Infant Toddler Guidelines State of Ohio

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  • 1. Ohio’s Infant & Toddler GuidelinesEarly Experiences Last a Lifetime
  • 2. The six developmental domains at the heart of school and life success. Physical Health Motor Development Physical health is optimal when safe health Motor development is the increasing ability to use practices and nutrition are combined with ones body to interact with the environment. nurturing and responsive caregiving. Protecting children from illness and injury, and providing them with individually appropriate nutrition and a sanitary environment that reduces the risk of infectious disease, is important for all caregivers. Emotional Development Language & Communication Emotional development is the childs emerging Development ability to become secure, express feelings, Language and communication development is the develop self-awareness and self-regulate. increasing ability to communicate successfully with others to build relationships, share meaning and express needs in multiple ways. Social Development Cognitive Development Social development is the childs emerging Cognitive development is the building of development of an understanding of self and thinking skills. others, and the ability to relate to other people and the environment.Early Experiences Last a Lifetime
  • 3. Purpose Statement: Why are these guidelines important?Because early experiences last a lifetime and infancy is the morning of life…The guidelines are seen as the critical first step to ensuring that all Ohio children, birth to three, have responsive, reciprocal andrespectful care. And as a result of that care, children will be ready for both school and life. There are 1,892 days from the timebabies are born until they enter school. This 1,892 day journey is remarkable, complex and far reaching. Approximately 150,000babies are born every year in Ohio. Who they spend time with and how they are cared for affects who they will become. Ohio’sInfant and Toddler Guidelines are meant for three diverse yet profoundly important groups of people in the lives of infants andtoddlers: parents, providers and policy makers.Parents Policy makersYou are your child’s first and best teacher. The guidelines are To have prepared children and productive adults, Ohio must havemeant to assist you in your understanding of infant and toddler state policies that strengthen the developmental trajectories of itsdevelopment. Within the guidelines document, posters for each youngest citizens, babies and toddlers. It has been estimatedage range (birth-8 months, 6-18 months and 16-36 months) that every three-year-old that becomes a productive adult will 1provide a snapshot of potential milestones for each of the contribute approximately $600,000 in taxes over the course ofdevelopmental domains (physical health, emotional, social, motor, a lifetime in taxes. There are more than 48,000 three-year-oldslanguage & communication and cognitive). If you want to learn currently in child care programs across the state. When youmore about where your child is developmentally in relationship to calculate the revenue potential, it is more than $28 billion.a particular domain, you can tab to that domain. Each domain Ultimately though, we want it said that Ohio takes care of itshas guidelines with indicators and examples of behaviors that infants and toddlers because it is the right thing to do.you might see your child demonstrate across the three stagesof infancy. What a responsibility! In our hands and under our influence,Providers there is the ability to shape experiences that last a lifetime.In Ohio, approximately 90,000 infants and toddlers are cared for Ohio believes that babies truly are the nicest way to startoutside of their homes. The only requirement to care for childrenis a high school diploma. These two facts make it imperative that people. Babies are ready for us, are we ready for them?those caring for our most valuable and vulnerable resource havethe knowledge necessary to do this work well. When usedeffectively, the guidelines can assist programs and care teachersin focusing on early development and learning in order tosupport and strengthen the developmental outcomes of thechildren they serve.
  • 4. Ohio’s Guiding PrinciplesThe following were absolutely essential to the writing team members —The guideline must be evidence-based. The guideline must link to best practicesTo ensure that each guideline was evidence-based, a thorough that support children’s optimal development.review of research was conducted. In addition, widely used To ensure that each guideline linked to best practices, eachassessment tools were reviewed to determine the alignment guideline was reviewed for its developmental appropriateness.of relevant developmental milestones with each guideline. The guideline must be useful to parents,The guideline must take into account differences providers and policy makers.in temperament, development and culture. To ensure that each guideline was useful to parents, providers andTo ensure that each guideline was inclusive of individual policy makers, information was presented in an easy-to-use formatdifferences in temperament, development and culture, each with examples from the child’s point of view.guideline was examined from these perspectives. The guideline may be assessed or measured 2The guideline must be sensitive to both throughout the birth to three-year period.cultural and linguistic differences. To ensure that each guideline can be assessed or measured fromTo ensure that each guideline was sensitive to both cultural and birth to three years, each guideline was written to allow forlinguistic differences, each guideline was thoroughly reviewed to observation and documentation.see if the way a behavior might be expressed would be differentdepending on a child’s cultural and/or linguistic background.The guideline must be inclusive of childrenwith special needs.To ensure that each guideline was inclusive of children with specialneeds, universal design was utilized. Universal design means thateach guideline was written to be as inclusive as possible.
  • 5. Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler GuidelinesIn 1965, Bruce Tuckman published his Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing Team Development Model. In the 1970’s,he added a fifth stage, adjourning. In 2006, this model aptly describes the process of how Ohio’s Infant & ToddlerGuidelines were born.FormingForming — Team members need guidance and direction, as roles The team’s second decision was to create guidelines that wouldand responsibilities are unclear. reflect the best thinking of every profession that works with infants, toddlers and their families in Ohio. With this purpose in mind,Build Ohio, an organization aimed at supporting early care and the leadership team identified the developmental domains thateducation systems building, identified the need to create infant and would be included in the guidelines and then widely distributedtoddler guidelines. A leadership team from Build Ohio, composed applications to find the best people to create the guidelines.of representation from the Ohio Department of Education (ODE), “Best” with regard to this work was defined as having contentthe Ohio Department of Health (ODH), the Ohio Department of expertise, experience and a demonstrated passion to work onJob and Family Services (ODJFS) and the Ohio Child Care Resource behalf of infants and toddlers. The team members listed on 3and Referral Association (OCCRRA), collaboratively mapped out a the next page represent the organizational, educational andplanning process and timeline. experiential diversity that the leadership team envisioned. Ohio is very fortunate to have been able to assembleThe leadership team’s first decision was to enlist the expertise a team such as this one.of WestEd’s Center for Child and Family Studies. The Center isnationally and internationally known for its work in creating theProgram for Infant/Toddler Care (PITC), the training approach thatis being implemented in Ohio as part of First Steps: Ohio’s Infantand Toddler Initiative, as well as in other states across the country.
  • 6. Ohio’s Infant & Toddler Guidelines: The Writing TeamPhysical Health Motor DevelopmentConnie Bacon Child Focus Jane Case-Smith Ohio State School of Allied Medical ProfessionsShannon Cole Ohio Department of Health Sherri Guthrie Corporation for Ohio Appalachian DevelopmentTami Jaynes Coshocton County Board of MRDD Sophie HubbellBethany Moore** Ohio Department of Health Adrienne Nagy Ohio UniversityMichelle Moore Child Care Choices Linda Pax-Lowes* Columbus Childrens HospitalMarie Vunda Pashi Cincinnati-Hamilton County CAA Debra Riley Stark County Board of MRDDJulie Piazza Berea Childrens Home & Family Services Holly Rine Coshocton County Board of MRDDLinda Primrose-Barker Council on Rural Service Programs Chris Stoneburner** Build OhioEllen Steward* Columbus Childrens Hospital Millette Tucker Center for Families and ChildrenCindy Wright Coshocton County Board of MRDD Christine Wisniewski Medical College of Ohio Early LearningEmotional DevelopmentJeanine Bensman Council on Rural Service Programs Language & Communication DevelopmentHeather Childers Ellison The Childrens Home Kristi Hannan Lucas County Help Me GrowJudee Gorezynski Portage Children Center Julie Hartwick Help Me Grow of Cuyahoga CountyJamie Gottesman** Ohio Department of Job & Family Services Jane Haun Eastgate Early ChildhoodDavid Hunter Athens County Help Me Grow Carla Kossordji YMCA-North Educare Sara Kuhlwein Hancock County Help Me Grow Program 4John Kinsel* Samaritan Behavioral Health Inc.Jane Pernicone Starting Point Alicia Leatherman** Ohio Child Care Resource and Referral AssociationJune Sciarra Debra Loyd Community Action Wayne/Medina Early Head StartSherry Shamblin Tri-County Mental Health and Counseling Services, Inc. Ginger OConner* Ewing SchoolCindy Sherding Ohio Department of Job & Family Services Amy Rudawsky The Compass SchoolJane Sites Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center Holly Scheibe Action for Children Sonya Williams Akron Summit Community Action AgencySocial DevelopmentAnn Bowdish Positive Education Program Cognitive DevelopmentMichelle Figlar Invest In Children Becky Evemy Creative World of Child CareDiane Frazee The Family Information Network of Ohio Kimberly German NC State/OSU MansfieldSandy Grolle WSOS Community Action Commission Sheila Jenkins Cincinnati-Hamilton County CAAMarla Himmeger Ohio Department of Mental Health Avalene Neininger Coshocton County Board of MRDDLaurie Kennard Coshocton County Board of MRDD Angela Parker* Cognitive Early Childhood Resource CenterMichelle Koppleman Apple Tree Nursery School Beth Popich Clermont County Board of MRDDDannette Lund Early Childhood Resource Center Willa Ann Smith Akron Summit Community Action AgencyMarla Michelsen Medical College of Ohio Early Learning Michelle Wright Community Action Wayne/Medina Early Head StartKelly Smith** Ohio Department of Job and Family Services Yu-Ling Yeh Akron Summit Community Action AgencyKathy Vavro Lake County Crossroads Barbara Weinberg** Ohio Department of EducationKim Whaley* COSI State Level Leadership Team Jamie Gottesman Ohio Department of Job & Family Services* Team Leader Terrie Hare Ohio Department of Job & Family Services** Facilitator Alicia Leatherman Ohio Child Care Resource and Referral Association Bethany Moore Ohio Department of Health Chris Stoneburner Build Ohio Barbara Weinberg Ohio Department of Education Debbie Wright Ohio Department of Health
  • 7. Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler GuidelinesStormingStorming — Team members have increased clarity but The second day with writing team members was spentuncertainties still persist; decisions don’t come easily. discussing overarching goals of the leadership team including —The launch of Ohio’s Infant and Toddler Guidelines project in • linking the infant and toddler guidelines to Ohio’s Early LearningFebruary 2005 began with a two-day meeting facilitated by Drs. Content Standards in order to have a seamless pathway fromRon Lally and Peter Mangione, co-directors of WestEd’s Center for birth to school entryChild and Family Studies. On the first day, key stakeholders fromthe fields of early childhood education, infant mental health, health • creating a design that attracts interest as well as content thatand early intervention, as well as higher education faculty, child is easily understood and relevant to three distinct audiences:care resource and referral staff, parent educators, funders and parents, providers and policymakerspolicymakers participated in a series of discussions. Thesecentered on — • defining guiding principles that would lay the foundation for guidelines• the three distinct ages of infancy: birth-8 months, 6-18 months 5 and 16-36 months (the overlap reflects the impact of individual • implementing a writing team process that would be fluid, differences on the rate of development) flexible and adaptable to incorporate the latest and best thinking from research and practice• the developmental drivers (security, exploration and identity) associated with the various ages of infancy• the significance to infant and toddler development of the six developmental domains for which guidelines would be written: physical health, emotional development, social development, motor development, language & communication development and cognitive development• the need to organize the work around six domains in order to write guidelines, while recognizing that research demonstrates that all of the domains of development are of equal importance and work synergistically
  • 8. Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler GuidelinesNorming PerformingNorming — Team members’ roles/responsibilities become clear; Performing — Team members have a shared vision, makebig decisions are made by group agreement, and consensus forms. decisions based on agreed-upon criteria and work autonomously.The writing teams met once a month beginning in March 2005. During the spring of 2005, domain drafts began to take shape.Each meeting started with the leadership team providing updates As the writing teams completed their preliminary work in theand clarifications for all the teams in a large group. The group then summer of 2005, WestEd thoroughly reviewed the contentbroke into the respective teams for the remainder of the day. and provided each team with key questions to consider. By AugustWestEd staff were present at the monthly meetings to provide 2005, each writing team incorporated WestEd’s feedback into a firstcontent expertise as well as to lead writing team members through complete draft and submitted it to the leadership team. WestEda reflective inquiry process. Between each of the monthly meetings, then focused on editing the guidelines to make them consistentthe leadership team met with WestEd about the unfolding process. across domains. WestEd worked with the leadership team toThe decision points along the way included — ensure that the multi-disciplinary perspectives of the writing team members and the content were preserved as the presentation of• the leadership team’s putting in place a plan to create companion the different guidelines were standardized and organized into a 6 documents that clarified the role of the caregiver, the importance coherent document. A revised draft of the guidelines was submitted of the environment and the accessibility to resources for parents to the writing teams in December 2005 for their review and and providers feedback. In January 2006, the leadership team and WestEd considered every question, comment and suggestion from the• the emotional and social development writing teams’ agreeing to writing team members. The following feedback was incorporated present their two domains separately into the guidelines —• the defining of a guiding principle that identifies the important • Definition of terms — in this document, ”the person I’m influences of infant temperament and cultural experiences on attached to” is identified as people to whom a child is emotionally individual differences in development attached. “Caregivers” may be parents, grandparents, other relatives, a family child care provider, a caregiver in a child care center or anyone else who consistently cares for the child. • Gender — use of he/she is meant to be inclusive of both genders. In some instances, one gender was used to refer to children or adults of both genders for readability purposes only.
