What else do we need? 1. Vitamins 2. Minerals 3. WATER!!!
Objective: How do the nutrientswe eat help our bodies survive?
Why do we eat food? To obtain energy 1. Convert sugars into ATP 2. Perform Respiration 3. Gives the body ATP to perform life functions
The energy in food Measured in Kilocalories 1 Kcal is enough energy to raise 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius Depending on gender, need 2200-2800 Kcal as a teen
You can get energy from all types of nutrients. So why does it matter the type of food you eat? Certain foods have functions other than providing energy to the body: 1. Fat – cell membrane 2. Protein – enzymes, structures 3. Acids – DNA NOTE: Our body cannot make over 45 of the structures we need to survive!
Nutrition The study of foods and their effects on the body Nutritionists and Scientists determine how food helps to meet the body’s needs Helps plan diets
Nutrients Substances the body needs for: Synthesis, growth, maintenance of homeostasis…the life functions! Six important nutrients: 1. Water 2. Carbohydrates 3. Fats 4. Proteins 5. Vitamins 6. Minerals
Regents ReviewNutrition involves those activates by which organism1. Remove cellular waste products2. Obtain and process materials needed for other activities3. Exchange gases with their environment4. Absorb and circulate materials
1. Water MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT Every cell needs it because many reactions take place in water or use water Liquids that are mostly blood Blood – transporting materials Sweat – cooling off Urine – excretion We need at least 1 liter of water per day!
2. Carbohydrates Main source of energy (for respiration!) Two types of carbohydrates 1. simple – fruits, sugars 2. complex – grains, vegetables, potatoes
Carbohydrates Remember: Large, complex carbohydrates cannot be transported or used (starch) Must be digested into smaller, simpler sugars (glucose) Sugar we don’t need immediately converts to glycogen Plants cell wall made of carbohydrates
3. Fats Main Functions Energy Main components of cellular membrane
Fats Other Functions: Insulates organs and body Makes up hormones (chemical messages) Helps absorb other fats and vitamins
Fats Many Americans eat too much fat Can lead to high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes
4. Proteins Functions Structures of regulatory functions (enzymes) Growth; repair of skin and muscle Smallest building blocks are Amino Acids Body can only make 12 The other 8 are “essential amino acids”
Regents ReviewMost of the chemical reactions occurring in a living celldepend on the presence of an inorganic compoundknown as1. Oxygen2. Glycogen3. Water4. Carbohydrates
5. Vitamins ORGANIC molecules that work with enzymes Think of carbs, lipids, proteins as fuel The vitamins are the ignition for metabolic reactions Can make some; have to eat others; 14 essential
6. Minerals INORGANIC nutrients body needs in small amount Cannot make ANY minerals – must eat them Cannot digest ANY minerals – excrete them when done Ex: calcium, iron, magnesium
Balanced Diet Eat a variety of foods in the correct proportions
Split into groups and work on handout!
Regents ReviewTwo examples of carbohydrates are1. Fatty acids and glycerol2. Maltose and waxes3. Sugars and starches4. Cellulose and alcohol
Regents ReviewWhich organic compounds are needed for thesynthesis of the cell membrane, contain a largeamount of stored energy, and have been linked tocardiovascular diseases?1. complex carbohydrates2. saturated fats3. simple sugars4. polypeptides
Regents ReviewProteins ingested by animals are immediate sources of1. Glucose2. Fatty acids3. Polypeptides4. Amino Acids