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Sustainable Design Principles

Sustainable Design Principles






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    Sustainable Design Principles Sustainable Design Principles Presentation Transcript

    • Sustainable Design Principles
    • The U.S. Green Building Council
    • The U.S. Green Building Council
    • LEED Green Building Rating System
      Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
    • Sustainable Sites
      Limit expansion of developed areas, preserve ecologically productive land
      Prevent site disturbance during construction
      Do not develop on inappropriate sites
      Develop in areas with existing infrastructure, not greenfields
      Redevelop brownfield sites
      site selection
    • Sustainable Sites
      Reduce emissions & land development impacts from vehicle use
      Public transportation access
      Bicycle storage & changing rooms
      Preferred parking for fuel efficient vehicles & carpools
      Reduce parking capacity (minimum zoning requirements)
    • Sustainable Sites
      Reduce pollutants & strain on infrastructure,
      Reduce stormwater quantity, improve quality (wetlands & vegetated filtration)
      Maximize open areas on the site
      Protect or restore habitat
      Eliminate heat island effect
      Light pollution reduction
      stormwater / development
    • Water Efficiency
      Eliminate potable water use for irrigation, reduce demand on infrastructure & natural resources
      Use native vegetation
      Capture rainwater for irrigation
      Eliminate site irrigation systems
      Reuse condensate water from HVAC systems
    • Water Efficiency
      Eliminate potable water demand for conveying wastewater
      Treat wastewater on-site
      Use stormwater/graywater for sewage conveyance
      Use high efficiency/dry fixtures
      Reduce demand on infrastructure
    • Water Efficiency
      Conserve water – it is a natural resource
      Energy Policy Act of 2005
      Use high efficiency/dry fixtures
      Recycle graywater
      Dual flush toilets/low flow shower heads
      reduce water consumption
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      Many systems are designed correctly, but installed or operated improperly
      A quality-oriented process for achieving, verifying and documenting the performance of facilities, systems and assemblies to meet defined objectives and criteria
      Cost of fundamental commissioning +/- $1/SF
      Owner develops project requirements
      Designer develops basis of design
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      Commissioning requirements should be incorporated into the construction documents
      Enhanced commissioning includes systems manuals, training & a 10-month review
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      optimize energy performance
      Reduce energy consumption (reduces pollution)
      Includes building envelope, HVAC, lighting
      Minimum standard:
      ASHRAE 90.1-2007
      Up to 19 points available for 48% energy reduction
      Over 20,000 SF requires whole building energy simulation
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      optimize energy performance
      Building orientation, improved building shell
      Appropriately-sized HVAC systems
      Energy recovery from exhaust air
      Harvest on-site energy: solar, wind, geothermal
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      CFC’s deplete the ozone layer
      No CFC’s permitted, phase out of old facilities
      Reduce use of CFC’s, HCFC’s, HFC’s
      Consider use of natural refrigerants: carbon dioxide, ammonia, propane
      reduce refrigerants
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      Maintain equipment: prevent leakage into the atmosphere
      Depleted ozone layer permits ultraviolet rays to penetrate the atmosphere
      reduce refrigerants
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      Measure building energy consumption over time
      Establish a base year of operation
      Compare future performance to the base
      M&V period starts after reasonable occupation & stability
      measure & verify
    • Energy & Atmosphere
      Promote alternative energy sources
      Purchase at least 35% of electricity from Green-e certified provider
      Tradable renewable energy certificates (REC’s) can be used
      green power
    • Materials & Resources
      Reduce materials extracted, reduce their transportation
      Reduce: materials extracted
      Reuse: existing products
      Recycle: demolition & construction waste
      ReStore: Habitat for Humanity
      Regional: sustainable for the environment & the economy
      the 3 R’s + 2
    • Materials & Resources
      Reduce waste hauled to & disposed of in landfills
      During construction: develop waste management plan
      Operation: provide an area within the building for storage & collection of recyclables
      Minimum: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastic & metals
    • Materials & Resources
      Extend life cycle of existing buildings, reduce impact of new buildings as they relate to materials & transportation
      Reuse structure & envelope
      Reuse interior partitions & products where possible
      Do not reuse contaminants & hazardous materials
      Upgrade HVAC, windows & plumbing fixtures for increased efficiency
      building reuse
    • Materials & Resources
      Reuse building materials, reduce demand for virgin materials
      “One man’s trash….”
      Consider furnishings
      Other options: posts & beams, flooring, doors, brick, cabinetry
      materials reuse
    • Materials & Resources
      Reduce demand for virgin materials
      Post-consumer: generated by households & businesses
      Pre-consumer: generated by manufacturing process
      Many suppliers list recycled content
      Establish goals during the design phase
      recycled content
    • Materials & Resources
      Steelcase “Context” furniture
      40% recycled content
      8% post-consumer recycled content
      92% recyclable
      Context also incorporates water-based adhesives with low VOC’s
      recycled content
    • Materials & Resources
      Reduce impact of transportation
      Options: concrete, block, brick, wood products
      West Virginia is in a great location (500 mile radius)
      Creates healthier local economy
      regional materials
    • Materials & Resources
      Reduce depletion of finite raw materials
      10-year plant-to-harvest cycle
      Options: bamboo, wool, linoleum, cork, wheatboard, even poplar
      rapidly renewable materials
    • Materials & Resources
      Encourage environmentally responsible forest management
      Current standard: Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
      Most West Virginia forests adhere to Sustainable Forest Initiative (SFI) standard
      USGBC is reviewing this credit to possibly include SFI
      certified woods
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
      Enhance indoor air quality in buildings
      Indoor air can be 2-5 times more polluted than outdoor air
      Prevent “sick building syndrome”
      Standard for fresh air:
      ASHRAE 62.1-2007
      Eliminate or contain tobacco smoke
