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  • The ASCP generally supports state licensure.As of November 2009, 11 states have licensure for at least some laboratory professions. Other states do not license, but require more stringent education/training requirements than are stipulated in the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 ( CLIA). The following states have licensure for at least some laboratory personnel:California (1937), Florida(19760,Nevada(1967),Tennessee (1967), Hawaii(1974), North Dakota(1990), West Virginia(1991), Rhode Island(1992), Louisiana(1992), Montana(1993), New York(2004), Puerto Rico (1939).These following state have legislature active attempting to obtain state licensure or regulations:Minnesota, Texas, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Vermont, Washington, New Jersey, Iowa, Utah, Ohio, South Carolina, Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Dakota, Delaware, Missouri, Georgia, Alaska.
  • A contributing factor that has influenced the reduced number of histology graduates are the increased education and certification requirements for an entry level position. This began in 2005 when credit issued toward certification from OJT training and work experience was eliminated. Attainment of college course completion in math, anatomy and chemistry and formal training is now required. The ASCP made this decision based on demands for higher quality, more productivity, and accuracy in laboratory practice- all considerations that have been correlated with increased education and training. The goal of course, has been to encourage those currently working and those entering the field to become better trained and more knowledgeable. In the long term, this is a good goal, but the short-term effects add to the present “not enough” situation by making the initial entry into the field more demanding and time consuming.
  • Source: Lab Medicine Official Publication of the American Society for Clinical Pathology, ASCP 2009. vol. 40, no. 3. pp.133-141. Hiring DifficultiesAt the staff level, vacancies in the histology and microbiology departments took longest to fill . At the supervisor level, histology and blood banking/transfusion medicine supervisory positions were the hardest to fill, at 24.0% and 23.0%. Overall 13.7 % of histology vacancies took longer than one year to fill.
  • Hourly wages by job category demonstrate a relationship between compensation and both educational level and experience
  • .
  • Source 2010 ASCP wage survey http://labmed.ascpjournals.org/content/42/3/141.full.pdf
  • Histology salaries are driven by: 1. local supply and demand, 2. negotiationLocal demands, different pay scales, and individual factors have resulted in a chaotic salary situation. South central Atlantic includes Alabama, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Kentucky, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, N/S Carolinas, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. Buesa, R. Better Pay for Histotechs. How Negotiation Can help Fatten Your Paycheck. Advance Magazine, Jan. 26, 2008. Vol. 20. No.2.
  • The pass rates have remained relatively stable over time. Here are the 2011 certification exam statistics as an example of the level of certification exam difficulty. There is some increase in the number of test takers, but the pass rates are approximately 65% in general. The burden of improving pass rates is primarily on the directors and faculty of training programs to improve curriculum and instructional methods.
  • Histotechnology Flash CardsOrder # 5930 | ISBN: 9780891895930 Authors:Freida L. Carson Christa Hladik Description:Designed for quick and easy self-study for the ASCP HTL certifying examination, HistoDeck flash cards include questions structured like those on the exam. The cards cover content based on the new third edition of Freida Carson’s classic Histotechnology volume and include additional images not included in the book. If you use flash cards for exam prep, this is the study tool for you.Contents:Fixation (38 questions, 13 images)Immunohistochemistry (30 questions, 6 images)Instrumentation (20 questions, 15 images)Processing (19 questions, 10 images)Routine staining (33 questions, 17 images)Safety (32 questions, 5 images)Special staining (74 questions, 39 images)Miscellaneous (34 questions, 6 images)Combo Price!(Order both the Histotechnology text and the HistoDeck Flash Cards)List Price: $195.00Member Price: $170.00
  • Example simple recall question AExample recall question 2- The correct answer is C. An enzyme used to identify glycogen is diastase. Glycogen is removed from a tissue section by diastase digestion. Identification is done by comparing the results for PAS staining of the digested slide versus the undigested tissue sections.