  • 9. Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler Guidelines• Jargon — an attempt was made to use everyday language in the • Children with special needs — although the principle of universal definitions of guidelines, descriptions of indicators and examples. design was utilized in creating the guidelines, it should be noted A technical term or jargon was used when the meaning of a that children develop in different ways and at different rates. concept being presented would have been compromised if an The content of the guidelines may not apply to every infant or everyday term were used. Special effort was made to present toddler. If there is concern about a child’s development, the best simple, straightforward examples from a baby’s point of view. course of action is to talk to a professional. In Ohio, families may share concerns with their pediatrician, nurse practitioner or other• Order of domains — physical health was placed first in this medical professionals. Families may also call Help Me Grow, a document because it plays a prominent role in a child’s overall statewide program that helps identify child development issues functioning. Emotional development follows because emotion and coordinates supports and services to eligible children and is the root of all action. Motor development works hand-in-hand families, at 1-800-755-GROW. with the child’s emerging language and cognitive abilities. Unfortunately, one of the six domains had to be last but that Finally, the guidelines were put out to the field for feedback in placement in no way is meant to diminish its importance. early February 2006. In an effort to be responsive to this feedback, The age posters were added to the overall presentation of the the leadership team and WestEd finalized the guidelines. The 7 guidelines to illustrate the synergistic nature of the domains. leadership team then supervised the copy editing and formatting of the document for release to the field in March 2006.• Teasing apart emotional and social development — the writing teams decided to treat the emotional and social development Adjourning domains separately to draw attention to the importance and Adjourning — Team members have fulfilled their purpose uniqueness of each. The emotional development domain focuses successfully and are moving on to new things. on the child’s understanding of self. In contrast, the social development domain refers to the child’s understanding of the The hope of the leadership team is that the guidelines will be connection between self and others, and the ability to relate widely distributed and seen as a valuable support for parents, to other people and the environment. Because attachment providers and policymakers. We especially want to thank the relationships are at the center of the emotional as well the social writing team members for working to make the world a better development domains, attachment is a guideline under both of place for Ohio’s babies. these domains. As a result, the definition of attachment, along with the indicator and examples under this guideline, is the same for both.
  • 10. Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler GuidelinesSpecial AcknowledgementsThere was an overwhelming interest from around the state to be • Joan Lombardi, whose demand for quality infant and toddler carepart of this process. For people who could not serve on a writing sparked what would become First Steps: Ohio’s Infant Toddlerteam, thank you for your comments, guidance and enthusiasm Initiative.about the completion of this work. Our appreciation extends toall who participated and especially to the following — • Thelma Harms and Debby Cryer (Honorary Ohio residents), thank you for your pure, honest and supportive feedback on• Ron Lally and Peter Mangione, whose day-to-day work with the all of the work we do in Ohio. Program for Infant Toddler Care (PITC) inspires us all to honor infants and toddlers and all those that care for them. • Susan Rohrbough and Lori Connors-Tadros, from the National Child Care Information Center (NCCIC), who are always willing• Cathy Tsao and Amy Wagner, from WestEd, thank you both for to provide guidance and support for all of our work here in Ohio. being such “geeks” about infant and toddler development. Your unwavering support throughout the process and the incredible • Paul Noski, from the Federal Child Care Bureau, who has patience you exhibited was inspirational, even with all of the supported this work from the beginning. 8 surprises along the way. • Zero To Three, for the example it sets every day for all• Wendy Lapuh and Kathleen Murphy of MurphyEpson, thank you of us who care for and about infants and toddlers. both for making our dreams for babies come to life on paper. • Jeanne Lance, from the Ohio Department of Education, whose• The family child care providers, infant/toddler teachers and former life as a college English professor was resurrected to edit infant/toddler specialist in Franklin County who came out on the final document. short notice to provide invaluable feedback.
  • 11. Birth to Eight MonthsDuring the early days and months of my life, I am primarily focused I often don’t have to cry. She knows what I need by watching meon security. In essence, I am learning about what I can expect and by listening to me. She puts me in places where I can movefrom life. around. That’s exciting! I keep learning how to move my body — 9 my head, my arms, my legs, my whole body. I can count on her toWhen I feel discomfort, I cry. Someone comes to help me. She help me when I need help and to play with me when I’m ready tohelps me — when I’m hungry — when I’m tired — when I’m out play. I feel great knowing she is with me when I need her.of sorts. When she helps, I feel everything is going to be all right,and I can relax. I like to look at her face. I like to listen to her voice. All of this is very important! I have to feel emotionally secure inI feel her warmth. I feel the care she gives me — time after time. order to have the confidence to learn new things. My level ofI feel content. I coo. As I get older, I smile when I see her face and confidence will influence how I approach the opportunities cominghear her voice. I try to make the sounds she makes. I try to move my way. I know it seems like a long way off, but my ability to takemy arms the way she does. I learn so much from her. Her responses chances and adapt to change will allow me to be successful in bothmake me feel so good. I’ve learned to expect her to come when school and in life.I call.
  • 12. Six to 18 MonthsDuring this middle period of my development, I am now primarily When I say, “Mama,” she smiles. I love when someone looks at mefocused on exploration. Get ready, because I am ready to move that way. When I point at something, my caregiver says what it is.out. In essence, I am learning how things in the world work, I point and point and point. That’s one of the ways I learn. I do this 11including myself. with books too. I look at things with my caregiver. I like to listen to her. I like when she listens to me. Most of all, I like to be in a placeWhen I know where my caregiver is, I feel safe. I feel I can move where I can move to my heart’s delight, where I can play withaway from her to explore things. Not too far — I stay close enough anything I can reach and where I can easily see my caregiver’sso I can get back to her quickly. That’s what I do if something scary smiling eyes.happens, or if I feel sad or if I feel like cuddling. That feels good.But after a while, I want to explore some more. I roll my body. I All of this is very important! My drive to explore the world andalso creep and crawl. Eventually I figure out how to sit up, pull to figure things out helps me build knowledge and get ready for thestanding, take a step — and walk! I like to fiddle with things, over world of ideas. I know it seems like a long way off, but my beingand over again. It’s fun to see how things work. I keep making intellectually curious and motivated to learn will help me besounds my caregiver makes. I discover that each sound has a successful in both school and in life.different meaning. When I say, “Dada,” he smiles.
  • 13. Sixteen to 36 MonthsDuring this final stage of infancy, it is all about ME. I have a sense When I try to solve a problem, sometimes an idea just pops in myof who I am and how I am connected to others. In essence, I am head. I pretend to be different people — and animals, too. I pretendlearning to make choices, and it can be difficult sometimes for me with other children. We play with dress-up clothes, kitchen utensils, 13and for you. puppets — just about anything. Playing with other children is great! I often think about one or two or three special people.I feel powerful. I can run. I can do so many things. I know what’s It may be my mom, my dad, my grandma or grandpa, or mymine and make sure other people do, too. I like to be in charge caregiver in child care. When I think about someone I feel closeand do things by myself. If someone tells me what to do, I often to, I feel good. Even if they are not with me, I know that personsay, “No.” But sometimes I don’t feel so big. I can get out of sorts will take care of me. I feel that person loves me. That’s the bestand be quite loud. I may need help. I may need comfort. I may feeling of all!need to know what I’m allowed to do — and what I’m not allowedto do. Then I feel big again and am excited about everything I can All of this is very important! I have to know myself before I cando. I know where I belong, who I am and who my family is. I use learn how to get along with others and to appropriately expressmore and more words to express myself. As I get older, I ask a myself when I’m frustrated. I know it seems like a long way off,lot of questions. I look at books and listen to stories. I talk with my but my ability to communicate and interact positively with peerscaregiver about books. Singing and rhyming games are a lot of and adults who will one day be colleagues and supervisors, alongfun. I think about ideas all the time. with my ability to negotiate conflict, will help me be successful in both school and life.