      minimum performance
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
      We all need fresh air!
      Measure fresh air delivery
      Increase natural ventilation… can be difficult while reducing energy use
      Monitor air quality during construction to keep workers safe
      Protect systems during construction
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
      Reduce harmful contaminants released by many materials
      Adhesives & sealants (GreenSeal standard)
      Paints/stains (low VOC)
      Flooring (Green Label, Floor Score)
      Composite wood (no urea formaldehyde)…remember Katrina trailers
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
      Minimize exposure to pollutants in the indoor environment
      Entryway systems
      Housekeeping, copy/print rooms & laundry areas: separate HVAC systems
      MERV 13 filters
      reduce pollutants
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
      Promote productivity, comfort & well-being of occupants
      Controllability of lighting & HVAC systems
      Set increased HVAC design parameters for temperature & humidity
      Give a majority of occupants access to daylight & views
      occupant comfort
    • Innovation & Design Process
      Be rewarded for exceptional performance above LEED requirements
      Education of the users & general public
      Life cycle cost analysis
      additional items…
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Awarded commission in October 2000
      Presented green design study to the Superintendent in 2002
      Incorporated affordable green design features
      Construction bids received in March 2004
      Building occupied fall term 2006
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Sustainable Sites:
      Building orientation
      Erosion and sedimentation control
      Stormwater management
      Stormwater filtering
      Holding pond
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Explored, but not incorporated:
      Bicycle storage
      Reflective roof to combat heat island effect
      Bid add alternate was $95K – not accepted
      Preferred parking for energy efficient vehicles
      Could be implemented now at no cost
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Water efficiency:
      No landscape irrigation
      Water use reduction
      Dual flush fixtures
      Water saving fixtures
      Explored, but not incorporated:
      Graywater system
      Bid add alternate was $200K, not accepted
      Graywater sprinkler system
      Bid add alternate was $250K, not accepted
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Energy & Atmosphere:
      High efficiency equipment
      Condensing boilers (95%+ efficient)
      Chiller heat recovery
      Fluorescent lighting, high CRI
      CFC reduction
      No ozone-depleting refrigerants
      Explored, but not incorporated:
      Full system commissioning
      Estimated cost was $200K
      Measurement & verification
      Estimated cost was $20K
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Materials & Resources:
      Storage & collection of recyclables
      Educational opportunities of recycling
      Local & regional materials
      Explored, but not incorporated:
      Construction waste recycling
      Estimated cost was $50K
      Rapidly renewable materials
      Wood from managed forests
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Indoor environmental quality:
      CO2 monitoring/control
      Construction IAQ management
      Low VOC-emitting adhesives, paints & carpets
      HVAC digital control system
      Building orientation
      Automatic light level control
      Benefits of natural light
      Reduce energy consumption
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Cost breakdown:
      Sustainable Sites
      Water Efficiency
      Estimated at $50K
      Energy & Atmosphere
      Estimated at $50K
      Materials & Resources
      Indoor Environmental Quality
      Estimated at $625K (daylighting & lighting controls make up $600K of this cost)
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      First costs vs. long-term benefits:
      First cost of green features
      $3.23 per square foot
      Percent of construction costs
      = 2.25%
    • ZMM Case Studies
      Lincoln County High School
      Long-term benefits:
      Lower natural gas consumption
      Lower water consumption
      Lower electricity consumption
      Longer life of HVAC equipment
      Lower absenteeism
      Higher student & teacher performance
      Much better indoor air quality
      Lower impact on the environment
    • ZMM Case Studies
      WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
      Sustainable Sites:
      The project site has access to public transportation
      A bicycle storage & shower area (potentially a campus-wide facility) should be developed to encourage bicycle commuting for employees who live nearby
      Prime parking areas should be developed for employees who carpool, as well as for alternative fuel vehicles
      The new roof will be highly reflective to reduce heat island effect
    • ZMM Case Studies
      WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
      Water Efficiency:
      Low flow & dual flush fixtures will be used throughout
      All new landscaping plans should utilize native vegetation
    • ZMM Case Studies
      WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
      Energy & Atmosphere:
      New windows will help reduce solar heat gain
      New, more efficient HVAC system will replace the perimeter induction units
      Systems will be commissioned to ensure that all mechanical and electrical systems operate properly
    • ZMM Case Studies
      WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
      Materials & Resources:
      Recycling areas are developed for each floor, and should be developed for the entire campus
      A recycling program should be established, and all employees educated in the process
      A construction waste management plan will be implemented
      Included in the specifications
      Has already included recycling of the demolished demountable partitions
    • ZMM Case Studies
      WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
      Materials & Resources:
      Recycled content materials will be utilized, including drywall, steel & acoustic ceiling tiles
      Locally & regionally produced materials will be used, including acoustic ceiling tiles, plywood,
      carpeting & resilient flooring
      Cradle-to-Cradle certified furniture systems are specified
      Raised floor with a modular, “plug & play” wiring system will eliminate future demolition waste
    • ZMM Case Studies
      WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
      Indoor Environmental Quality:
      Smoking will be prohibited near entryways & near air intakes
      An indoor air quality (IAQ) management plan will be implemented during construction
      Air quality will be measured & verified in all occupied areas to ensure that occupants are receiving enough fresh air
      All paints, mastics & sealants will contain low VOC’s
      Regular replacement of mechanical filters should be implemented
    • Final thoughts….
      It’s not about doing less…
      It’s about designing better!