  • D- the correct answer is D. Carbohydrates can be divided into 2 major groups, polysaccharides, glycogen being the major polysaccharide found in animals, and a larger group called mucosubstances, that includes mucopolysaccharides, mucoproteins, and mucolipids. Example tax II – question 4- The correct answer is B. Diastase should remove glycogen from a tissue section making it possible to determine sites of positivity on the undigested slide that result from PAS + staining of glycogen. This provides a level of histochemical specificity for glycogen.


  • 1. Opportunities and Routes for HTCertification and QIHC Qualification Joelle Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 2
  • 2. Introduction• In this presentation I hope to clarify the professional advantages to pursuing ASCP certification as well as talk about the process and the registry exam itself.• I hope that this will provide some helpful information for anyone contemplating certification but who is not sure what is involved or where to begin. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 3
  • 3. Learning ObjectivesAt the conclusion of this presentation participants will be able to:1. Identify the mission of the BOC in providing certification.2. Discuss the benefits of certification.3. Differentiate between licensure and certification.4. Identify vacancy and wage factors affecting employment opportunities in histology.5. Identify the routes and the requirements for eligibility for the HT certification exam and the QIHC qualification.6. Identify the HT exam content, format, and scope.7. Discuss the CMP requirements for histology certifications.8. Identify opportunities and resources for education and training in histotechnology. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 4
  • 4. BOC Mission• The Board of certification mission is to “provide excellence in certification for laboratory professionals”.• The largest and oldest pathology and laboratory medicine society and is the “gold standard” in certification for laboratory professionals. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 5
  • 5. History and structure of the BOC Founded in 1928 by the ASCP. To date over 460,000 individuals have been certified. The ASCP is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The board of Governors of the ASCP BOC consists of 25 members:• 5 pathologists nominated by ASCP• 5 laboratory professionals nominated by ASCP• 4 representatives from the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (ASCLS).• 2 representatives from the Association of Genetic Technologists (AGT).• 1 other representative from a laboratory society• 1 public mentor J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 6
  • 6. What is certification?• Certification is the process by which a non-governmental agency grants recognition of competence to an individual who has met certain predetermined qualifications as specified by the granting agency. Having certification is typically offered within an industry to uphold certain standards.• Licensure is mandated through regulatory or government agencies which define title and scope of practice.• Certification is generally voluntary, but can be required or part of the licensure process. Licensure is generally a required process necessary to practice within a defined jurisdiction. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 7
  • 7. Why become certified?• Certification demonstrates your commitment to the profession.• Employers prefer and often require certifications.• Demonstrating competency via certification can provide you a competitive advantage for more job opportunities, higher pay, and increased job security.• ASCP Survey results show that 69.4% of staff and 91.6% of supervisors in histology departments are certified (2011 ASCP Vacancy Survey of Clinical Laboratories). J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 8
  • 8. Factors & barriers affecting certification• ASCP policy and elimination of OJT route.• Education and training availability.• Lack of public awareness of histotechnology field.• Lack of knowledge of the certification process, requirements and steps involved.• Lack of knowledge of benefits to individuals for becoming certified.• I hope to address most of these topics within this presentation. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 9
  • 9. ASCP policy to support recognition has inadvertently created barriers to entry• In 2005 the ASCP eliminated the high school and OJT and route for HT certification in an effort to increase the professional perception of the field, and attract high quality applicants to the struggling Histotechnology profession.• While the intention was to raise the status of the profession, this has made some increased obstacles for new candidates for ASCP certification in histology. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 10
  • 10. Histology is a great professionDEMAND IS AN OPPORTUNITY J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 11
