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  • 1. A fresh look at Precision in Process Conformance
    Jorge Muñoz-GamaJosep Carmona
    UniversitatPolitècnica de Catalunya
    (Barcelona, Spain)
  • 2. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    2
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
  • 3. Process Mining
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    3
    * www.processmining.org
  • 4. Conformance Dimensions
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    4
    How much of the observed behavior is captured by the model
    Models with minimal behavior to represent accurately the log
    Overly precise models which overfit the log
    Minimal structure which clearly reflect the behavior
  • 5. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    5
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
  • 6. Related Work
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    6
    Precision in the literature
    Most related work Rozinat et al. Information System 33 (2008)
    Metric for Precision in Petri Nets
    Computation of Follows and Precedes relations (Always, Never, Sometimes) of Model and Log.
    Measurement based on discrepancies in Sometimes relations
    Model relations require a model space state exploration
    Coverability
    Graph
  • 7. Motivation
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    7
    Goals and Requirements
    Precision Dimension
    Petri Nets
    Avoid the complete state space exploration
    Effort needed to obtain an accurate model
    Fine-level precision
    Locate the precision inconsistencies
  • 8. Process Conformance and Refinement
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    8
    Locate the inconsistencies
    Petri Net
    Conformance
    (Precision)
    B
    A
    D
    C
    MDT
    ETC Precision
    Metric
    A B D
    A C D
    Measure the inconsistencies
    Event Log
  • 9. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    9
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
  • 10. General Idea: Escaping Edges
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    10
    Model
    Behavior
    Escaping
    Edges
    Log
    Behavior
    Model
    Behavior
  • 11. Conformance Route Map
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    11
    Petri Net
    B
    A
    D
    C
    MDT
    Model
    States
    Traversal
    Metric
    Log
    States
    A B D
    A C D
    Event Log
  • 12. Log and Model States
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    12
    Log
    Incorporate state information in the log
    (Aalst et al. Software and Systems Modeling, 2009)
    Past, Unlimited and Sequence
    Model
    Markings of the Petri Net
  • 13. Model States and Mapping
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    13
    Not all the reachable markings (could be infinite)
    Only Markings with a Log State mapped on
    Log and Model States Mapping
    i.e., reached marking after replay state prefix
    p2
    p3
    p4
    p1
    p1 p2 p3 p4 p5
    B
    A B E
    s2
    s1
    s3
    s4
    0 1 0 0 1

    0 1 0 0 n
    E
    A
    C
    p5
    D
    Markings not explored
    p1
    p4
    p3
    p2
  • 14. Log-guided Traversal
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    14
    Log-guided Traversal of Model Behavior
    Allowed Tasks :
    i.e., actions enabled in that moment
    Reflected Tasks :
    i.e., actions really executed (thus, annotated in the log)
    B
    C
    D
    <p2>
    p2
    p3
    p4
    p1
    A B E
    A C E
    B
    B
    B
    C
    p2
    p3
    p4
    p1
    E
    E
    A
    C
    A
    C
    A B E
    A C E
    D
    D
  • 15. Traversal (2)
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    15
    Escaping Edges :
    i.e., enabled actions not executed
    Precision discrepancies
    B
    C
    D
    B
    p1
    p2
    p3
    p4
    E
    A
    C
    B
    C
    D
    A B E
    A C E
    D
  • 16. Precision Metric
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    16
    Take into account the Escaping Edges
    Between 0 (imprecise) and 1 (precise)
    More frequent traces, more weight in the metric
    Independent of Structural dimension
    Global precision
    Localizability
    A H I Z
    A P Q Z
    H
    I
    A
    Z
    P
    Q
  • 17. Minimal Disconformant Traces (MDT)
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    17
    Localizability of precision inconsistencies
    i.e., Minimal traces indicating where the model starts to deviate from the log
    Algorithm to compute all MDT using Escaping Edges
    B
    D
    A
    C
    MDT
    A E
    A B E
    C D P Q
    Refined Petri Net
  • 18. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    18
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
  • 19. Implementation
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    19
    ProM 6 Framework
    ETConformance Plug-In
  • 20. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    20
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
  • 21. Results
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    21
  • 22. Results (2)
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    22
  • 23. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    23
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
    done
    done
    in progress
    in progress
  • 27. Invisible Tasks
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    24
    (Transitions associated with no event)
    p3
    I
    B
    A
    H
    C
    p4
    • INDETERMINISM
    A C
  • 30. Invisible Tasks (2)
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    25
    Invisible Coverability Graph
    Solutions
    Union of Enabled
    Lazy Invisibles *
    One path only
    Shortest Invisible Path *
    A,B
    A
    B
    <1, 0, 0>
    Inv2
    Inv1
    <1, ω, 0>
    <0, 0, 1>
    C
    C
    Inv3
    A,D
    D
    X
    <0, ω, 1>
    A,C
    X
    X
    *Rozinat et al.
    Information System 33 (2008)
  • 31. Duplicate Tasks
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    26
    (Several Transitions associated
    with the same event)
    Which Task?
    B ?
    B ?
    INDETERMINISM
    Solutions
    e.g. Look-ahead
    B
    C
    A
    B
    D
    ... A B C ...
  • 32. Variant: States as Markings
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    27
    States as Prefix
    2
    Escaping Edges
    B
    C
    B
    A
    C
    A B C
    • States as Markings
    B
    A B C
    A
    C
    NO Escaping Edges
    p1
    p2
    p3
    <p1>
    <p2>
    <p3>
  • 33. Variant: Non fitting models
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    28
    Symmetric to the Escaping Edges (Ee)
    Log Escaping Edges (LEe): The points where the log deviates from the model
    Fitness instead of Precision
    Model
    Behavior
    Escaping
    Edges
    Log
    Behavior
    Log
    Escaping
    Edges
    Model
    Behavior
  • 34. Outline
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    29
    Process Mining and Process Conformance
    Motivation
    Approach
    General Approach
    Implementation
    Results
    Extensions
    Future work
    Conclusions
  • 35. Future Work: Refinement
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    30
    B
    A
    D
    C
    MDT
    A E
    A B E
    B H J G
    Refined Petri Net
    Event Log
    B
    A E
    A B E
    D
    A
    Petri Net
    C
  • 36. Concurrencies in the model but not in the log
    Break the model concurrency with a restriction, e.g. a place
    Structural Concurrency
    Best effort overapproximation for general Petri Nets
    Exact for live and bounded Free Choice systems
    Polynomial Algorithm
    Kovalyov and Esparza , Proc. Intl. Workshop on Discrete Event Sytems, 1996
    Future Work: Breaking Concurrencies
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    31
    B
    D
    A
    A B C D
    C
  • 37. Supervisory Control
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    32
    Refined
    Model
    MDT
    Abstraction
    MDT
    Supervisor
    Model
    Supervisory Control in Process Mining
    Santos et al. Supervisory Control Service (2010)
  • 38. Conclusions
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    33
    New technique for precision between Petri nets and Log.
    Avoids complete models state space exploration.
    Metric based on the effort needed to obtain a precise model.
    MDT, indicating the points where the model starts to deviates from the log.
    Approach implemented as plug-in of ProM 6.
  • 39. Thank You
    15 Sep 2010
    Precision in Process Conformance
    34
    Thank You for Your Attention