  • 14. Physical HealthBabies need good health and nutrition right from the start. This is Frequent well-child visits allow health professionals to monitor theessential in laying the foundation for a baby’s optimal growth and child’s physical health, behavioral functioning and overall development.development. Infants and toddlers depend on their caregivers to These visits create opportunities for giving age-appropriate guidancemake healthful choices for them. They also need adults to help to parents. In addition, health professionals should screen youngthem learn how to make good choices for themselves. children for common concerns, including lead poisoning, hearing and vision problems, behavior concerns, communication disordersPhysical health affects functioning in all the other domains. and general development (language, cognitive, social, emotionalThis point becomes clear when a child’s health or well-being is and motor domains). Screening is important because the soonercompromised. For example, a child who is chronically ill may not a child’s need for early intervention can be identified, the morebe able to learn through active exploration and movement. Or a effective that intervention is likely to be. Well-child care benefitschild who is poorly nourished may not attend to learning. Frequent all children, including those with disabilities or other special needs.ear infections may hinder a child’s ability to communicate and learnlanguage. A child exposed to violence may not know how to formpositive social relationships. Each of these negative conditions canhave lifelong consequences.Each day, adults caring for babies can positively influence a 15child’s health and well-being. All infants and toddlers needregular health and physical exams, preventive care, screening,immunizations and sick care. They all should have a primaryhealth and dental care provider, regardless of their families’economic status. A primary provider facilitates timely andappropriate preventive and sick care.Physical health is optimal when safe health practices and nutrition are combined with nurturing and responsivecaregiving. Protecting children from illness and injury, and providing them with individually appropriatenutrition and a sanitary environment that reduces the risk of infectious disease, is important for all caregivers.
  • 15. Physical HealthGuideline: Health PracticesThe child will display signs of optimal health consistent with appropriate primary health care and caregiver health practices. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Health care: I need to receive regular check-ups I need to receive regular check-ups I need to receive regular check-ups The child will have that include appropriate screenings, that include appropriate screenings, that include appropriate screenings, access to care from a immunizations and guidance immunizations and guidance immunizations and guidance primary health provider, about my development. about my development. about my development. regardless of economic status and geographic …check-ups at birth and at one, …check-ups at nine, 12, 15 and 18 …check-ups at 24 and 36 months location. two and four months of age. months of age. of age. …an evaluation within 48 - 72 hours following discharge from the hospital, if I am a breast-fed baby, to check my weight gain, to evaluate breastfeeding and to provide caregiver encouragement 16 and instruction.• Handwashing: I will receive handwashing at With assistance from a caregiver, I With assistance from a caregiver, I The child will be exposed appropriate times. (If I am unable will wash my hands once I am able will wash my hands once I am able to and assisted with to stand or too heavy to hold to stand safely at the sink. to stand safely at the sink. frequent and proper safely, my hands can be washed handwashing. with a damp paper towel …upon arrival at my child care setting. …upon arrival at my child moistened with a drop of liquid …before and after eating. care setting. soap, and then wiped clean with …after diapering. …before and after eating. a clean, wet, paper towel.) …before water play. …after diapering. …after playing on the playground. …before water play. …after diapering. …after handling pets. …after playing on the playground. …before and after eating or having …whenever my hands are visibly …after handling pets. a bottle. dirty. …whenever my hands are visibly dirty.
  • 16. Physical HealthGuideline: Health PracticesThe child will display signs of optimal health consistent with appropriate primary health care and caregiver health practices. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Diapering and toileting: I will be appropriately diapered. I will be appropriately diapered. I will be appropriately diapered The child will be and, toward the end of this appropriately diapered …changed when I give signs of …changed when I give signs of period, I may show signs that or assisted with toileting needing to be changed, or needing to be changed, or I am ready to learn to use to prevent the spread checked at least every two checked at least every two the toilet. of illness. hours when awake, for signs hours when awake, for signs of wetness or feces, and of wetness or feces, and …changed when I give signs of immediately after waking. immediately after waking. needing to be changed, or …changed near a water source for …changed near a water source for checked at least every two quick handwashing to prevent quick handwashing to prevent hours when awake, for signs the spread of infection. the spread of infection. of wetness or feces, and …remain secure on a raised chang- …remain secure on a raised changing immediately after waking. ing surface with my caregivers surface with my caregivers hand …changed near a water source for 17 hand placed on me at all times. placed on me at all times. quick handwashing to prevent the spread of infection. …remain secure on a raised changing surface with my caregivers hand placed on me at all times. …show through gestures, expressions, body language or words that I am about to urinate or have a bowel movement. …help with undressing myself. …ask to use the toilet or potty chair.
  • 17. Physical HealthGuideline: Oral HealthThe child will display growth and behaviors associated with good oral health. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Tooth eruption: I will display appropriate tooth I will display appropriate tooth I will display appropriate tooth The child will display eruption. eruption. eruption. appropriate tooth …drooling, irritability and sore …drooling, irritability and sore gums …drooling, irritability and sore eruption. gums caused by tooth eruption. caused by tooth eruption. gums caused by tooth eruption. …eruption of the lower and upper …eruption of the lower and upper …eruption of the lower and upper incisors. central and lateral incisors, canines lateral incisors, canines and first and first molars. and second molars.• Oral health: I will display good oral health. I will display good oral health. I will display good oral health. The child will display …pink, firm gums. …pink, firm gums. …pink, firm gums. good oral health. …smooth, white teeth. …smooth, white teeth. …smooth, white teeth. 18• Dental care: I need to have my first oral I need to have my first oral I need to have my second oral The child needs to examination from a dentist examination from a dentist examination, as recommended receive appropriate within six months of the first within six months of the first by my dentist, based on my dental check-ups from a tooth eruption and by 12 tooth eruption and by 12 individual needs or risk of disease. dentist and appropriate months of age. months of age. dental treatment.
  • 18. Physical HealthGuideline: Positive Nutritional StatusThe child will display growth and behaviors associated with a positive nutritional status. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Physical growth: I will display appropriate increases I will display appropriate increases I will display appropriate increases The child will display in length, weight and head in length, weight and head in length, weight and head appropriate increases circumference. circumference. circumference. in length, weight and head circumference. …lose about six percent of my …triple my birthweight by 12 to 18 …quadruple my birthweight by body weight immediately after months of age. 24 to 36 months of age. birth because of fluid loss and …increase in length at the rate of …gain approximately 4.5 to 6.5 some breakdown of tissue, but approximately one-half inch per pounds per year. then regain my birthweight month between six and 12 …increase in height at the rate of within 10 to 14 days months of age. approximately 2.5 to 3.5 inches following birth. …grow without major deviations per year. …double my birthweight by four in growth chart percentages. …grow without major deviations to six months of age. in growth chart percentages. 19 …increase in length at the rate of approximately one inch per month during the first six months of life. …grow without major deviations in growth chart percentages.
  • 19. Emotional DevelopmentBabies experience emotions right from the start. From their first cry The infant’s emotions are nurtured in relationships with parents,of hunger to their first giggle of delight, their emotional experience grandparents and child care providers. Studies of attachment showgrows. Young children learn many ways to express emotions such that children who are in emotionally secure relationships early inas happiness, sadness and anger. As they interact with their caregivers, life are more likely to be self-confident and socially competent.they come to understand and appreciate the uniqueness of their Sensitive caregivers who read the child’s cues and meet emotional,emotional experience. Eventually they gain some control over their physical and dependency needs help the child become securelysometimes strong emotions. Positive early experiences help a child attached to them. Caregivers who gently stimulate a baby’s sensesbecome emotionally secure. and share emotional states provide the baby’s brain the experiences it needs to grow. Because sensitive, responsive care leads toThe child’s evolving sense of security and well-being has a profound attachment security, its impact is profound. Secure attachmenteffect on all areas of the child’s development, including cognitive relationships have a positive effect on every aspect of earlyand language development. For example, an emotionally secure development, from emotional self-regulation to healthyinfant will more readily explore and learn than an insecurely brain development.attached infant. In a secure relationship, the child engages in richback-and-forth interaction. The “dance” between the caregiverand child fosters increasingly advanced communication andlanguage development. 21New research shows how emotions are key in organizing theexperience and behavior of young children. Emotions drive earlylearning. For instance, the pleasure an infant experiences whenmaking a discovery or mastering a motor skill inspires the child tocontinue to learn and to develop skills. Emotional experiences affectthe child’s personal health, well-being and school readiness.Emotional development is the childs emerging ability to become secure, express feelings,develop self-awareness and self-regulate.
  • 20. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: AttachmentThe child will develop an attachment relationship with a caregiver(s) who consistently meets the childs needs.*Special Note: Because attachment has developmental relevance to both the emotional and social domains, it is shown identically in both places. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Attachment: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will form I respond automatically to both signal to caregivers to stay close. spend more time playing farther relationships with caregivers and unfamiliar adults. Later, I develop an attachment away from the person Im attached consistent caregivers. By the end of this period, I signal relationship with one or a few of to than I did in the earlier age to caregivers in order to stay these caregivers, whom I use as a period, and I use gestures, glances close, and I may have formed an secure base from which to move or words to stay connected. By attachment relationship with one out and explore my environment, the end of this period, I am beginning (or a few) of these caregivers. checking back from time to time. to understand that the person Im By the end of this period, I spend attached to may have a point of For example, I may… more time playing farther away view (including thoughts, plans …turn toward the sight, smell or from my attachment figure(s), and feelings) that is different sound of my mama over that of and am more likely to use gestures, from my own. an unfamiliar adult. glances or words to stay connected, 22 …stop crying upon seeing a face though I still need to be physically For example, I may… or hearing a voice. close when Im distressed. …call, "Papa!" from across the room …grasp my caregivers sweater while Im playing with blocks to when she holds me. For example, I may… make sure that my Papa is paying …cry out or follow my mom when attention to me. …lift my arms to be picked up by …feel comfortable playing on the my papa. she leaves the room. other side of the yard from the …be more likely to smile when …seek comfort from my favorite person Im attached to, but cry to approached by a caregiver than blanket or toy, especially when the be picked up when I fall down by an unfamiliar adult. person Im attached to is absent. and hurt myself. …babble back and forth with a …turn excitedly and raise my arms …say, "I go to school, mama goes caregiver. toward the person Im attached to to work," after my mom drops …seek comfort from the person at pick-up time. me off in the morning. Im attached to when I am crying. …display anxiety when an unfamiliar …gesture for one more hug as my …cry out or follow after my mom adult gets too close to me. daddy is leaving for work. when she leaves the room. …reconnect with the person Im …say, "you do one and I do one," attached to by making eye when asked to put books away before separating from my mom contact with him or her from in the morning, in order to get time to time. her to stay a bit longer. …play confidently when my attach- …bring my grandmas favorite book ment figure is in the room, but to her to see if she will read it to crawl or run to her when Im me one more time after grandma frightened. says, "Were all done reading. Now its time for nap."
