Diffusion of Innovations Chapter 6


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Chapter 6 Summary of "Diffusion of Innovations" by Everett Rogers

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Diffusion of Innovations Chapter 6

  1. 1. <ul><li>Diffusion of Innovations. Rogers, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 6: Attributes of Innovations and Their Rate of Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation described by Five Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Adoption is the relative speed which with an innovation is adopted by members of a social system </li></ul><ul><li>Other Variables besides the Five Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of innovation decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of communication channels diffusing the innovation at various states in the innovation process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the social system in which innovation is diffusing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent of change agent’s promotion efforts in diffusing the innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovators requiring individual adoption is quicker than organization adoption </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Research on Attributes of Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Standard classification scheme needed so we can decide in universal terms </li></ul><ul><li>How do we measure the Five Attributes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to create a new scale for each set of innovations adopted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five main attributes are the best to use, but we should keep an open mind for other possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postdiction vs Prediction: looking forward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrapolation from the rule of adoption of past innovations into the future for other similar innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describing a hypothetical innovation to its potential adopters, and determining its perceived attribites, so as to predict its forthcoming rate of adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating the acceptability of an innovation in its pre-diffusion stages, such as when it is being test-marketed and elevated in trials </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Relative Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supercedes </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Factors and Rate of Adoption -initial cost -price effects the rate of adoption -measuring at one price point might miss entire picture of rate of adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Status Aspects of Innovation -prestige and desire to fit in or impress others </li></ul><ul><li>Over-Adoption -the adoption of an innovation by an individual when experts feel that it should be rejected -insufficient knowledge, inability to predict consequences, status aspects -Rationality: use of the most effective means to reach a given goal </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Relative Advantage (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Advantage and Rate of Adoption -the relative advantage of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive Innovations -a new idea that an individual adopts now in order to lower the probability of some unwanted future event -relative advantages usually hard to perceive </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intends to generate specific effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the part of a relatively large number of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a specified period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorugh an organized set of communication activites </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Relative Advantage (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives: direct or indirect payments of cash or in kind that are given to individuals or a system in order to encourage behavioral change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopter vs Diffuser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals vs System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive vs Negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary vs Non-Monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate vs Delayed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives increase the rate of adoption of an innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopter incentives lead to adoption of an innovation by individuals different from those who would otherwise adopt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although incentives increase the quantity of adopters, the quality decreases, therefore limiting effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with Values and Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with Previously Introduced Ideas -old ideas are main mental tools to assess new ideas -innovation negativism is is degree to which an innovation’s failure conditions a potential adopter to reject future innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with Needs -how does an innovation fulfill needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility and Rate of Adoption -the compatibility of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Compatibility (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Clusters - one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being interrelated -innovation packages adopt faster than individual ones </li></ul><ul><li>Naming an Innovation -awareness of perception and meaning of the name for all potential adopters </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning an Innovation -position near similar things for easier adoption -a niche is determined by a new idea’s perceived position relative to 1. previous ideas 2. the characteristics of the new idea that make it similar to, and different from, existing ideas </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Compatibility (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptability Research -investigation of the perceived attributes of an ideal innovation in order to guide R&D so as the create such an innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Knowledge Systems -new knowledge is not always better than old practices </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use -the complexity of an innovation is negatively related to its rate of adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which an innovation can be experimented with on a limited basis -the trialability of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Observability </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others -the observability of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption </li></ul>