9 12 what are the goals of science (2)Presentation Transcript
Do Now• Identify some activities scientists perform…
Objective: What are thegoals of scientific research?
What is science?• Science is NOT a list of unchanging, permanent facts• A scientific idea is open to discussion, testing, and examination • In other words, science is always changing! • All scientific ideas can be tested and proven wrong! KEY IDEA: All scientific explanations are tentative and subject to change or improvement
Regents Review• Why do scientists consider any hypothesis valuable?1. A hypothesis requires no further investigation.2. A hypothesis may lead to further investigation even if it is disproved by the experiment.3. A hypothesis requires no further investigation if it is proved by the experiment.4. A hypothesis can be used to explain a conclusion even if it is disproved by the experiment.
Identify an example:• A scientific or medical idea that has changed over time…
Where does knowledge come from? • From people who study particular topics and previous info • Gathering information, observing, and drawing conclusions KEY IDEA: Scientific explanations combine evidence that can be observed with what people already know about the world.
Regents Review• Which source would provide the most reliable information for use in a research project investigating the effects of antibiotics on disease causing bacteria?1. the local news section of a newspaper from 19932. a news program on national television about antigens produced by various plants3. a current professional science journal article on the control of pathogens4. an article in a weekly news magazine about reproduction in pathogens
What does it mean to say science is a process?• “Process” means that science is something do over time, rather than just a collection of facts…KEY IDEA: Well-accepted theories are supported by differentkinds of scientific investigations often involving thecontributions of individuals from different disciplines.
Science over time – why dotextbooks change over time?• Over centuries, scientists have gathered a lot of information • This information has helped us cure disease, communicate, etc.• However, almost every major discovery raises more questions • This helps future scientists know what to study and keeps science advancing toward discovering more information
Regents Review• In his theory, Lamarck suggested that organisms will develop and pass on to offspring variations that they need in order to survive in a particular environment. In a later theory, Darwin proposed that changing environmental conditions favor certain variations that promote the survival of organisms. Which statement is best illustrated by this information?1. Scientific theories that have been changed are the only ones supported by scientists.2. All scientific theories are subject to change and improvement.3. Most scientific theories are the outcome of a single hypothesis.4. Scientific theories are not subject to change.
The Scientific Method• A way to ask and answer scientific questions by collecting information, making observations, and doing experiments
Steps of The Scientific Method1. Ask a Question2. Do Background Research • Look at many different sources/previous studies3. Construct a Hypothesis**** • Usually, a new concept that scientists want to test • Determines what data to be collected4. Test Your Hypothesis by Designing/Doing an Experiment • Scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations. • Hypotheses help scientists design experiments5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion6. Communicate Your Result/Errors7. Repeat*
Regents Review• A scientific study showed that the depth at which algae were found in a lake varied from day to day. On clear days, the algae were found as much as 6 meters below the surface of the water, but were found only 1 meter below the surface on cloudy days. Which hypothesis best explains these observations?1. Light intensity affects the growth of algae.2. Wind currents affect the growth of algae.3. Nitrogen concentration affects the growth of algae.4. Precipitation affects the growth of algae.
Regents Review• A new concept that is tested in a scientific investigation is known as1. a theory2. the hypothesis3. in inference4. an observation
Regents Review• A scientist is planning to carry out an experiment on the effect of heat on the function of a certain enzyme. Which would not be an appropriate first step?1. doing research in a library2. having discussions with other scientists3. completing a data table of expected results4. using what is already known about the enzyme
Regents Review• Which statement best describes a hypothesis?1. A hypothesis is the process of making careful observations.2. The conclusion drawn from the results of an experiment is part of a hypothesis.3. A hypothesis serves as a basis for determining what data to collect when designing an experiment.4. The facts collected from an experiment are written in the form of a hypothesis.
Lets give it a shot…• Work on the handout with a partner• (and if you know that answer, shhhhhhhhhh!!!)
Answer the objective.• What are the goals of science?