  • 21. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: Expression of EmotionThe child will experience and express a variety of feelings. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Expression of emotion: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, The child will express I express contentment and I express a variety of primary I begin to express complex (self- feelings through facial distress. By the end of this period, emotions (contentment, distress, conscious) emotions such as pride, expressions, gestures I express a variety of primary joy, sadness, interest, surprise, embarrassment, shame and guilt. and sounds. emotions (contentment, distress, disgust, anger and fear). Later By the end of this period, I can joy, sadness, interest, surprise, in this period, my emotional use words to describe how I am disgust, anger and fear). expressions become clearer and feeling, although sometimes my more intentional. By the end of feelings are so strong that I have For example, I may… this period, I begin to express trouble expressing them in words. …smile at my caregiver when he complex (self-conscious) emotions rocks me and sings to me. such as pride, embarrassment, For example, I may… …show distress by crying, kicking shame and guilt. …hide my face in my hands when my legs and stiffening my body. feeling embarrassed. 23 …coo when Im feeling comfortable. For example, I may… …express guilt after taking a toy …cry intensely. …be more likely to react with anger out of another childs cubby …express joy (by waving my arms than just distress when someone without permission. and kicking my legs) when my accidentally hurts me. …express frustration through dad comes to pick me up. …show affection for my caregiver by tantrums. …express sadness (by crying) hugging her. …express pride by saying, "I did it!" when my caregiver puts me …express fear of unfamiliar people …use words to express how I am down in my crib. by moving near my caregiver. feeling, such as, "I’m sad." …spit out things that taste "icky" …knock a shape sorting toy away …say, "I miss grandma," after I get and make a face of disgust. when it gets to be too frustrating. off the phone with her. …laugh aloud when playing …show my anger by grabbing a toy “peek-a-boo” with my caregiver. that was taken from me out of the …get angry when I am frustrated. other childs hands. …be surprised when something …express fear when I hear a dog bark. unexpected happens. …express sadness when I lose a …exhibit wariness, cry or turn favorite toy and cannot find it. away when approached by an …smile with affection as my sibling unfamiliar adult. approaches. …be more likely to react with …cling to my dad as he says, anger than just distress when "good-bye," and express sadness someone accidentally hurts me. as he leaves. …express fear by crying when I see someone dressed up in a costume.
  • 22. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: Self-AwarenessThe child will develop an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Self-awareness: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will recognize I am not aware that you are a begin to understand that I am my I recognize myself in the mirror herself or himself as a separate person from me. By the own separate person. By the end and in photos. Later in this period, person with an identity, end of this period, I begin of this period, I recognize myself I use pronouns like "I," "me" and wants, needs, interests, to understand that I am my in the mirror and in photos. "mine" when referring to myself. likes and dislikes. own separate person. By the end of this period, I can For example, I may… describe who I am by using For example, I may… …recognize that I am a separate categories such as girl or boy, …not experience distress when my person from my caregiver. big or little. mommy leaves the room. …recognize my own body. …experiment with moving my …begin to identify parts of For example, I may… own body. the body. …point to myself in a family …watch my own hands with …understand that the reflection photograph. 24 fascination. in the mirror is actually my …point to different body parts …use my hands to explore own image. when you name them, and name different parts of my body. a few body parts by myself. …be able to tell the difference …say, "big girl," when referring to between when someone touches myself. my face and when I touch my …begin to make comparisons own face. between myself and others. …smile at my mirror image, even …claim everything I want as though I dont recognize it as an "mine." image of myself. …refer to myself by name, or with …react to hearing my own name. the pronouns "me" and "I." …cry when my caregiver leaves …say, "No!" to express that I am an the room. individual with my own thoughts and feelings. …point to and name members of my family in a photograph. …say, "Im the big sister," when my caregiver meets my new baby brother.
  • 23. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: Self-AwarenessThe child will develop an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Awareness of emotions: In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, The child will recognize respond reflexively or automatically I express a variety of primary my emotional expressions become his or her own feelings. with emotions of distress or emotions (contentment, distress, clearer and more intentional. contentment. By the end of this joy, sadness, interest, surprise, Later, I express complex (self- period, I express a variety of disgust, anger and fear). By the conscious) emotions such as primary emotions (contentment, end of this period, my emotional pride, embarrassment, shame distress, joy, sadness, interest, expressions become clearer and and guilt. By the end of this period, surprise, disgust, anger and fear). more intentional. I use words to describe my feelings and I show an understanding For example, I may… For example, I may… of why I have these feelings. …show satisfaction or dissatisfaction. …be more likely to react with anger Sometimes, however, my feelings …cry to indicate that Im distressed. than just distress when someone are so strong I have trouble …show pleasure and joy when accidentally hurts me. expressing them in words. 25 interacting with a caregiver. …show affection for my caregiver by …show displeasure or sadness hugging her. For example, I may… when my caregiver suddenly …express fear of unfamiliar people …express jealousy when my stops playing with me because by moving near my caregiver. caregiver holds another child another child needs him. …knock a shape sorting toy away by trying to squish onto the …become anxious when my family when it gets to be too frustrating caregivers lap too. for me. …show delight by clapping to child care provider leaves the …show my anger by grabbing a toy room. myself after stacking some blocks that was taken from me out of the …smile joyfully in response to my into a tower. other childs hands. caregivers interesting facial …use one or a few words to tell my …express sadness when I lose a expressions. caregiver how I am feeling. favorite toy and cannot find it. …smile with affection as my sibling …act out different emotions during approaches. pretend play by pretending to …cling to my dad as he says, cry when Im a sad baby and "good-bye," and express sadness pretending to coo when Im a as he leaves. happy baby. …express fear by crying when I see …say, "Im sad," and then respond, someone dressed up in a costume. "I miss Mommy," when my …exhibit a play smile while playing caregiver asks why Im sad. chase. …say, "Im mad," after another child …express jealousy when my caregiver takes my toy, and then say to the holds another child by trying to other child, "Thats mine," as I squish onto her lap too. take the toy out of his hands.
  • 24. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: Self-AwarenessThe child will develop an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Sense of competence: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will recognize I respond automatically and understand that I can make things experiment with different ways of his or her ability to do explore my own abilities. By the happen. By the end of this period, I making things happen and take things. end of this period, I understand experiment with different ways of pride in what I can do. By the that I can make things happen. making things happen, and I take end of this period, I have an pride in what I can do. understanding of what I can do For example, I may… and what Im not able to do yet …explore my own abilities through For example, I may… by myself. I can also describe movements. …understand that I can get my myself in terms of what I can do. …shake a rattle over and over caregiver to play “peek-a-boo” again to hear the sound. with me if I look at her and then For example, I may… …touch a toy to make the music cover my face with my hands. …say, "Did it!" or "I cant." come on again after the music …smile at my mom and giggle in a …insist, "Me do it!" when my 26 has stopped. playful way as I crawl by her, to caregiver tries to help me with …look at my caregiver when I cry entice her to chase me in a game something I already know how so she can meet my need. of "Im gonna get you." to do. …try to roll over and over again, …point at a toy that I want and …say, "I climb high" when telling even though I may not roll smile with satisfaction after my a caregiver about what I did completely over. caregiver gets it down for me. outside during play time. …roll a toy car back and forth on …say, "Look what I made you" and the ground and then push it hold up a picture I painted for really hard and let go, to see my mommy with a big smile what happens. on my face. …clap to myself after I climb up the …describe myself to my caregiver stairs on the inside climber. by saying, "Im a helping boy" because I know I am a good helper.
  • 25. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: Emotional Self-RegulationThe child will develop strategies to control emotions and behavior. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Self-comforting: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I The child will manage I depend on my caregiver to I use simple strategies to use more complex strategies for his or her internal states comfort me. By the end of this comfort myself, and I am able making myself feel better. By the and feelings, as well as period, I use simple strategies to to communicate my needs more end of this period, I anticipate stimulation from the comfort myself, and I am able to clearly to my caregiver. By the end the need for comfort and try to outside world. communicate my needs more of this period, I use more complex plan ahead. clearly to my caregiver. strategies for making myself feel better. For example, I may… For example, I may… …continue to rely on adults for …cry when Im hungry, tired or wet. For example, I may… reassurance and help in controlling …settle down and be soothed …move away from something that my feelings and behavior. when my caregiver picks me up is bothering me and move toward …reenact emotional events in my and cuddles me, feeds me or a caregiver who comforts me. play in order to gain mastery. 27 meets my other needs. …shift attention away from a …ask for food when Im hungry, …kick my legs and wave my arms distressing event onto an object as but get my blankie and lie when in distress. a way of managing my emotions. down in the quiet corner …turn away from interactions that …try to control my distress by when Im sleepy. I find to be too intense, then biting my lip or hugging myself. …say, "Can you rub my back?" turn back to continue interacting …use gestures or simple words to when Im having trouble settling when Im ready. express distress and seek specific down for a nap. …calm myself when Im upset by kinds of assistance from caregivers …put my blanket on my cot before sucking on my fingers or hand. in order to calm myself. sitting down for lunch, because I …turn my head away or yawn …use comfort objects, such as a know Ill want it during naptime. when Im feeling overstimulated. special blanket or a stuffed animal, …ask, "Who will hold me when …focus on a nearby toy that I find to help myself calm down. Im sad?" as I talk with my mom interesting when something else …play with a toy as a way to about going to a new classroom. is making me feel overwhelmed. distract myself from my own …have different kinds of cries to discomfort. tell my caregiver what I need to make me feel better. …move away from something that is bothering me and move toward a caregiver who comforts me.