  • 11. Lab Careers- Opportunity Overview• The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects clinical laboratory technician employment growth of 14.7 percent between 2010 and 2020, adding 23,800 more professionals to the 161,200 jobs currently in this field.• One of the most appealing aspects of this profession is the relatively easy attainability of the education and training requirements as compared to many other medical professions.• Most laboratory technicians possess an associates degree from a community college or junior college program accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS). More complex procedures are reserved for clinical laboratory technologists, who must possess a bachelors degree.• Those that successfully complete training and certification are in huge demand, and often get placed into jobs very rapidly. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 12
  • 12. Overview of HT Demand• Nationally, the majority of laboratories filled most positions within six months of posting an opening, however a statistically significant number of openings take longer than one year to fill .• Across the nation, vacancy rates were highest for blood banking (11.6%), histology (9.81%), and chemistry (8.62%) departments. The lowest vacancy rates occurred in the departments of cytology (5.14%) and immunology (5.56%).• There were an estimated 28,400 working histologists as of 2008. However ½ of those 28,400 will reach retirement age in the next 4 years.• Consider that an estimated 31,200 new histotechs will be needed by 2015 to replace retirees and anticipated need by 2015. Since only 477 new HT were certified as of 2009, then potential there will be a potential deficit of over 29,000 certified HT staff by 2015.• According the an ASCP report, laboratory managers appear to choose certified rather than non-certified staff .• Obtaining certification will ensure that you are competitive in the current job market and prepared to meet the demand of new testing methods, accreditation and in many states licensure requirements. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 13
  • 13. “Big Picture” StatisticsOverall % of Histology % of Histology % of HistologyHistology staff certified vacancies staff expectedvacancy rate taking more to retire than 1 year to within 5 years fill9.81% 69.4% 13.7% 15.3%Data: ASCP 2011 Vacancy Survey of US Laboratories. Lab Medicine. Vol.42. No. 4. pp. 193-256 J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 14
  • 14. General Correlation of Education & Job Skills to Earnings J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 15
  • 15. How much do Histologists earn?SALARY INFORMATION J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 16
  • 16. Wage by Occupational Title in the Laboratory J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 17
  • 17. Breakdown of national wage level averages for HT and HTL’s• Staff level HTs earn an average of $22.68 (SD = $5.28) per hour.• Certified staff HTs earns 14.7% more than non- certified HT staff.• The average hourly wage for staff HTLs is $26.00 (SD = $5.83).• * 2010 ASCP Wage Survey of Clinical Laboratories J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 18
  • 18. Regional salary variations-2005 dataRegions Cost of living Median Annual Median average salary/position unit (unit=100) Income ( unit=1000) (unit=$5/hour) Mean Mean HT HTLNortheast 141.7 51.4 19.35 23.73East north 105.5 46.2 18.51 21.15centralSouth central 100.6 42.1 18.00 20.82AtlanticWest south 95.5 38.5 18.72 19.44centralWest north 98.5 43.6 17.08 21.32centralFar west 117.4 48.3 18.24 22.54National totals 109.9 45.0 18.47 21.63 J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 19
  • 19. How do I begin the steps to get certified?PROCESS TO CERTIFICATION J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 20
  • 20. Routes to HT ASCP certificationTo be eligible for the HT examination category, an applicant must satisfy the requirements of at least one of the following routes:Route 1:Successful completion of a NAACLS accredited Histotechnician program within the last 5 years prior to the date of application for examination; ORRoute 2:At least 60 semester hours (90 quarter hours) of academic credit from a regionallyaccredited college/university, with a combination of 12 semester hours (18 qtrs) of biology and chemistry (must include credit hours in both), or an associate degree from a regionallyaccredited college/university, with a combination of 12 semester hours (18 quarterhours)of biology and chemistry (must include credit hours in both), AND one year full timeacceptable experience in a histopathology (clinical, veterinary, industry or research)laboratory in the U.S., Canada or an accredited laboratory* within the last ten years. * laboratory accredited by a CMS approved accreditation organization (i.e., AABB, CAP, COLA, DNV, The Joint Commission, etc.). J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 21
