3/30 intro to genetics
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3/30 intro to genetics

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    3/30 intro to genetics 3/30 intro to genetics Presentation Transcript

    • What does inherit mean?Do Now Something we get from something else In genetics, it refers to the genes we are givenfrom our parents  Heredity - The passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
    • {Objective: How does an organism pass itscharacteristics on to its offspring?
    • Genetics The science of studying heredity, DNA – delivering of characteristics from parent to offspring EVERY organism has characteristics inherited from parents
    • Gregor Mendel Founded modern science of genetics Teacher, monk, and gardener Gardener interests affected genetics
    • Gregor Mendel Studied genetics using pea plants…why?  Small, convenient to study and grow  Can produce hundreds of offspring fast Peas are a MODEL SYSTEM – can produce many offspring Mendel was able to find hereditary trends in one plant growth season that would take years to see in humans or other animals
    • Parts of a Pea Plant  Just like humans, the male parts of flowers mix with the female parts to cause FERTILIZATION  In nature, these flowers have both male and female parts – they fertilize themselves!  They have a single parent!
    • Plants that “True Breed” In nature, true-breeding mean plants were self pollinating Offspring were identical to each other Traits of different generations would be the same
    • Traits  A trait is one specific characteristic  Ex: seed color, plant height, eye color, hair color Traits vary from one individual to another!
    • Mendel played around.. To see how traits could be changed, he “crossed” his plants He caused one plant to reproduce with another  He would take the “sperm” from one plant and give it to “eggs” of another one
    • Cross-pollination Taking male parts from one plant and mixing them with female parts with another plant How is this type of reproduction similar to humans?
    • Cross-pollination  Produces a plant with two different parents  Allowed Mendel to breed plants with different traits and see which traits got passed on! This mimics the process in humans and can apply his discoveries to humans
    • Mixing different traits  Mendel studied different traits and cross-pollinated plants with different traits  HYBRID – the offspring produced from crossing parents with different traits This mimics the process in humans and can apply his discoveries to humans
    • How do alleles get separated and passed on? At some point, the allele for shortness (recessive) got separated from the allele for tallness (dominant) When and how?Mendel suggests it happened during meiosis (when sex cellswere made and chromosomes and genes separated!)
    • During meiosis (gamete formation)… 1. The alleles for each gene segregate from each other 2. Each gamete only carries one allele for each gene Remember: sex cells only have one set of chromosomes! One set of chromosomes = only one version of each gene!
    • Regents Review Random separation and distribution of paired chromosomes occurs during1. cleavage2. mitotic cell division3. fertilization4. meiotic cell division
    • Regents Review Genes for two different traits that are located next to each other on the same chromosome would most likely be1. inherited separately2. codominant3. recombined4. inherited together