  • 26. Emotional DevelopmentGuideline: Emotional Self-RegulationThe child will develop strategies to control emotions and behavior. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Impulse control: In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will manage depend on my caregivers to show very early signs of controlling am aware of my caregivers wishes his or her behavior. meet my needs and comfort me. some impulses when my caregiver and expectations, and sometimes By the end of this period, I show guides and supports me. By the choose to comply with them. I very early signs of controlling end of this period, I am aware also have some simple strategies some impulses when my caregiver of my caregivers wishes and to help myself wait. By the end of guides and supports me. expectations, and sometimes this period, I have internalized choose to comply with them. some of my caregivers rules so I For example, I may… I also have some simple dont always need as much support …cry when hungry, until my strategies to help myself wait. when trying to control my behavior. caregiver feeds me. …sleep when Im sleepy. For example, I may… For example, I may… …explore how someones hair feels …refrain from exploring the way …use self-talk to control my 28 by pulling it. another babys hair feels when behavior; e.g., say "no, no" while …crawl too close to a younger you remind me to be gentle and considering taking a cupcake infant who is lying on the show me how. from the plate before its time same blanket. …respond to limits that you set for the birthday party. …reach for a snack out of the bowl with your voice or gestures. …begin to use words and dramatic before its snacktime and then …recover quickly and be able to play to describe, understand and pull my hand back when you play soon after a tantrum. control my impulses and feelings. ask me to wait. …use self-talk to control my behavior; …begin to turn tantrum behavior …refrain from exploring the way e.g., say "no, no" while considering on and off with less adult assistance. another babys hair feels when taking a cupcake from the plate …throw a tantrum when Im really you remind me to be gentle. before its time for the frustrated. birthday party. …push or hit another child who takes my toy. …begin to remember to follow simple rules as a means of controlling behavior. …understand or carry out simple commands or rules. …yell, "mine, mine!" when another child picks up a doll. …begin to share.
  • 27. Social DevelopmentBabies are social right from the start. Attachment relationships are In order to fully understand social development, the role of cultureat the heart of social development. In secure relationships, the baby must be recognized and respected in definitions of “appropriate”eventually learns to follow social rules and be respectful toward social interactions, social skills and social abilities. Different culturalothers. As infants grow, they also gain the necessary social skills communities may have different definitions of social competence.(turn taking when communicating, negotiation, etc.) to get along For example, one culture may look upon a child’s behavior as shywith others. Infants begin to show concern and empathy toward and inhibited, while another culture may regard the same behaviorothers. They also start to see themselves as belonging to social as respectful.groups, in particular their families. Support and guidance from caregivers are essential for infants’The ability to relate with adults and other children and to learn positive social development. Caregivers support social developmentfrom others influences the infant’s development in all of the other in three major ways: providing an appropriate environment,domains. As the child’s interaction skills grow, the child learns from creating opportunities for responsive social interactions andothers through imitation and communication. Language learning, building stable relationships. The environment should make it easyproblem solving, fantasy play and social games all depend on social for caregivers to be available to the children and responsive to theirdevelopment. Through social guidance and imitation, the child needs. Above all, the program should foster relationships betweenlearns safety rules and basic health procedures, such as hand caregivers and infants, and between infants. Continuity of care,washing before meals. With proper support, the infant eventually ample time for caregivers and children to be together, guidance 29develops the ability to participate in a social group. Successful from caregivers and consistent, predictable social experiencessocial development during the first three years prepares the child all contribute to stable, strong relationships and positivefor both preschool and school. social development.Just as healthy attachment relationships support emotionalself-regulation, so do these relationships contribute to thedevelopment of the child’s social understanding and skills.In an attachment relationship, the infant looks to the adult forguidance. Because attachment relationships are critically importantfor emotional as well as social development, the same attachmentguideline appears in both of these domains.Social development is the childs emerging development of an understanding of self and others, and the abilityto relate to other people and the environment.
  • 28. Social DevelopmentGuideline: AttachmentThe child will develop an attachment relationship with a caregiver(s) who consistently meets the childs needs.*Special Note: Because attachment has developmental relevance to both the emotional and social domains, it is shown identically in both places. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Attachment: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will form I respond automatically to both signal to caregivers to stay close. spend more time playing farther relationships with caregivers and unfamiliar adults. Later, I develop an attachment away from the person Im attached consistent caregivers. By the end of this period, I signal relationship with one or a few of to than I did in the earlier age to caregivers in order to stay these caregivers, whom I use as a period, and I use gestures, glances close. I may have formed an secure base from which to move or words to stay connected. By attachment relationship to one out and explore my environment, the end of this period, I am (or a few) of these caregivers. checking back from time to time. beginning to understand that By the end of this period, I spend the person Im attached to may For example, I may… more time playing farther away have a point of view (including …turn toward the sight, smell or from my attachment figure(s), and thoughts, plans and feelings) sound of my mom over that of am more likely to use gestures, that is different from my own. an unfamiliar adult. glances or words to stay connected, 30 …stop crying upon seeing a face though I still need to be physically For example, I may… or hearing a voice. close when Im distressed. …call "Papa!" from across the room …grasp my caregivers sweater while Im playing with blocks to when she holds me. For example, I may… make sure that my Papa is paying …lift my arms to be picked up by …cry out or follow my mom when attention to me. my dad. she leaves the room. …feel comfortable playing on the other side of the yard from the …be more likely to smile when …seek comfort from my favorite person Im attached to, but cry to approached by a caregiver than blanket or toy, especially when the be picked up when I fall down by an unfamiliar adult. person Im attached to is absent. and hurt myself. …babble back and forth with …turn excitedly and raise my arms …say, "I go to school, mama goes a caregiver. toward the person Im attached to to work," after my mom drops …seek comfort from an attachment at pick-up time. me off in the morning. figure when I am crying. …display anxiety when an unfamiliar …gesture for one more hug as my …cry out or follow after my mom adult gets too close to me. daddy is leaving for work. when she leaves the room. …look for cues from the person Im …say, "You do one and I do one" attached to when Im unsure if when asked to put books away something is safe. before separating from my mom …play confidently when the person in the morning, in order to get Im attached to is in the room, her to stay a bit longer. but crawl or run to her when …bring my grandmas favorite book to her to see if she will read it to Im frightened. me one more time after grandma says, "Were all done reading.” “Now its time for nap."
  • 29. Social DevelopmentGuideline: Expression of Social BehaviorThe child will demonstrate the ability to get along with others. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Interactions with adults: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I The child will engage in I respond automatically to my I give cues to initiate interaction engage in a series of actions with give-and-take exchanges caregivers attempts to interact. with my caregiver. By the end of my caregiver. By the end of this with an adult. By the end of this period, I give this period, I engage in a series of period, I can work with a caregiver cues to initiate interaction with actions with my caregiver. to solve problems or communicate my caregiver. about ideas or experiences. For example, I may… For example, I may… …follow my caregivers gaze to For example, I may… …match the facial expressions of look at a toy. …initiate an interaction with my an adult. …become wary or anxious of caregiver by pointing to an …give a social smile or engage in unfamiliar adults. unfamiliar object as if to ask, mutual gazing. …take my caregivers hands and "Whats that?" …coo or babble in response to my rock forward and backward, …bring my shoes from my 31 caregivers vocalizations. saying "Row, row," as a way of bedroom when my grandma …follow my caregivers gaze to asking her to sing "Row, Row, asks me to. look at a toy. Row Your Boat" to me. …practice being a grown-up in my …cooperate during a diaper change pretend play by dressing up or by lifting my bottom. using a play stove. …pick up a toy phone and say …participate in storytelling with "Hello?" while I walk around the my family child care provider. room, as Ive seen my daddy do. …show a toy to my caregiver, and later give a toy to my caregiver when she asks. …initiate an interaction with my caregiver by pointing to an unfamiliar object as if to ask, "Whats that?"
  • 30. Social DevelopmentGuideline: Expression of Social BehaviorThe child will demonstrate the ability to get along with others. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Interactions with peers: In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will engage respond automatically and prefer am interested in other children engage in play with peers for an with other children. the human face and sound. By and explore their faces and extended time. By the end of this the end of this period, I am bodies. By the end of this period, period, I show a greater likelihood interested in other children and I engage in play with peers for to engage in mutual social play. explore their faces and bodies. an extended time. For example, I may… For example, I may… For example, I may… …pretend to cook dinner or bathe …turn toward the sight, smell or …prefer familiar peers, and play in the baby using props such as sound of a familiar caregiver more complex play with them pots, pans, baby dolls and over that of an unfamiliar adult. than with unfamiliar peers. wash cloths. …initiate a social smile. …play pat-a-cake with a caregiver …have one or two favorite peers …look at a peer for a short time. or peer. within my class. 32 …touch or mouth the hair of …sit beside a peer, filling my sand …pretend to order pizza, using a another child. bucket, while she fills hers. banana as a phone. …roll a ball with a peer. …stand at the play dough table, …pretend to cook dinner or bathe rolling balls of dough, while my the baby using props such as peers play beside me. pots, pans, baby dolls and …push, hit or bite when another wash cloths. child takes my toy. …say, "Lets chase!" to a peer or engage in other complementary interactions, such as feeding a stuffed bear that another child is holding. …tell you the names of my friends.
  • 31. Social DevelopmentGuideline: Expression of Social BehaviorThe child will demonstrate the ability to get along with others. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Empathy: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, The child will understand I respond automatically to the I demonstrate an awareness of I respond to a peers distress by and respond to the emotions of others. By the end others feelings. By the end of doing something for him that emotions of others. of this period, I demonstrate an this period, I respond to a peers would make me feel better. By awareness of others feelings. distress by doing something for the end of this period, I respond him that would make me to a peers distress in a way that For example, I may… feel better. shows that I understand what …look at my mamas face. would make him feel better. I …match the facial expressions of For example, I may… also understand that others have my papa. …interpret facial cues as emotional feelings independent from mine. …smile responsively. expressions. …cry or grimace at the discomfort …exhibit "social referencing" by For example, I may… of others. looking at my caregiver for cues …comfort a crying peer by offering 33 when Im in an uncertain situation. my own blanket or getting my …gently pat a crying peer on his own mother to help. back. …say, "Hug?" in an attempt to help …comfort a crying peer by offering a crying peer. my own blanket or getting my …bring a peer her favorite blanket own mother to help. in an attempt to comfort her. …say, "Hug?" in an attempt to help …put a bowl on my head in an a crying peer. effort to make a crying peer smile. …say, "Daddy happy." when I see my daddy laugh. …say, "Curious George is scared" and point at his picture in a book. …say, "Alexandras crying because she misses her mommy."
