<ul><li>Diffusion of Innovations , Everett Rogers (2003) Chapter 5: The Innovation-Decision Process </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
<ul><li>The Five Steps of the Innovation-Decision Process (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion: when the individua...
<ul><li>The Five Steps of the Innovation-Decision Process (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation: when an individual s...
<ul><li>Communication Channels by Stages the Innovation-Decision Process </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Channels: the mea...
<ul><li>The Innovation-Decision Period </li></ul><ul><li>The Innovation-Decision Period: the length of time required for a...
 
 
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Diffusion of Innovations Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 Summary from "Diffusion of Innovations" by Everett Rogers

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Diffusion of Innovations Chapter 5

  1. 1. <ul><li>Diffusion of Innovations , Everett Rogers (2003) Chapter 5: The Innovation-Decision Process </li></ul><ul><li>The Innovation-Decision Process: the process by which an individual passes from gaining initial knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>of an innovation, to forming an attitude toward the innovation, to a decision to adopt or reject, to implementation of the new idea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Steps of the Innovation-Decision Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge: when the individual is exposed to the innovation’s existence and gains an understanding of how it functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Exposure: the tendency to attend to communication messages that are consistent with the individual’s existing beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Perception: the tendency to interpret communication messages in terms of the individual’s existing attitudes and beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need: a state of frustration or dissatisfaction that occurs when an individual’s desires outweigh actualities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three Types of Knowledge About an Innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness Knowledge: information that an innovation exists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How-to Knowledge: information necessary to use the innovation properly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principles Knowledge: deals with functioning principles on why innovation works </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Knowers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by more formal education, higher social status, greater exposure to mass media channels of communication, greater exposure to interpersonal channels of communication, greater change agent contact, greater social participation, and greater cosmopolites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Five Steps of the Innovation-Decision Process (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion: when the individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude: an individual’s beliefs about an object that predisposes his or her actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main outcome of Persuasion stage is a favorable on non-favorable attitude toward the innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not trying to change attitude, just inform so one can be informed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception Innovation: a new idea adopted in order to avoid the possible occurrence of some unwanted event in the future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cue-to-Action: an event occurring at a time that crystallized a favorable attitude into overt behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision: when the individual engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption: a decision to make full use of an innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection: a decision not to adopt an innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active Rejection: considering the innovation and then choosing not to adopt it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Rejection: never considering the innovation at all </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation: when an individual puts an innovation to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This stage may be long or may be short </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-invention: the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of it’s adoption and implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs at the implementation stage for many innovations and for many adopters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A higher degree of re-invention leads to faster rate of adoption and greater sustainability of an innovation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability: the degree to which an innovation is continued over time after a diffusion program ends </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Five Steps of the Innovation-Decision Process (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation: when an individual seeks reinforcement for an innovation-decision already made but may reverse the decision if exposed to conflicting messages about it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to avoid dissonance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuance: a decision to reject an innovation after having previously adopted it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement: when an idea is rejected in order to adopt a better idea which suspended it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disenchantment: an idea is rejected as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later adopters are more likely to discontinue innovations than earlier adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We conclude that stages exist in the innovation-decision process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No definite answer yet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process Research: a type of data gathering and analysis that seeks to determine the sequence of a set of events over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variant Research: a type of data gathering and analysis that consists of determining the co-variances (or correlations) among a set of variables, but not their time order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of Change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-contemplation: when an individual is aware that a problem exists and begins to think about overcoming it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contemplation: when an individual is aware that a problem exists and is seriously thinking about overcoming it but has not yet made a commitment to take action </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation: the stage at which an individual intends to take action in the immediate future but has not yet done so </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action: when an individual changes behavior in order to overcome the problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance: the stage at which an individual consolidates and continues the behavior change that was made previously </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Communication Channels by Stages the Innovation-Decision Process </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Channels: the means by which a message gets from a source to a receiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Media Channels: the means of transmitting messages that involve a mass medium such as radio, television, newspapers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Channels: involve a face-to-face exchange between two or more individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localite Sources: local sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmopolite: sources that have access to more information and larger social systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal vs. Mass Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass media channels are relatively more important at the knowledge stage, and interpersonal channels are relatively more important at the persuasion stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmopolite channels are relatively more important at the knowledge stage, and localite channels are more important at the persuasion stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass media channels are relatively more important than interpersonal channels for earlier adopters than for late adopters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmopolite channels are relatively more important than localite channels for earlier adopters than for late adopters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bass Forecasting Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals adopting as a result of interpersonal messages about the new product expand in numbers during the first half of the diffusion process and thereafter decline in numbers per ensuing time persiods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a bell shaped curve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a predictive model that seeks to forecast how many adoptions of a new product will occur at future time period or by other criteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Innovation-Decision Period </li></ul><ul><li>The Innovation-Decision Period: the length of time required for an individual or organization to pass through the innovation-decision process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earlier adopters have a shorter innovation-decision period than do later adopters </li></ul></ul>

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