  • 21. Experience Requirements• To fulfill the experience requirement for the Histotechnician examination, you must have experience, within the last ten years, in the following areas: • Fixation • Microtomy • Processing • Staining• Full-time experience is defined as a minimum of thirty-five (35) hours per week. Individuals who have part-time experience may be permitted to utilize prorated part-time experience.• To document your clinical laboratory experience (if required):• Use experience documentation forms (for the appropriate certification category and route number) must be downloaded and printed from the ASCP website at www.ascp.org/certification . J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 22
  • 22. Establishing eligibilityEligibility to take a certification examination is established by:1. Meeting the stated minimum requirements for the particular category of certification2. Submission of the appropriate application form3. Payment of the appropriate application fee4. Submission of all appropriate documentation including official transcripts indicating the appropriate degreeBefore your examination eligibility can be determined, you must submit theappropriate documents verifying that you meet the current ASCP Board ofCertification requirements before you are eligible to sit for the registry exam. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 23
  • 23. Verification of Academic Education• If college credits are required for the examination category, you must submit an official transcript or transcript evaluation.• Continuing Education courses are not acceptable in fulfilling the academic requirements. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 24
  • 24. Verification of TrainingRoute 1. NAACLS or CAAHEP Accredited Programs• If you are currently enrolled in or have completed a NAACLS or CAAHEP accredited training program within the last five years, the printed application form must include the program director’s name and the school code number must be indicated. The education received from a NAACLS or CAAHEP accredited program is acceptable for a period of five (5) years from the date of completion of that program.Route 2:• You must download the appropriate training documentation form from the ASCP web site at: www.ascp.org/certification .• If you are unable to download the form, go to www.aspc.org or fax us at 312-541- 4845 to request printed copies. The training documentation form must be completed by your program director and attached to a letter, on letterhead, signed by the program director verifying the accuracy of the information. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 25
  • 25. Application Process• The steps in the application process are outlined within the handout with links to important forms and contact information. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 26
  • 26. What can I expect when I sit for the HT registry exam?ASCP HT EXAMINATION J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 27
  • 27. Exam content-Knowledge Areas• Fixation-10-25%• Processing & embedding 10-14%• Microtomy 10-14%• Staining 40-50%• Laboratory Operations 10-15% J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 28
  • 28. CAT Testing formatComputer Adaptive Testing (CAT) -1. An examinee’s score on the exam is not influenced by the scores of other examinees who take the exam.2. When you answer correctly, the next test question has a slightly higher level of difficulty. The difficulty level of the questions presented to the examinee continues to increase until a question is answered incorrectly. Then a slightly easier question is presented. In this way the test is tailored to the individual’s ability level.3. Each question, in the test bank is calibrated for level of difficulty, the weight (value) given to each question is determined by the level of difficulty.4. The examinee must answer enough difficult questions to achieve a score above the pass point.5. To pass the certification examination, the examinee’s scores must exceed the minimum pass score.6. You will have to check in at the testing center with your admission letter, identification and no calculators allowed. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 29
  • 29. Question taxonomy- levels of question difficulty• Taxonomy I (level 1) RECALL - ability to recognize knowledge from specific facts to theory.• Taxonomy II ( level 2) INTERPRETATION -ability to utilize recalled knowledge to interpret or apply data.• Taxonomy III ( level 3) PROBLEM SOLVING -ability to utilize recalled information and the application of distinct criteria to resolve problems or make appropriate decisions. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 30
  • 30. Question format• All questions are multiple choice and will appear on the screen one at a time.• You must answer one at a time ( can’t skip).• Color photos, diagrams, charts and other images may be incorporated and appear on the screen with the question. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 31