  • 32. Social DevelopmentGuideline: Awareness of Social BehaviorThe child will develop a sense of belonging to a larger community through social interactions and relationships. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Social identity: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will have an I am not aware that you are a understand that I am a separate demonstrate an understanding of awareness of his or her separate person from me. By the person who is connected to others the practices or characteristics of relationship to others end of this period, I begin to in the world. By the end of this my group. By the end of this period, in a group. understand that I am a separate period, I demonstrate an under- I identify myself and others as person who is connected to standing of the practices or belonging to one or more groups, others in the world. characteristics of my group. according to characteristics I notice. For example, I may… For example, I may… …not experience distress when …show anxiety when my dad For example, I may… you leave the room. leaves. …talk on the phone and walk …use my hands to explore …express anxious behavior around around like Ive seen my mommy different parts of my body and unfamiliar adults. do at home. 34 explore my moms facial features. …demonstrate a sense of "we" when …clap and say "yeah" after singing …be able to tell the difference playing games like "peek-a-boo" a song at home, because thats between familiar and unfamiliar or "Im gonna get you." what we do at my family people. …talk on the phone and walk child care. …smile and light up when my big around like Ive seen my mommy …use pronouns like "you," "me" brother comes to talk to me. do at home. and "I." …show anxiety when my …clap and say "yeah" after singing …say, "Adrian is a boy, and Im a dad leaves. a song at home, because thats boy." …cry and expect a caregiver to what we do at my family …say, "Im not a baby. Im a big meet my needs. child care. girl." …name some family members or friends.
  • 33. Motor DevelopmentBabies use their bodies to interact with their physical and social Caregivers can nurture and support babies’ motor developmentenvironment, right from the start. Through movement, babies in many ways. Caregivers need to create a safe space for freemake discoveries about themselves and the environment and gain exploration of movement with appropriate levels of challenge.a sense of mastery. As infants develop emotional security, they Supervision of young children is always necessary. Caregiversbecome increasingly confident about using their emerging motor should place young infants on their backs to sleep. Babies alsoabilities to explore the environment, try out new skills and learn need time on their stomachs while awake to develop theirabout the world of people and things. The control of small movement skills (www.cdc.gov/actearly). Baby equipmentand large muscles allows toddlers to participate increasingly in such as exercise saucers, play pens and swings restrict motortheir daily care such as feeding, dressing and toileting. development and should be used sparingly. Infant walkers and jumpers can cause serious injuries and should not be used.Motor development affects infants’ development in all of the otherdomains. For example, control of their limbs and hands enables Because all children learn through moving, adaptation of thebabies to communicate by gesturing and pointing. Fine motor environment may be necessary to support the movement of adevelopment is necessary to participate in finger plays and child, particularly those with a disability or other special need.eventually handle and look at a book, grasp a marker and scribble All infants and toddlers benefit from adult encouragement. It helpsand make marks. These early developments lead to emergent them to take on new challenges and to strengthen their developingliteracy and writing, and contribute to children’s eventual school sense of security and self-confidence. 35readiness. In the area of cognitive development, fine and largemuscle development allows very young children to explore theenvironment and manipulate materials. Of course, a child’s abilityto move plays a big role in his or her social interactions withother children.Motor development is the increasing ability to use ones body to interact with the environment.
  • 34. Motor DevelopmentGuideline: Large MuscleThe child will develop large-muscle strength and control to move within the environment. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Movement, balance, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, and coordination: I move my body automatically. coordinate the movements of my I can move my body from one The child will coordinate Later, I gain strength and more body parts to move my whole place to another without support the movements of his voluntary control of my head, body. Later, I develop the strength, while upright on two feet. By or her body in order to arms and legs. By the end of this balance and coordination to the end of this period, I can move and to interact period, I use this strength and change the position of my body coordinate my whole body to with the environment. control to coordinate the move- from lying to sitting, and later to make complex movements. ments of my body parts and to standing. By the end of this peri- move my whole body. od, I can move my body from one For example, I may… place to another without support …hold onto a string to pull a For example, I may… while upright on two feet. wooden duck with wheels behind …try to hold my head steady me while walking. when mommy holds me against For example, I may… …back up and sit down in the chair 36 her chest and shoulder. …get into and out of a sitting thats just my size at my child …turn my head to both sides while position independently. care center. lying on my back. …reach for toys that are lying on …walk up and down steps while …roll from front to back or back the floor around me while I holding my caregivers hand or to front. am sitting. holding onto the railing. …hold myself up, first on two …get up on my hands and knees. …bend over to pick up objects off hands and then on one, while …crawl on my hands and knees the floor and then stand up on my tummy. toward my mommy. straight again. …scoot backward on my belly. …creep up and down stairs on my …carry a large stuffed bear as I …crawl forward on my hands belly, one step at a time. walk to my cubby. and knees. …use the couch to pull myself up …run. into a standing position. …kick a ball. …cruise around the coffee table …jump. while holding onto it. …walk up and down stairs …stand up by myself. independently, stopping with …take two or three steps. both feet on each step. …walk across the room, stopping …walk up and down stairs, alternating and changing direction when my feet, one on each step. something is in my way. …use a riding toy with or without …stand and rock side to side or pedals. bounce up and down to "dance" …climb on outdoor play equipment. to music.
  • 35. Motor DevelopmentGuideline: Small MuscleThe child will develop small-muscle strength and control for detailed exploration and manipulation of objects. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period,• Touch, grasp, reach I use my hands, arms and eyes I look at my hands or an object I use both of my hands together and manipulate: automatically. Later, I can follow while manipulating that object. By to accomplish a task. By the The child will coordinate a moving object or person with the end of this period, I use both end of this period, I am able to the use of his or her my eyes, and I can bring my of my hands together to accom- coordinate the use of my arms, hands, fingers and hands and objects to my mouth. plish a task. hands and fingers to accomplish By the end of this period, I look more challenging fine motor tasks. sight in order to at my hands or an object while For example, I may… manipulate objects manipulating that object. …transfer a toy from one hand to For example, I may… in the environment. the other. …scribble with a fat crayon on a large For example, I may… …hold an object in each hand. piece of paper while holding the …blink when the sun shines in …release my grasp on a toy so I can crayon with a full-hand grasp. my eyes. watch it fall to the floor. …hold a toy with one hand while 37 …grasp my mothers finger when …bang objects together. looking at it and pushing different she places it in my tiny palm. …turn the pages of a board book. parts of it with the index finger of …follow a moving person with …take a block out of the plastic bin. my other hand. my eyes. …use my index finger and thumb to …put pegs into the holes of a foam …move my arms when I see a toy. pick up a piece of cereal and bring peg board. …clasp my hands together. it to my mouth. …use a spoon to scoop up food …bring my hand to my mouth. …put a block back in the plastic bin. and bring it to my mouth, even …reach for and grasp an object. …look up and point at the object I though I may get some food on …use a full-hand grasp to pick up want that is out of reach. my face. …wash my hands. an object. …scribble with a fat crayon on …string a large wooden bead onto …transfer a toy from one hand a large piece of paper while a shoelace. to another. holding onto the crayon with …make snips in a piece of paper a full-hand grasp. with child-sized scissors. …hold a toy with one hand while …hold a piece of chalk using my looking at it and pushing at fingers and thumb. different parts with the index …unbutton a large button on my finger of my other hand. sweater. …consistently favor the use of one of my hands over the other. …build a tall tower with a number of blocks. …complete a puzzle with three to four interlocking pieces.
  • 36. Motor DevelopmentGuideline: Oral-MotorThe child will develop skill in biting, chewing and swallowing during eating and drinking. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Oral-motor: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will develop I automatically root and suck. gain more control over my ability take bites of food and drink from the skill to coordinate Later, I use my mouth and to suck, swallow and chew. By the a cup, if these choices are offered the use of his or her tongue to explore objects. end of this period, I can take bites to me. By the end of this period, I tongue and mouth in By the end of this period, I gain of food and drink from a cup, if eat a variety of table foods and order to suck, swallow more control over my ability these choices are offered to me. can drink through a straw. and eventually chew. to suck, swallow and chew. For example, I may… For example, I may… For example, I may… …chew pieces of finger food, like …drink from a cup without a lid, …suck on my own fist. chunks of banana. even though I may spill some …turn my head toward a finger or …drink from a sippy cup. on myself. nipple that brushes my cheek. …bite a biscuit or gnaw on a …chew using rotary jaw …suck on the breast or bottle. chew toy. movements. 38 …push my tongue against a spoon …tolerate various textures of foods. …drink from an open cup, usually that you put into my mouth. …take a bite from a piece of bread. without spilling. …coordinate sucking, swallowing …drink from a cup without a lid, …drink through a straw. and breathing. even though I may spill some …eat a variety of table foods. …stick out my tongue. on myself. …explore the texture of objects with my lips and tongue. …drool while playing and teething, but drool less while eating. …use my tongue to move food inside my mouth.
  • 37. Language & Communication DevelopmentBabies tune into familiar sounds and voices and express needs Children with disorders progress through many of the samewithin minutes after birth. All humans communicate to build language development sequences as other children, thoughrelationships, share meaning with one another and express needs. they may develop at different rates and with different modesThe ways humans communicate include sound, speech, body of communication such as sign language or picture systems.movements, facial expressions, gestures, signs, pictures, print,and Braille. Language competence is one of the most amazing Many children in infant and toddler care programs live in familiesdevelopmental accomplishments during the first three years of life. with a home language different from English. Infants and toddlersInfants rapidly learn to understand language, express themselves need to learn their home language, because it is an important partverbally and use language to get their needs met. of their identity development, their self-concept, their relationships at home and their ability to develop concepts and thinking skills.The development of language and communication skills during When caring for an infant or toddler with a home languagethe infant and toddler years supports development in all of the different from English, adults should support children in usingother domains. It helps infants to learn about healthful routines, to and learning their home language, as the children begin toregulate their actions and thinking, to understand their emotional learn English.experiences and to get along with others socially. It also lays thefoundation for the acquisition of skills necessary to learn to read, Most children learn language without anyone directly teachingwrite, and communicate effectively with others in school. Young them, no matter which language is spoken at home. However, the 39children’s ability to understand and express spoken language by the amount and kind of language infants and toddlers experience hasend of the toddler period prepares them to hear and understand an enormous effect on the number of words they will learn andthe sounds of spoken language (phonological awareness), continue use, their success at learning to read and write in school, andto understand and use new words (vocabulary acquisition), and their long-range school success. Babies and toddlers need richcommunicate through listening, viewing and speaking. experiences with language-related emergent reading and writing. For example, caregivers should read to infants and toddlersSome infants and toddlers have conditions that affect their ability frequently, and recite to them songs, rhymes and fingerplays.to learn to communicate. For example, children who are born with In addition, learning opportunities such as manipulating playpartial or full hearing loss may rely more on vision than on hearing materials, playing with short stubby paintbrushes and usingto communicate. Children with developmental disorders such as eating utensils provides infants and toddlers the experiencesautism or severe speech delays also may heavily rely on non-verbal they need to become ready to play at writing during thecommunication. preschool years.Language and communication development is the increasing ability to communicate successfully with othersto build relationships, share meaning and express needs in multiple ways.
