The process of organizational communication is the process of community
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The process of organizational communication is the process of community



Sixth of seven lectures on organizations and social media.

Sixth of seven lectures on organizations and social media.



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    The process of organizational communication is the process of community The process of organizational communication is the process of community Presentation Transcript

    • The process of organizationalcommunication is the process ofcommunityDr James (Jim) Slevinon organizations and social media Lecture 6 of 7
    • Reading for this week• Anderson, B. (1983) Concepts and definitions in: Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 5-7.• Davis, G.F. et al. (2008) Introduction: social movements in organizations and markets. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53, 389-394.• Giddens, A. (1991) Dilemmas of the self in: Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press, 187-201.• Hanna, R., Rohm, A. and Crittenden, V.L. (2011) We’re all connected: The power of the social media ecosystem. Business Horizons, 54-3, 265-273• Jardine, L. (2011) The process of communication is the process of community in: Young, S. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. 29. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press. 5-19.• Shah, D.V. et al. (2001) "Connecting" and "Disconnecting" With Civic Life: Patterns of Internet Use and the Production of Social Capital. Political Communication Vol. 18, Iss. 2.
    • Dating from the early Middle Ages, the sandy landscapes(Essenlandschappen), constitute some of the oldestagricultural landscapes in the NetherlandsCharacterized by enclosures, small Landscapes of tradition and natureopen fields and extensive commons. structured work and life.
    • Giddens: in a globalizing world, kind of parallel to ecologicaldamage, we need to reconstruct the damage to traditionalsolidarity and social integration Frankfurt: Eschenheimer The basis for community is no longer a Turm. single cultural, local community. We must seek new forms of communal solidarity that recognise individual development and different cultural values, but still hold the whole thing together. What role do social media play in this?
    • Ferdinand Tönnies (1887) attempts to distinguish the traditionalcommunity (Gemeinschaft) from the modern community (Gesellschaft) Gemeinschaft: • Community based on locality and neighbourliness. • Built on common self-evident understanding. • Little motivation towards reflection. Gesellschaft: • Community based on rational self-interest. • Boundary between ‘us’ and ‘them’ blurred. • Emanicipation of the flow of information and reflection.
    • Benedict Anderson (1983) points to the significant role ofcommunication in the making of modern communityModern communities are imagined communities Four senses in which modern communities can be described as being imagined and constructed realities: Fellow members Boundaries Sovereignty Comradeship
    • Conventional solidarity strategies of modern communities • Legitimate activities organized by tradition and modern ritual. • Definition of issues that are political and open to intervention. • Set standards and practices that will make the community better off as a whole. Successful where: consensus over matters in general interest ✓ preferences are stable ✓ reflexive involvement is low ✓
    • Conventional solidarity strategies are severely hampered bythe conditions of late modernity Cosmopolitan societies/ Globalization ➡ organizations Detraditionalization ➡ Questioning of authority Intensified reflexivity ➡ ‘Clever people’ Conventional solidarity strategies limit the creativity needed to deal with these new conditions
    • Jock Young (1999) argues that: ‘Just as communitycollapses, identity is invented’ As with community in Late Modernity, the self has to be reflexively made. Ulrich Beck writes: individuals must ‘produce, stage and cobble together their biographies’ The ‘project of the self’ like that of community has become an increasingly mediated project.
    • Giddens: Four dilemmas of the self have to be resolved inorder to attain a coherent narrative of the self Conditions of• Unification versus fragmentation. reflexive fixed commitments embrace diversity modernization• Powerlessness versus appropriation. ➡ The threat of deskilling reskilling meaninglessness• Authority versus uncertainty. belief doubt• Personalized versus commodified experience. ‘alternative’ fashion victim
    • Zygmunt Bauman declares the end of modern life strategies The Pilgrim was the model for modern biographies • Living-towards-project. • Point of arrival selected early in life. • Straight line of life-time. • Walking with a purpose. Today: The Pilgrim’s Way has become fragmented, meaningless, and there is a lack of shared journeys…
    • Social media provide venues for sociability, and fordeveloping and representing identitySome common characteristics of online communities: • Communication is a key activity. • Membership is easily revocable. • Multiple memberships possible. • Basis of relationship is a shared personal/organizational interest.Online community always involves the skillful splicing togetherof different interactional situations: • Mediated interaction. • Quasi-mediated interaction. • Trans-media interaction. • Face-to-face offline.
    • Social media and community: individual expectations inReflexive Modernity • Negotiating experience. • Reappropriating knowledge and skills. • Forging commitment and mutuality. • Monitoring risk and uncertainty, and transcending conflict. For individual members, their presence must make a difference.
    • Social media and community: the requirements of communalorganization in Reflexive Modernity • Discursive/Deliberative spaces for intelligent relationships. • Empowers presence availability that is distributed and/or locational. • Spontaneous coordination across time-space (both distributed and/or locational). • Supporting self-disclosure, inclusion, and attitudes of responsibility. Members fulfil multiple roles: producers of information, consumers of information, publishers of information and brokers of information.
    • Does social media networking strengthen or weakencommunity? - + Undermine rootedness More meaningful because they are not in place. based on geographic proximity. Fragment general interest Less hierarchical. and shared experience. People withdraw from “real” Anonymity. relationships. Dislocation Integration Castells: digital networks facilitate networked individualism
    • Castells argues that there are three distinct categories ofnetworked individualism 1. Legitimizing identities: induced by Opportunities afforded by social media result in a society’s dominant institutions and legitimacy crisis regarding ideology. these identities. 2. Resistance identities: formed on the basis of opposition or exclusion. Ambivalent relationship with the opportunities of social 3. Project identities: establish new media. kinds of identity not aimed at societal inclusion or acceptance but rather at its transformation.
    • Four challenges in regard to social media and theconstruction of community in Reflexive Modernity 1. The renewal of tradition guided by tolerance and dialogue. 2. The rise of tyranny rather than solidarity. 3. The balancing of individual freedoms and responsibilities. 4. The practicalities of participatory opinion formation. 5. Communities of perverse connections.
    • Lessons from social movements1. Storage, retrieval and circulation of information.2. Promotion and recruitment.3. Crowdfunding and co-creation.4. Engagement with training and learning.5. Strategic alliances with other organizations.6. Internal communication and coordination.7. Contribution to public sphere and public opinion formation.8. Bypassing repression.9. Outmanoeuvering corporate controlled media.10. Instrument for struggle and direct action.11. Social media accomplish nothing all on their own.
    • Social networking is a way of actively sustainingconnections in a detraditionalizing world Networking in early modernity: ... about whom you know fixed seating at a formal dinner Networking in Reflexive Modernity: ... about whom knows you playing musical chairs
    • Study questions • Are virtual communities an entirely new phenomenon? • Drawing on Anderson’s notion of ‘imagined community’ and Giddens’ ‘dilemmas of the self’, critically analyze and assess the relevance of virtual communities for organizations today. • Social movements and civil society were traditionally defined as separate from the world of government and business. How might business benefit from the study of social movements? • Choose a social media community that you consider successful and explain why this is so. What improvements might be made to it?
    • The process of organizationalcommunication is the process ofcommunityDr James (Jim) Slevinon organizations and social media Lecture 6 of 7