12 7 nutrition
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12 7 nutrition

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    12 7 nutrition 12 7 nutrition Presentation Transcript

    • Do Now Identify the three macromolecules you eat. Besides these three food types, what else do you think we need to eat to survive?
    • Three macromolecules we eat: 1. Carbohydrates  Sugars, breads, fruits, vegetables 2. Lipids  Fats, oils 3. Proteins  Meat, fish, beans
    • What else do we need?  1. Vitamins  2. Minerals  3. WATER!!!
    • Objective: How do the nutrientswe eat help our bodies survive?
    • Why do we eat food? To obtain energy 1. Convert sugars into ATP 2. Perform Respiration 3. Gives the body ATP to perform life functions
    • The energy in food Measured in Kilocalories  1 Kcal is enough energy to raise 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius Depending on gender, need 2200-2800 Kcal as a teen
    • You can get energy from all types of nutrients. So why does it matter the type of food you eat? Certain foods have functions other than providing energy to the body:  1. Fat – cell membrane  2. Protein – enzymes, structures  3. Acids – DNA NOTE: Our body cannot make over 45 of the structures we need to survive!
    • Nutrition The study of foods and their effects on the body Nutritionists and Scientists determine how food helps to meet the body’s needs Helps plan diets
    • Nutrients Substances the body needs for:  Synthesis, growth, maintenance of homeostasis…the life functions! Six important nutrients: 1. Water 2. Carbohydrates 3. Fats 4. Proteins 5. Vitamins 6. Minerals
    • Regents ReviewNutrition involves those activates by which organism1. Remove cellular waste products2. Obtain and process materials needed for other activities3. Exchange gases with their environment4. Absorb and circulate materials
    • 1. Water MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT  Every cell needs it because many reactions take place in water or use water Liquids that are mostly blood  Blood – transporting materials  Sweat – cooling off  Urine – excretion We need at least 1 liter of water per day!
    • 2. Carbohydrates Main source of energy (for respiration!) Two types of carbohydrates  1. simple – fruits, sugars  2. complex – grains, vegetables, potatoes
    • Carbohydrates Remember: Large, complex carbohydrates cannot be transported or used (starch)  Must be digested into smaller, simpler sugars (glucose) Sugar we don’t need immediately converts to glycogen Plants cell wall made of carbohydrates
    • 3. Fats Main Functions  Energy  Main components of cellular membrane
    • Fats Other Functions:  Insulates organs and body  Makes up hormones (chemical messages)  Helps absorb other fats and vitamins
    • Fats Many Americans eat too much fat Can lead to high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes
    • 4. Proteins Functions  Structures of regulatory functions (enzymes)  Growth; repair of skin and muscle Smallest building blocks are Amino Acids  Body can only make 12  The other 8 are “essential amino acids”
    • Regents ReviewMost of the chemical reactions occurring in a living celldepend on the presence of an inorganic compoundknown as1. Oxygen2. Glycogen3. Water4. Carbohydrates
    • 5. Vitamins ORGANIC molecules that work with enzymes Think of carbs, lipids, proteins as fuel The vitamins are the ignition for metabolic reactions Can make some; have to eat others; 14 essential
    • 6. Minerals INORGANIC nutrients body needs in small amount  Cannot make ANY minerals – must eat them  Cannot digest ANY minerals – excrete them when done Ex: calcium, iron, magnesium
    • Balanced Diet Eat a variety of foods in the correct proportions
    • Split into groups and work on handout!
    • Regents ReviewTwo examples of carbohydrates are1. Fatty acids and glycerol2. Maltose and waxes3. Sugars and starches4. Cellulose and alcohol
    • Regents ReviewWhich organic compounds are needed for thesynthesis of the cell membrane, contain a largeamount of stored energy, and have been linked tocardiovascular diseases?1. complex carbohydrates2. saturated fats3. simple sugars4. polypeptides
    • Regents ReviewProteins ingested by animals are immediate sources of1. Glucose2. Fatty acids3. Polypeptides4. Amino Acids