  • 38. Language & Communication DevelopmentGuideline: Comprehending LanguageThe child will use listening and observation skills to develop an awareness of his or her world. As he or she develops, he or sheunderstands more sounds and words. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Understanding language: In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, The child will comprehend respond automatically to sounds I recognize the names of familiar I show understanding of the message of anothers in the environment. By the end objects and people. By the end of adults’ simple requests and communication. of this period, I recognize the this period, I show understanding of statements referring to the names of familiar people and of adults simple requests and of present situation. By the end favorite objects. statements referring to the of this period, I understand my present situation. caregivers more abstract and For example, I may… complex statements and requests …turn my head toward the direc- For example, I may… that refer to positions in space, tion of a loud sound and startle …reach for my bottle when I am ideas, feelings and the future. when very loud sounds occur. asked, "Do you want your bottle?" …watch my grandmothers face as …follow one-step requests when my For example, I may… 40 she speaks to me. caregiver uses gestures along with …point to my shoes or socks when …turn my head in the direction of words (e.g., "no no," "roll the my caregiver asks, "Where are my fathers voice. ball," "kiss the baby doll," "wave your shoes?" …look at my mommy when I am bye-bye"). …sit next to Marcus at the table asked, "Wheres Mommy?" …crawl toward the ball when my when my caregiver asks me to …reach for my bottle when I caregiver asks, "Wheres the ball?" sit next to him. am asked, "Do you want without using gestures. …get my own book out of my your bottle?" …point to my shoes or socks when cubby and my caregivers book my caregiver asks, "Where are off the shelf when my caregiver your shoes?" requests, "Please get your truck book and my truck book for naptime." …pick up one block off the floor and give it to my caregiver when he asks me to "Please get a block," and then pick up the basket of blocks when Im asked to "Please get the blocks."
  • 39. Language & Communication DevelopmentGuideline: Expressing LanguageThe child will develop the ability to use sounds, words, gestures and eventually signs or words to communicate his or herwants, needs and feelings. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Expressing language: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will convey I make sounds spontaneously. show more intention as I experiment I begin to use single words a message or transfer By the end of this period, I show with sound and with different and conventional gestures to information to another more intention as I experiment ways to express my wants, needs communicate with others. By person. with sound and with different or feelings. By the end of this the end of this period, I combine ways to express my wants, needs period, I begin to use single words words to express more complex or feelings. and conventional gestures to ideas and start to follow some communicate with others. simple grammatical rules, For example, I may… although not always correctly. …coo using single vowel sounds For example, I may… (e.g., "ah", "eh," "uh"). …use gestures or expressions to For example, I may… …demonstrate several different indicate my wants, needs …begin to say, "bottle" instead of 41 cries to express different needs. or feelings. "baba" when wanting a drink. …babble, using consonant sounds. …use one-word sentences. …combine words into simple …use gestures or expressions to …say "mama" or "papa." sentences. "I go home." indicate my wants, needs …say, "oh oh" when my milk spills. …speak clearly enough for others or feelings. …use long strings of babbles to usually understand what I am together. trying to say. …shake my head back and forth …be able to name my extended and say, "no" when I dont want family members when my to do something. caregiver points to them in a …point to an object to communicate photograph. that I want you to get it for me. …add "s" to words when referring …begin to say "bottle" instead of to more than one, "lots of dogs "baba" when wanting a drink. at the park" and "lots of deers in the woods," even though that grammatical rule doesnt always work. …use words like "mine," "yours" and "his" to indicate who owns each toy.
  • 40. Language & Communication DevelopmentGuideline: Social CommunicationThe child will be an active participant in his or her social world by developing the ability to interact with others in waysexpected by his or her family, or community. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Rules of language: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will participate I automatically respond to my attempt to respond to basic forms participate in and often initiate in interactions with caregivers when they talk to of social communication with the the basic socially expected language that follow me by turning toward them. appropriate gesture. By the end of communications of my family. the expected practices During this period, I participate this period, I participate in and By the end of this period, I of the childs family in back-and-forth interactions often initiate the basic socially understand when words are used and community. with my caregivers. By the end expected communications of in a silly way. of this period, I attempt to my family. respond to basic forms of social For example, I may… communication with the For example, I may… …say, "please" when Im asking for appropriate gesture. …wave bye-bye in response to my something. papa’s waving bye-bye to me. …take a turn in a conversation by 42 For example, I may… …run to the window to blow kisses answering a question when …gaze at my caregiver during to my mommy when she drops asked, and then asking a a feeding. me off at child care, even before question in return. …vocalize when my aunt calls my mommy has left the room. …make a related comment in a my name. …play "peek-a-boo" with my aunt. group conversation during …smile and vocalize to initiate …say, "please" when Im asking for lunch time. contact with my grandpa. something. …laugh when my caregiver says, …make a gurgling sound and "put your boot on your ear." pause for my caregiver to respond, then after my caregiver says something to me, coo and smile. …raise my arms in the air when Daddy says, "so big!" and raises his arms. …wave bye-bye in response to my papa’s waving bye-bye to me.
  • 41. Language & Communication DevelopmentGuideline: Early LiteracyThe child will learn the foundations for listening, speaking, reading and writing. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Early reading: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will demonstrate I respond automatically to my show increased interest in books I actively participate in book interest in book reading, caregivers talking, singing and and pictures. By the end of this reading, story telling and singing. story telling and singing reading. By the end of this period, period, I actively participate in By the end of this period, I show and will eventually I show increased interest in books, book reading, story telling and understanding of the meaning of understand the meaning pictures, songs and rhymes. singing. stories and show appreciation of basic symbols. for reading books, telling stories For example, I may… For example, I may… and singing by initiating these …turn toward my granny and …reach for the pages of a board activities and by having "favorite" watch her eyes and mouth while book when my caregiver is books, stories and songs. shes singing me a song. holding up a book and looking …look at a page of a picture book at it with me. For example, I may… that my caregiver holds up for …follow my moms gaze to look at …vocalize and point to identify 43 me to see. a picture in a book. familiar signs, labels, or logos in …cuddle and look at my caregivers …look at the picture of the bus in a the home and community (e.g., face while I am being read to. book when my caregiver points a stop sign). …babble while looking at a book and says, "Theres the school bus." …see a picture of a flower in a with my big brother. …enjoy looking at the pictures in a book and pretend to sniff it. picture book. …chew on the corner of a book. …participate in book reading by …pat a photograph of my family pet. …coo when I hear my caregiver making sounds of the different …move my arms in a rolling motion singing. trucks in the story that my grandpa to let my caregiver know I want to …reach for the pages of a book is reading to me. ("Brmmm" for sing, "Wheels on the Bus." when my caregiver is holding up …turn a board book right-side up bus, "Beep-Beep-Beep" for dump a book and looking at it with me. and turn the pages. truck, and siren noise for …follow my moms gaze to look at …point to the animals in the pic- fire truck.) a picture in a book. tures as my caregiver is reading …try to do all the hand motions "Old MacDonald" and asks me, to "The Itsy Bitsy Spider." "Wheres the cow? Wheres the …listen as my caregiver reads a dog?" short story. …point to a picture of a dog and …finish the repetitive sentence, "Brown make a barking noise or say “doggie.” Bear, Brown Bear, what do you …vocalize and point to identify see?" when reading that book. familiar signs, labels or logos in …make up a story about a picture the home and community (e.g., of an elephant and tell it to my a stop sign). teddy bear.
  • 42. Language & Communication DevelopmentGuideline: Early LiteracyThe child will learn the foundations for listening, speaking, reading and writing. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Early writing: In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will demon- respond automatically to objects show increased ability in the use I use a full-hand grasp to hold a strate interest in writing in my environment. By the end of my hands and fingers. By the writing tool to make scribbles. By and will develop the fine of this period, I show increased end of this period, I use a full-hand the end of this period, I use my motor abilities required ability in the use of my hands grasp to hold a writing tool to thumb and fingers of one hand to hold a writing tool and fingers, and may watch make scribbles. to hold my writing tool and start and make marks on adults when they are writing. to use my drawings to represent a surface. For example, I may… objects and ideas. For example, I may… …make random marks on the side …wave both my arms when I see a walk with chalk. For example, I may… toy that excites me. …imitate a caregiver who is writing. …choose to use the markers or …grasp a rattle, let go of it and …use a crayon to make marks on a crayons during play time to make then try to grasp it again. piece of paper. scribbled pictures. 44 …transfer and manipulate an …choose to use the markers or …pretend to take orders with a object with my hands. crayons during play time to make pencil and paper when Im …watch an adult write. scribbled pictures. pretending to play restaurant. …pick up a small toy with the tips …hold my crayon with my thumb of my thumb and fingers. and fingers of one hand. …draw a circle and a straight line after watching someone else do it. …make a scribbled picture and say, "Its a dinosaur" when showing it to my uncle. …choose to use crayons, markers, paint brushes, chalk, etc. to draw and create.
  • 43. Cognitive DevelopmentBabies are motivated, curious and competent learners right from Relationships are at the center of early cognitive development.the start. They are natural scientists. Cognitive development is Young infants are fascinated with their caregivers’ faces and voices.the building of concept knowledge and thinking skills. Children They learn through give and take interaction. As infants grow older,come into the world eager to learn. Through relationships, active they use attachment relationships as a secure base for exploration.exploration and experiences, infants and toddlers make discoveries They also become interested in showing and giving things toabout the world, figure out how things work, imitate others, try adults. At the toddler age, children ask questions and shareout new behaviors, share meaning, learn social rules and solve meaning with their caregivers.problems. Like scientists, young children uncover the mysteriesof the world. Through play and self-initiated practice, they build To promote cognitive development, caregivers should take cuesconcepts and develop their thinking skills. from infants and be responsive to the children’s interests and needs. Research has documented that responsive care has aCognitive development grows hand in hand with the other positive influence on children’s long range cognitive development.developmental domains. Healthy and emotionally secure infants In addition, caregivers need to set up an environment that is bothcan focus on exploration and learning. Infants’ growing ability appropriate and challenging for the age and stage of each child.to move their bodies allows them to explore environments and For children with disabilities or other special needs, specificmanipulate materials in increasingly complex ways. As infants and adaptations to their abilities are necessary. The environmenttoddlers build concepts, language gives them a means to represent should be well organized and predictable. Providing a rich 45ideas and share meaning with others. Symbolic play not only selection of age appropriate, easily accessible materials allowsenables children to experiment with concepts, it also gives them all infants and toddlers to pursue their passion for learninga means to explore social roles and feelings. The knowledge and and discovery.thinking skills that children build during the first three years of lifeprepare them to continue to learn during the preschool years andbecome ready for school.Cognitive development is the building of thinking skills.
