Biodiversity
      Ecological Diversity
      Refers to variety of habitats and communities
      Species Diversity
      Number of different species in the biosphere
      Genetic Diversity
      Sum of all the different genetic information (DNA)
    • Priceless Biodiversity
      Biodiversity is precious and valuable for a number of reasons…
      Biodiversity contributes to:
      Medicine
      Ecosystem Stability
      How can biodiversity contribute to medicinal research and ecosystem longevity?
    • Biodiversity and Medicine
      Wild species are the sources of many medications – ex: aspirin, penicillin
      Certain plants have genes that make medical compounds – we can use these genes like a set of instructions to make these compounds.
    • Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability
      The number and variety of species influences the stability, productivity, and value to humans
      Healthy ecosystems also play a role in maintaining soil, water, and air quality
    • What is having the largestaffect on biodiversity?
      Human actions are having the biggest effect on biodiversity:
      • Altering habitats, hunting, introducing invasive species, and climate change
      • Currently, the extinction rate of certain species is 1000 times the “typical” rate
    • Threat to biodiversity: Altered Habitats
      Habitats get altered by:
      Agriculture, urban development, deforestation
      Some species may become extinct, as a result!
      The smaller a habitat becomes, the fewer species that can live there
      This makes species more susceptible to other disturbances, like disease
    • As humans damage environments…
      …Humans reduce the species diversity – this reduces the genetic diversity
      More genetic diversity = a better chance of survival
    • Let’s look at a real life example…
      Mice Biodiversity and the Hanta Virus
    • Analyze the graphs and answer the questions about biodiversity and the Hanta Virus
    • Background
      Among the many valuable services it can provide, a high level of biodiversity is believed to protect organisms from both human and wildlife disease by reducing the prevalence and spread of such diseases. The Hantavirus can be transmitted to humans through airborne pathogens or through direct contact, and while it has a low incidence rate, it has a fatality rate of 35% in the United States.
       
      To test the effect of biodiversity on disease transmission, scientists traveled to the Americas because of high rodent species diversity and deforestation and habitat loss that affect biodiversity. In areas that experience high levels of deforestation, rodent diversity is reduced, and the remaining rodents usually occupy areas close to humans. Scientists thought that decreased biodiversity increased the amount of competent reservoir species, or species that acquire and transmit the virus readily.
       
      Researchers used two groups: they mimicked the effects of deforestation in one experimental group by removing certain species of rodents; in the control group, scientists left the community unaffected. After a period of time, the transmission and prevalence of the Hantavirus was compared between groups.
    • Hanta Virus Dominance
      Figure 2
      A. Hantavirus dominance - Defined as the proportion of community that can acquire and transmit the disease. Measured over 5 periods and compared between the control and experimental sites (the site that mimicked deforestation).
       
       
       
       
      B. Therelationship between the prevalence of the virus and the species diversity (measured by the Reciprocal Simpson Diversity Index). This was measured within the experimental sites.
      Hantavirus dominance
      Prevalence %
    • Hantavirus Prevalence
      Figure 3. The relationship between the competent reservoir abundance (number of species that acquire and transmit the disease) and the prevalence of the Hantavirus. Graphs show the comparison between control sites and experimental sites (where biodiversity was diminished). Linear analysis shows a significant correlation between abundance and prevalence in experimental sites.
    • Think, pair, share: How can we preserve biodiversity?
      Protect individual species
      Endangered species list, species farms
      Preserve habitats and ecosystems
      National parks, restoration efforts
      Reward involvement
      Tax credits, money rewards
    • Bring it all together…
      How does a national park – like Yellowstone – help conserve biodiversity?
    • Citations
      Hantavirus Article