  • 31. ASCP Exam Statistics for January – December 2011Exam 1st year Mean # Taking Pass rate 1st TotalType certified exam attempt certified pass for (ever) program gradsHT 1948 458 772 519 test takers - 327-74% 22,416 67%HTL 1980 443 283 183 test takers- 100-35% 3,141 65% J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 32
  • 32. How do I prepare for the exam?SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY ANDPREPARATION J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 33
  • 33. Study Resources-Foundation Text • Histotechnology: A Self-Instructional Text (3rd Edition) ISBN: 9780891895817 • Authors: Freida L. Carson and Christa Hladik List Price: $150.00, Member Price: $115.00 • Combo Price! (Order both the Histotechnology text and the HistoDeck Flash Cards) List Price: $195.00 Member Price: $170.00 • Histotechnology: Complete Study Package, Order # HTPK3, Get the complete Histotechnology Study package -- textbook, workbook, and HistoDeck flash cards. • Available @ ASCP http://www.ascp.org/ASCPStore/Store/Books /5817.aspx J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 34
  • 34. Study Guide • Board of Registry Study Guide: Histotechnology Examinations (2nd edition), Order # 473X | ISBN: 089189473X • Authors: Freida Carson, PhD Laura Culver Edgar, MT(ASCP) Donna Surges Tatum, PhD • The guide includes: • Guidelines for taking the test • Information about the development, content, structure and scoring of the test • Practice questions and answers • Image-based questions • List Price: $65.00 • Member Price: $50.00 • http://www.ascp.org/Store/Books/Board- Registry-Study-Guide-Histotechnology-J. Weaver MAOM,Examinations-2nd-edition.html#StoreList HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 35
  • 35. From the ASCP website• Reading lists http://www.ascp.org/PDF/BOC- PDFs/Bibliography/ReadingListHTL.aspx• Exam content guidelines http://www.ascp.org/PDF/BOC- PDFs/Guidelines/ExaminationContentGuidelineHT.aspx• Online practice tests includes a 90-day online access to the practice tests, comprehensive diagnostic scores, and discussion boards. If you are an institutional purchaser that would like to pay by check or purchase order (minimum of 20 tests to use a check or purchase order), download Order Form (PDF). http://www.ascp.org/Board-of-Certification/Exam-Preparation/Online- practice-tests• BOR Study guide ( shown previously) http://www.ascp.org/Store/Books/Board- Registry-Study-Guide-Histotechnology-Examinations-2nd-edition.html#StoreList J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 36
  • 36. NSH Study Materials• The NSH provides many study resources including texts, self assessments, flash cards, an on line learning center, and other study aids offered through the NSH marketplace.• Certification study aids page located at : http://www.nsh.org/content/certification- exam-study-aids J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 37
  • 37. Study strategy for success• There is NO substitute for knowing the material.• You will be able to do well by thorough preparation, and by use of practice questions to learn how to take this type of test well.• Go in knowing the exam format, question types and topics.• Use a process of elimination for “stumpers” as with all MC tests .• Don’t be overly critical of yourself, there has never been a perfect registry exam score- simply do your best. ( note the score range is 400-999).• Make sure you are well rested on exam day! J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 38
  • 38. Using content guidelines• This is NOT simply a recall examination, so you must strive to learn the underlying theory and principles and be able to apply them to presented situations and problems. This replicates actual practical use of knowledge in lab situations.• The exam covers ALL of histology practice, so techniques, stains and methods you may not perform in your job will be topics for questions. The exam committee designs the test to cover as broad a “scope of practice” as possible.• I encourage you NOT just to attempt memorization. Not only will this only be stored in short term memory and quickly forgotten. You will likely do poorly on application and taxonomy II & III questions if you only memorize.• I recommend using the content guidelines with the resource texts to fill in and expand the information on the outline. But flash cards or other study methods may work well for you.• Once you have worked through the outline, use practice questions and tests to determine your weak areas to go back over and devote more study time. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 39
  • 39. Content Category• Content area= Staining – know tissues, procedures, instrumentation, reagents/dyes, & mounting procedures ( following content guideline).• Subtopic = Histochemical stains• Stain Group =Carbohydrates = aldehyde or ketone derivatives of alcohols. Occur as polymerized sugar chains, often combined with proteins or lipids. CHO categories: Polysaccharides and Mucopolysaccharides( mucosubstances) including neutral, acid, sulfated, non-sulfated (carboxylated), mucoproteins, glycoproteins, Mucolipids . Some CHO special stain examples: PAS, PAS-D, Best’s Carmine, Alcian Blue ( pH 1.0, 2.5), Colloidal Iron J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 40
