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2 2 how to kill pathogens, vaccines
 

2 2 how to kill pathogens, vaccines

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    2 2 how to kill pathogens, vaccines 2 2 how to kill pathogens, vaccines Presentation Transcript

    • Do Now Describe how invaders are marked for destruction using the words pathogens, antigens, and antibodies. Draw a pathogen with antigens and an appropriately shaped antibody marking them.
    • Objective: How do vaccineshelp the immune system prepareto fight pathogens?
    • Regents Review Certain microbes, foreign tissues, and some cancerous cells can cause immune responses in the human body because all three contain1. antigens2. enzymes3. fats4. cytoplasm
    • Regents Review The structures that are part of the immune system are represented by1. A, only2. A and C, only3. B and C, only4. A, B, and C
    • TPS: How are pathogenskilled in the human body? KEY IDEA - White blood cells  Guard against infection, fight parasites, attack bacteria, produce antibodies T cells bind to infected body cells and kill them Natural killer cells Macrophages
    • How do vaccines help yourbody fight disease? Scientist in England found that small pox could not infect people who had been exposed to a mild version of the disease called COW POX This scientist, injected his boy with cow pox and when exposed to small pox, the boy did not get sick
    • Regents Review The use of a vaccine to stimulate the immune system to act against a specific pathogen is valuable in maintaining homeostasis because1. once the body produces chemicals to combat one type of virus, it can more easily make antibiotics2. the body can digest the weakened microbes and use them as food3. the body will be able to fight invasions by the same type of microbe in the future4. the more the immune system is challenged, the better it performs
    • What’s a vaccine? A vaccine is an injection of 1. A weakened or dead form of a pathogen 2. A similar but less dangerous pathogen  IT Gives individual IMMUNITY – a stronger and quicker body’s reaction to infection
    • Regents Review Many vaccinations stimulate the immune system by exposing it to1. antibodies2. enzymes3. mutated genes4. weakened microbes
    • Active Immunity Natural exposure to an antigen  Fighting off a cold; fighting off an infection Deliberate exposure to an antigen  Injecting a small dosage of the chicken pox virus
    • Passive Immunity Antibodies are taken from a PERSON OR ANIMAL who produced them These AB’s are injected into another person to produce temporary immunity  Ex: woman giving AB to fetus, breast milk to fetus
    • Regents Review A part of the Hepatitis B virus is synthesized in the laboratory. This viral particle can be identified by the immune system as a foreign material but the viral particle is not capable of causing disease. Immediately after this viral particle is injected into a human it1. stimulates the production of enzymes that are able to digest the Hepatitis B virus2. triggers the formation of antibodies that protect against the Hepatitis B virus3. synthesizes specific hormones that provide immunity against the Hepatitis B virus4. breaks down key receptor molecules so that the Hepatitis B virus can enter body cells
    • Regents Review The use of a vaccine to stimulate the immune system to act against a specific pathogen is valuable in maintaining homeostasis because1. once the body produces chemicals to combat one type of virus, it can more easily make antibiotics2. the body can digest the weakened microbes and use them as food3. the body will be able to fight invasions by the same type of microbe in the future4. the more the immune system is challenged, the better it performs
    • Regents Review Which activity would stimulate the human immune system to provide protection against an invasion by a microbe?1. receiving antibiotic injections after surgery2. choosing a well-balanced diet and following it throughout life3. being vaccinated against chicken pox4. receiving hormones contained in mother’s milk while nursing
    • How does a vaccine helpthe body fight offpathogens?