1/13 Mechanisms of breathing, smoking
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1/13 Mechanisms of breathing, smoking

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1/13 Mechanisms of breathing, smoking 1/13 Mechanisms of breathing, smoking Presentation Transcript

  • Describe the journey of air through the respiratory system using the following words:
    Larynx
    Pharynx
    Trachea
    Nose
    Alveoli
    Bronchi
    Bronchioles
    Do Now
  • Nose
    Pharynx
    Larynx
    Trachea
    Bronchi
    Bronchioles
    Alveoli
    Do Now
  • Aim: What mechanisms are involved in breathing?
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide move across walls of capillaries and alveoli
    Oxygen dissolves from the alveoli
    into bloodthrough capillary walls
    2. CO2 dissolves from the blood
    into alveoli through capillary walls
    Gas Exchange
  • Diffusion!
    Remember: molecules move from high to low concentration
    Oxygen concentration is greater in the air so it moves to caps
    CO2 concentration is greater in the blood so it moves to alveoli
    Draw it!
    Let’s look at
    2 alveoli
    Why do oxygen/CO2 move in the directions they do?
  • Diagrams A and B represent structures found in the human body. Diagram B represents the functional unit of which structure represented in diagram A?
    structure 1
    structure 2
    structure 3
    structure 4
    Regents Review
  • Hemoglobin
    Protein that binds oxygen after it diffuses into caps
    Transports oxygen in blood
    Remember, in red blood cells
    Transporting oxygen
  • We don’t suck the air in!
    By moving our diaphragm we change air pressure in our chest allowing air to move in and out
    The diaphragm is a muscle in
    the body under the lungs that
    allows for inhaling and exhaling
    How do we breathe?
  • Diaphragm contracts and flattens
    This creates a vacuum using air pressure
    Pressure in the lungs is lower than the outside so air rushes in
    Inhalation
  • Exhalation is a passive process – requires no energy
    Diaphragm relaxes and air pressure pushes the air back out of the lungs
    Note: these processes only
    work if chest cavity is sealed
    • If punctured, air pressure
    leaks out and can’t inhale or
    exhale
    Exhalation
  • Regents Review
    Which row in the chart below correctly shows what systems A, B, and C provide for the human body?
  • Inhale vs. Exhale
  • Breathing is initiated by the brain in the medulla
    Don’t have to think about breathing – you do it subconsciously
    Brain monitors CO2 level
    Breathing increases as CO2 level increases
    You can control your breathing if needed – think
    of when you play an instrument!
    Breathing and Homeostasis
  • Smoking and the Respiratory System
    Some chemicals can bypass cilia and mucus and cause damage
    Chemicals in tobacco smoke damage structures in the system
    Dangerous chemicals:
    Nicotine – addictive; increases blood pressure and heart rate
    Constricts blood vessels in circulatory system
    Carbon monoxide – blocks oxygen binding to hemoglobin
    Tar – 60% of compounds cause cancer
  • Tobacco smoke paralyzes cilia
    Can’t push particles up – develop “smoker’s cough”
    Swelling of respiratory tract
    Reduces airflow
    Other problems with smoking
  • Chronic bronchitis
    Bronchi get inflamed and filled with mucus
    Emphysema
    Loss of elasticity and breakdown of lung tissue
    Cannot get oxygen into alveoli and in blood
    Lung cancer
    87% of lung cancer comes from smoking
    Second hand smoke increase rate of disease of others in circulatory and respiratory system, too – especially kids.
    Diseases caused by smoking
  • Smoking may damage the respiratory system because deposits from the smoke can
    interfere with ciliary action in the trachea
    trigger the release of antigens by the alveoli
    block the transmission of impulses that regulate breathing
    lower blood pressure in the mucous membranes of the bronchioles
    Regents Review
  • Deposits from cigarette smoke are most likely to interfere with the ciliated mucous membranes located in both the
    trachea and esophagus
    alveoli and liver
    nasal cavity and trachea
    epiglottis and esophagus
    Regents Review
  • The table below provides some
    information concerning organelles and organs.
    Based on this information, which statement accurately compares organelles to organs?
    Functions are carried out more efficiently by organs than by organelles.
    Organs maintain homeostasis while organelles do not.
    Organelles carry out functions similar to those of organs.
    Organelles function in multicellular organisms while organs function in single-celled organism
    Regents Review