  • 40. Grouping Carbohydrates• Glycogen- only polysaccharide found in higher animals as a polymer of glucose.• Mucopolysaccharides are highly polymerized disaccharide units divided into acid and neutral.• Acid mucopolysaccharides ( mucosubstances) often called “mucin”.• Complexes of mucopolysaccharides with lipids, proteins also. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 41
  • 41. CHO Category Table & StainsCHO type Tissue element Histochemical stainPolysaccharide-glycogen Hepatocytes, muscle PAS-D, Best’s Carmine, AB -, Coll. Fe-Neutral Mucosubstances GI epithelium, thyroid colloid, Mucicarmine ( GI Goblet cells epithelium), PAS +Acid mucosubstances Many tissues, sublingual AB + glands, non –sulfated in synovial membranesSulfated mucosubstances Goblet cells(weak sulfated), AB +, Mucicarmine + duodenal and colonicMucoproteins Basement membranes, Weak AB, PAS +, Coll. Fe - mucoid cells pituitaryGlycoproteins Collagen, reticulin, CT Trichrome, PAS +, Faint AB, Coll. Fe -Mucolipids Cerebrosides, nerve tissue PAS +, AB -, Coll. Fe- J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 42
  • 42. Dissecting a special stain• Technique- Periodic Acid Schiff Reaction• Application: most often used to demonstrate basement membranes, glycogen and fungus, and PAS + mucosubstances secreted by epithelium of GI, lung, cervix. Used to differentiate between secreting adenocarcinomas vs. undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma ( PAS-).• Principle: Tissue is first oxidized by periodic acid. The oxidation results in the formation of aldehyde groups where CHO are present in tissue elements. The aldehydes are detected by the application of Schiff’s ( Leucofushin). Sulfurous rinses follow to remove excess and to prevent false + oxidation by air exposure. Warm water rinses intensify color.• Results- PAS + tissue elements are rose to rose- red, counterstain depends on method. Hematoxylin, light green common; light green typically used with fungus.• + Control depends on technique used; liver, kidney, fungus containing, cervix. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 43
  • 43. Example organization for study• PAS – Periodic Acid Schiff Reaction• General stain category : Histochemical, CHO stain.• Used with/for:• Glycogen- PAS with/without diastase, fungus• Neutral Mucin-PAS-H• PAS for fungus• PAS –basement membranes• Considered rather non-specific CHO stain, gains specificity for glycogen with diastase. Mucins are PAS + but also stain with Mucicarmine, which is much better stain for mucins from epithelium sources. Glycogen may have diagnostic significance in tumors such as carcinomas, mesotheliomas, and rhabdomyosarcoma. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 44
  • 44. PAS Reaction Flow chart Staining mechanism ↓ Oxidation ( periodic acid) ↓ Chemical reaction ( Schiff’s reagent with aldehydes( CHO) ↓ Recolorization ( water- followed by sulfurous rinse) ↓ Counterstain ( Hematoxylin, light green)Note controls needed for technique, and that parallel control sections used with PAS- Diastase for Glycogen. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 45
  • 45. Sample Questions1. The most commonly used stain procedure for demonstration of glycogen is?A. PAS reaction with and without diastaseB. Alcian Blue-PASC. MucicarmineD. Aldehyde Fuschin2. An enzyme employed to increase specificity and identification for glycogen with PAS staining is?A. HyaluronidaseB. SialidaseC. DiastaseD. Ribonuclease J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 46
  • 46. Sample Questions3. Glycogen is a carbohydrate that is normally classified as a/an:A. Acid mucosubstanceB. MucoproteinC. GlycoproteinD. Polysaccharide4. Parallel sections are stained with PAS, ( with/without). In evaluating the stain results, the stained section should:A. Demonstrate acid mucosubstancesB. Show sites of non-staining where glycogen was removedC. Show sites of non-specific PAS + stainingD. Demonstrate that the procedure is non-specific for Glycogen J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 47
  • 47. Continuing educationMAINTENANCE OF CERTIFICATION J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 48
  • 48. Certification Maintenance Program (CMP)• After passing the examination, you will receive a packet of• information welcoming you as part of the ASCP certified laboratory• team, including:• Certificate of Certification suitable for framing, valid for three years• Certification Maintenance Program (CMP) packet• This information will be mailed to you approximately 3 – 5 weeks after the examination scores are mailed. The initials “CM” in superscript must be used after your certification initials immediately upon receipt of your certification [i.e., MLS(ASCP)CM].• In order to maintain your certification, you must complete the Certification Maintenance• Program (CMP), as described below, every three years. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 49
