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Diffusion of Innovations Chapter 6


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Chapter 6 Summary of "Diffusion of Innovations" by Everett Rogers

Chapter 6 Summary of "Diffusion of Innovations" by Everett Rogers

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  • 1.
    • Diffusion of Innovations. Rogers, 2003
    • Chapter 6: Attributes of Innovations and Their Rate of Adoption
    • Innovation described by Five Attributes
    • Rate of Adoption is the relative speed which with an innovation is adopted by members of a social system
    • Other Variables besides the Five Attributes
      • Type of innovation decision
      • The nature of communication channels diffusing the innovation at various states in the innovation process
      • The nature of the social system in which innovation is diffusing
      • The extent of change agent’s promotion efforts in diffusing the innovation
    • Innovators requiring individual adoption is quicker than organization adoption
  • 2.
    • Research on Attributes of Innovations
    • Standard classification scheme needed so we can decide in universal terms
    • How do we measure the Five Attributes?
      • Best to create a new scale for each set of innovations adopted
      • Five main attributes are the best to use, but we should keep an open mind for other possibilities
    • Postdiction vs Prediction: looking forward
      • Extrapolation from the rule of adoption of past innovations into the future for other similar innovations
      • Describing a hypothetical innovation to its potential adopters, and determining its perceived attribites, so as to predict its forthcoming rate of adoption
      • Investigating the acceptability of an innovation in its pre-diffusion stages, such as when it is being test-marketed and elevated in trials
  • 3.
    • Relative Advantage
    • The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supercedes
    • Economic Factors and Rate of Adoption -initial cost -price effects the rate of adoption -measuring at one price point might miss entire picture of rate of adoption
    • Status Aspects of Innovation -prestige and desire to fit in or impress others
    • Over-Adoption -the adoption of an innovation by an individual when experts feel that it should be rejected -insufficient knowledge, inability to predict consequences, status aspects -Rationality: use of the most effective means to reach a given goal
  • 4.
    • Relative Advantage (cont.)
    • Relative Advantage and Rate of Adoption -the relative advantage of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption
    • Preventive Innovations -a new idea that an individual adopts now in order to lower the probability of some unwanted future event -relative advantages usually hard to perceive
    • Communication Campaign
      • Intends to generate specific effects
      • On the part of a relatively large number of individuals
      • Within a specified period of time
      • Thorugh an organized set of communication activites
  • 5.
    • Relative Advantage (cont.)
    • Incentives: direct or indirect payments of cash or in kind that are given to individuals or a system in order to encourage behavioral change
      • Adopter vs Diffuser
      • Individuals vs System
      • Positive vs Negative
      • Monetary vs Non-Monetary
      • Immediate vs Delayed
    • Conclusions
      • Incentives increase the rate of adoption of an innovation
      • Adopter incentives lead to adoption of an innovation by individuals different from those who would otherwise adopt
      • Although incentives increase the quantity of adopters, the quality decreases, therefore limiting effectiveness
  • 6.
    • Compatibility
    • The degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters
    • Compatibility with Values and Beliefs
    • Compatibility with Previously Introduced Ideas -old ideas are main mental tools to assess new ideas -innovation negativism is is degree to which an innovation’s failure conditions a potential adopter to reject future innovations
    • Compatibility with Needs -how does an innovation fulfill needs?
    • Compatibility and Rate of Adoption -the compatibility of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption
  • 7.
    • Compatibility (cont.)
    • Technology Clusters - one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being interrelated -innovation packages adopt faster than individual ones
    • Naming an Innovation -awareness of perception and meaning of the name for all potential adopters
    • Positioning an Innovation -position near similar things for easier adoption -a niche is determined by a new idea’s perceived position relative to 1. previous ideas 2. the characteristics of the new idea that make it similar to, and different from, existing ideas
  • 8.
    • Compatibility (cont.)
    • Acceptability Research -investigation of the perceived attributes of an ideal innovation in order to guide R&D so as the create such an innovation
    • Indigenous Knowledge Systems -new knowledge is not always better than old practices
  • 9.
    • Complexity
    • The degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use -the complexity of an innovation is negatively related to its rate of adoption
    • Trialability
    • The degree to which an innovation can be experimented with on a limited basis -the trialability of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption
    • Observability
    • The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others -the observability of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption