5/17 energy flow in ecosystemsPresentation Transcript
Do Now What is the difference between abiotic and biotic factors? Biotic are living factors; abiotic are nonliving factors Ecology studies two relationships. What are the two relationships between? Between organisms; between organisms and their environment What is the difference between producers and consumers? Producers make their food/energy; consumers eat their food/energy. What is an ecosystem? All living and nonliving things and the interactions between them.
AIM: How does energy move through an ecosystem?
Types of Consumers 1. Carnivores – kill, eat other animals Ex: lions, tigers 2. Scavengers – consume the carcasses of animals Ex: vulture 3. Decomposers –they chemically breakdown organic matter like animal remains Ex: fungi, bacteria;
Types of Consumers 4. Herbivores – eat plant leaves, roots, seeds, fruits Ex: cows, caterpillars, and deer Note: Herbivores are PRIMARY CONSUMERS because they are the first to use the producers’ energy 5. Omnivores – eat both plants and animals Ex: humans, bears, pigs
Primary vs. Secondary Consumers Primary consumer – organism that eats herbivores Secondary consumer – organism that east a primary consumer Why is the mouse primary and the snake secondary?
Regents Review Young rabbits that eat grass are sometimes eaten by raccoons, which also eat seeds and berries. Bacteria help to decompose the excretions of the raccoon. Which statement about these nutritional relationships is accurate? Bacteria are scavengers. Rabbits are secondary consumers. Raccoons eat only producers. Raccoons are both primary and secondary consumers.
Energy flow in an ecosystem Energy flows one-way: From PRIMARY PRODUCERS to CONSUMERS FOOD CHAIN Serious of steps where organisms pass energy Happens by eating and being eaten Can vary in length
Food Chains Diagrams of how energy is transferred from organism to organism.
Food Web Feeding relationships are much more complicated than a single, one-way chain Many animals can eat more than one kind of food Food webs show these relationships
Regents Review Base your answer on the chart and your knowledge of biology. Which is an example of the nutritional pattern of a primary consumer? grasshoppers – lizards scorpions – bacteria prickly pear cactuses – desert rats lizards – roadrunner
Energy Pyramids Organisms give off a lot of energy before they are eaten and pass on their energy…example? Respiration, growth, movement, and reproduction use a lot of energy! The energy available decreases as you move up the pyramid.
Energy Pyramids Show the relative amount of energy available at each level. Which organism has the most energy? Which organism is the primary consumer?
Regents Review Which statement best describes an energy pyramid? There is more energy at the consumer level than at the producer level. There is more energy at the producer level that at the consumer level. There is more energy at the secondary-consumer level than at the primary-consumer level. There is more energy at the decomposer level than at the consumer level.
Regents Review The diagrams represent four members of a food chain. Which sequence best represents the transfer of energy between these organisms? toads – predaceous insects – herbivorous insects – plants predaceous insects – herbivorous insects – plants – toads plants – herbivorous insects – predaceous insects – toads plants – herbivorous insects – toads – predaceous insects
Regents Review If birds eat insects that feed on corn, which pyramid level in the diagram would birds occupy? A B C D
Regents Review Compared to the energy contained in the plants eaten by cows, the amount of energy available to the organisms that eat the cows is less, since cows reproduce rapidly and pass on most of the energy to their offspring convert solar energy to food store all their energy in milk use energy for their own metabolism