  • 49. CMP credits needed• HT, HTL, beginning in year 2004 – 36 CMP points required to include:• 1 point laboratory or patient safety( i.e. quality control, quality assurance)• Remaining points in area(s) of specialty, management, education or other related• laboratory areas of interest• 1 CMP point= 1 contact hour=1 CMLE credit. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 50
  • 50. CEU Sources• Formal continuing education courses—continuing education credits awarded by AACME accredited programs, ASCP CMLE approved programs, AACC ACCENT approved programs, ASCLS PACE approved programs, CE programs sponsored by other professional societies and courses taken at regionally accredited colleges/universities.• Employer offered courses (in-service, instrument training, vendor sponsored)• Competence assessment from employer (documentation of continued competency in specific laboratory areas).• Subscription or online self-instructional courses for which CMLE, ACCENT or PACE credits are awarded.• Other educational activities—such as research and preparation for presenting a workshop or course, authoring journal articles, presenting posters, etc. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 51
  • 51. Industry trends in lab careers and education• General consensus:• Not enough programs with new grads to meet demands• Lack of awareness of profession J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 52
  • 52. Histology Awareness• 2007 survey conducted by the Coordinating Council on the Clinical Laboratory Workforce (CCCLW) found that the sources which led survey respondents to first become interested in the field ( listed in order of importance) were:1. A relative or friend2. A college catalog or college visit3. A high school science teacher4. A tour of a medical laboratory5. Personal research6. Career fairs• 76% of these respondents reported that they first became aware of laboratory career options only after leaving high school. Those of us working in the field need to spread the word!• See handout for more detailed data on the state of histology programs nationally.• See handout for list of NAACLS accredited Histotechnology programs. Link to NSH Histotechnology program affiliate page with contacts http://www.nsh.org/content/schools J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 53
  • 53. Where can I find out about Histotechnology Education & Training Opportunities?• The best, most concise places to see listings of available training programs and schools is the NSH or NAACLS listings at.• NSH program list : http://www.nsh.org/content/schools• NAACLS approved program search page: http://www.naacls.org/search/programs.asp• Both websites list programs by location, instructional delivery methods, and contacts. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 54
  • 54. Scholarships• Example: Siemens and ASCP Award Over 100 Scholarships to Medical Laboratory Students in 2012 http://finance.boston.com/boston/news/read ?GUID=20884103• I have a list of other scholarships and awards available in the handout. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 55
  • 55. ASCP qualification opportunities• Qualification in Cytometry, QCYM• Qualification in Immunohistochemistry, QIHC• Qualification in Laboratory Informatics, QLI• Qualification in Laboratory Safety, QLSFor each qualification category, you’ll find a choice of routes thatyou can take to verify your eligibility for the qualification,depending on the education and training you’ve completed.http://www.ascp.org/Board-of-Certification/Qualification#tabs-1 J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 56
  • 56. What are the advantages of completing a Qualification?• Visible recognition of specific skills in a technical area with the Qualification initials after the ASCP credentials• Recognition by state licensure—the state of Florida recognizes those individuals certified and qualified as HT(ASCP)QIHC toward meeting the specialist licensure requirements for histology• More job possibilities—career mobility throughout the country• Professional growth—keeping up with state of the art technology• Each qualification is a three-year credential that may be renewed by providing documentation of continuing education activities in the appropriate discipline.• Qualification will not, in itself, entitle the individual to membership in ASCP. Individuals must be ASCP certified as a technician, technologist or specialist to be eligible for ASCP membership.• Eligibility, routes and experience requirements are listed in the handout. J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 57
  • 57. Thanks!• Thank you for allowing me to present this information to you today!• I hope that I have been able to supply some useful information, and we can take some time now to see if anyone has any questions or comments.• Note I have included a references page of resources if you need more information in the handout J. Weaver MAOM, HTL (ASCP), QIHC 2012 58