1/13 Mechanisms of breathing, smokingPresentation Transcript
Describe the journey of air through the respiratory system using the following words: Larynx Pharynx Trachea Nose Alveoli Bronchi Bronchioles Do Now
Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Do Now
Aim: What mechanisms are involved in breathing?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move across walls of capillaries and alveoli Oxygen dissolves from the alveoli into bloodthrough capillary walls 2. CO2 dissolves from the blood into alveoli through capillary walls Gas Exchange
Diffusion! Remember: molecules move from high to low concentration Oxygen concentration is greater in the air so it moves to caps CO2 concentration is greater in the blood so it moves to alveoli Draw it! Let’s look at 2 alveoli Why do oxygen/CO2 move in the directions they do?
Diagrams A and B represent structures found in the human body. Diagram B represents the functional unit of which structure represented in diagram A? structure 1 structure 2 structure 3 structure 4 Regents Review
Hemoglobin Protein that binds oxygen after it diffuses into caps Transports oxygen in blood Remember, in red blood cells Transporting oxygen
We don’t suck the air in! By moving our diaphragm we change air pressure in our chest allowing air to move in and out The diaphragm is a muscle in the body under the lungs that allows for inhaling and exhaling How do we breathe?
Diaphragm contracts and flattens This creates a vacuum using air pressure Pressure in the lungs is lower than the outside so air rushes in Inhalation
Exhalation is a passive process – requires no energy Diaphragm relaxes and air pressure pushes the air back out of the lungs Note: these processes only work if chest cavity is sealed
If punctured, air pressure
leaks out and can’t inhale or exhale Exhalation
Regents Review Which row in the chart below correctly shows what systems A, B, and C provide for the human body?
Inhale vs. Exhale
Breathing is initiated by the brain in the medulla Don’t have to think about breathing – you do it subconsciously Brain monitors CO2 level Breathing increases as CO2 level increases You can control your breathing if needed – think of when you play an instrument! Breathing and Homeostasis
Smoking and the Respiratory System Some chemicals can bypass cilia and mucus and cause damage Chemicals in tobacco smoke damage structures in the system Dangerous chemicals: Nicotine – addictive; increases blood pressure and heart rate Constricts blood vessels in circulatory system Carbon monoxide – blocks oxygen binding to hemoglobin Tar – 60% of compounds cause cancer
Tobacco smoke paralyzes cilia Can’t push particles up – develop “smoker’s cough” Swelling of respiratory tract Reduces airflow Other problems with smoking
Chronic bronchitis Bronchi get inflamed and filled with mucus Emphysema Loss of elasticity and breakdown of lung tissue Cannot get oxygen into alveoli and in blood Lung cancer 87% of lung cancer comes from smoking Second hand smoke increase rate of disease of others in circulatory and respiratory system, too – especially kids. Diseases caused by smoking
Smoking may damage the respiratory system because deposits from the smoke can interfere with ciliary action in the trachea trigger the release of antigens by the alveoli block the transmission of impulses that regulate breathing lower blood pressure in the mucous membranes of the bronchioles Regents Review
Deposits from cigarette smoke are most likely to interfere with the ciliated mucous membranes located in both the trachea and esophagus alveoli and liver nasal cavity and trachea epiglottis and esophagus Regents Review
The table below provides some information concerning organelles and organs. Based on this information, which statement accurately compares organelles to organs? Functions are carried out more efficiently by organs than by organelles. Organs maintain homeostasis while organelles do not. Organelles carry out functions similar to those of organs. Organelles function in multicellular organisms while organs function in single-celled organism Regents Review