  • 44. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Discoveries of InfancyThe child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies tosolve problems. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Group and categorize: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, The child will learn I automatically respond in I can tell the difference between I can group objects into two to group people and distinguishing between familiar familiar and unfamiliar people, distinct classes. By the end of this objects based on their and unfamiliar people. By the objects and places. By the end of period, I can sort multiple objects attributes. end of this period, I can tell the this period, I can group objects by their properties and uses. difference between familiar and into two distinct groups. unfamiliar people, objects For example, I may… and places. For example, I may… …put toy cars in one pile and air- …demonstrate anxiety or fear planes in another. For example, I may… toward unfamiliar faces or people. …point out all of the blue plates at …turn toward the sight, smell …indicate that birds, dogs and the lunch table. or sound of my mom. horses are all animals, while cars …label the big animals "mama" and 46 …look back and forth between are not. the small animals "baby." people or objects, as if …remember the steps that make up …put all of the red pegs in one comparing them. my nightly bath routine: clothes bowl, the white pegs in another …be able to tell the difference off, wash hair, wash body, dry off. bowl and the green pegs in a between friendly and unfriendly …put toy cars in one pile and third bowl. voices. airplanes in another. …explore objects by mouthing, banging, shaking or hitting them. …snuggle happily with my special blanket when I find it in a pile of fresh laundry. …demonstrate anxiety or fear toward unfamiliar faces or people. …bat or kick at water, then act surprised by the splash. …shake a rattle repeatedly to make the sound continue.
  • 45. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Discoveries of InfancyThe child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies tosolve problems. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Cause and effect: In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will make respond automatically to things use simple actions to make things I purposefully try behaviors to things happen and that happen in my environment. happen. By the end of this period, I make things happen. By the end understand the causes By the end of this period, I use purposefully try behaviors to make of this period, I think of ways to of some events. simple actions to make things things happen. solve problems and dont have to happen. act out possible solutions. I also For example, I may… understand that events have For example, I may… …shake a rattle repeatedly to make a cause. …explore objects by mouthing, the sound continue. banging, shaking or hitting them. …use a wooden spoon, pots and For example, I may… …look at my own hand. pans, in various combinations, to …touch different parts of a musical …grasp a toy in my hand. make sounds over and over again. toy to make the music start again. 47 …bat or kick at water, then act …engage in trial-and-error learning. …choose only rings with holes surprised by the splash. …drop objects from different when playing with a …shake a rattle repeatedly to make heights and positions. ring-stacking toy. the sound continue. …pull a string attached to a toy to …say, "Lucile fall down" when I bring the toy closer. see a peer crying. …touch or bang the handle of a …communicate about what makes jack-in-the-box, then hand it back a pop-up toy go. to my caregiver to make it pop. …touch different parts of a musical toy to make the music start again.
  • 46. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Discoveries of InfancyThe child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies tosolve problems. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Problem solving: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will use the I respond automatically to my actively use my body to find out I use simple strategies to solve self, objects or others environment. By the end of this about my world. By the end of problems. By the end of this to attain a goal. period, I actively use my body to this period, I use simple strategies period, I can solve problems find out about my world. to solve problems. without having to try every possibility, while avoiding For example, I may… For example, I may… solutions that clearly wont work. …cry to get my needs met. …touch or mouth the hair of …explore objects by mouthing, another person. For example, I may… banging, shaking or …move around to the side of the …try several ways to reach a ball hitting them. aquarium so I can see the fish better. that is stuck under the couch. …drop a toy and watch it fall. …squeeze onto my moms lap, even …turn a puzzle piece to make it fit 48 …touch or mouth the hair of when my sibling is already there. into its space. another person. …twist a shape until it fits into a …choose a yogurt container instead …transfer a rattle from one hand hole in a container. of a strainer to carry water across to the other. …use a stick to reach a toy. the yard. …try several ways to reach a ball …use a fork or spoon. that is stuck under the couch. …use a play cup from the house- keeping corner to roll out my clay.
  • 47. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Discoveries of InfancyThe child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies tosolve problems. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Memory: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I The child will remember I respond automatically to my I notice people and things and hold in my mind an image of my people, objects and environment. By the end of this their features. My ability to attachment figure, which I can events. period, I notice people and remember depends greatly on use to comfort myself. I also things and their features. My repeated experience. Later, I recall more information over ability to remember depends understand that people and a longer period of time. By greatly on repeated experience. objects continue to exist even the end of this period, I can when I cant see them. By the end communicate about some For example, I may… of this period, I hold in my mind of the events in my life. …not look for a toy that has been an image of my attachment figure, hidden. which I can use to comfort myself. For example, I may… …kick my feet in anticipation of I also recall more information over …say, "Mama," when my caregiver 49 being fed when my mother a longer period of time. rocks me to sleep at naptime, as positions me on her lap. a way of reminding myself that …remember how to kick to make For example, I may… Mama rocks me to sleep at my mobile move when it is …show signs of wariness or distress home. hanging over my crib. toward unfamiliar people or places. …say, "Meow," when Daddy points …look longer at a new picture …search for a partially hidden toy. to a picture and asks, "What does than at one I have seen before. …look over the edge of the table for a kitty cat say?" …track an object that moves out a cloth I have dropped. …watch you take a cloth out of the of my line of sight. …search for my blanket after I see drawer, wipe down the table, and …search for a partially hidden toy. you hide it. put the cloth in the hamper, then …watch you wipe down the table try it myself a week later. with a cloth one day, then try it …imagine the whereabouts of myself the next day. an object or person that is out …say, "Mama," when my caregiver of my sight. rocks me to sleep at naptime, as …communicate about my aunts a way of reminding myself that visit last summer. Mama rocks me to sleep at home.
  • 48. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Discoveries of InfancyThe child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies tosolve problems. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Space: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, The child will understand I respond automatically to my I begin to learn the properties of I use trial and error to discover how things move and fit environment. By the end of objects. By the end of this period, how things fit and move in space. in space. this period, I begin to learn I use trial and error to discover By the end of this period, I the properties of objects. how things fit and move in space. predict and imagine how things fit and move in space, without For example, I may… For example, I may… having to try all possible solutions. …watch people and objects move …crawl to the edge of the bed, through space. then stop. For example, I may… …look for what is making a sound. …experiment with how objects fit …get myself stuck in a tight space. …bring an object to my mouth to in space: stack, sort, dump, push, …build a tall tower with a number explore it. pull, twist, turn. of blocks. 50 …reach for and grasp an object. …fit the round puzzle piece in the …fit a shape into the matching …drop a toy and watch it fall. round space on the puzzle board. space in a shape sorter toy. …move my body through space …get myself stuck in a tight space …complete a puzzle with three by rolling, rocking or crawling. when exploring. to four interlocking pieces. …stack rings on a base in the correct order. …build a simple town with toys such as cars and blocks.
  • 49. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Discoveries of InfancyThe child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies tosolve problems. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Imitation: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, I The child will be able I automatically imitate facial match the simple actions and can imitate something I saw at an to mirror, repeat and expressions. By the end of this expressions of others. By the earlier time, even though it is no practice the actions period, I match the simple actions end of this period, I can imitate longer happening right in front modeled by another. and expressions of others, even something I saw at an earlier time, of me. By the end of this period, I when a short time has passed. even though it is no longer can imitate a complex sequence happening right in front of me. of events that I observed quite a For example, I may… long time ago. …stick out my tongue when you For example, I may… stick out yours. …imitate an adults sounds when For example, I may… …become quiet and stop moving babbling. …take a toy phone and put it in my my body to watch an adult as …take a drink from my cup today, play purse, copying what I saw 51 she interacts with me. set it down, and say, "Aah" after my caregiver do last week. …play pat-a-cake. I saw you do it yesterday. …pretend to make a cake, wrap …imitate an adults facial …take a toy phone and put it in my gifts and decorate the living expressions. play purse, copying what I saw room, like I saw my grandma do …imitate an adults sounds my caregiver do last week. for my last birthday party. when babbling.
  • 50. Cognitive DevelopmentGuideline: Attention and PersistenceThe child will develop the ability to choose to participate and persist in a growing number of activities. Birth - 8 months 6 - 18 months 16 - 36 months• Attention and persistence: In the beginning of this period, In the beginning of this period, I In the beginning of this period, The child will be able to I automatically respond to things respond to different things in the I need order, ritual, routine and remain focused on a task in the environment. By the environment in different ways, notice when changes occur. or object and to persist end of this period, I respond and Im able to spend more time By the end of this period, I can in the face of obstacles. to different things in the focusing on things I find interesting. pay attention to more than one environment in different ways, By the end of this period, I need thing at a time. I monitor my and I am able to spend more order, ritual, routine and notice progress in trying to achieve a time focusing on things I find when changes occur. goal and try to correct mistakes interesting. along the way. For example, I may… For example, I may… …discover that I can kick a mobile For example, I may… …cry until Im fed or changed or and make it move, or shake a rat- …expect my favorite songs to be made comfortable. tle and make a sound. sung the same way each time 52 …gaze at faces and objects. …fill a bucket with sand or stack and protest if my caregiver …become quiet when feeding blocks again and again. changes the words. begins, even before I am …be easily distracted. …engage in solitary play for a offered food. …attend to a short picture book by short time. …show more interest in a new toy looking at the pictures or listening …have frequent tantrums out of than an old one. to the words. frustration when goals are …look back and forth between …expect my favorite songs to be difficult to reach. people or objects, as if sung the same way each time, …listen to a story that a caregiver comparing them. and protest if my caregiver is reading to a small group of …turn away from interactions that changes the words. children while playing with trucks I find to be too intense, then in a nearby corner of the room. turn back to continue interacting …continue to look for a hidden toy, when Im ready. without being distracted by the …discover that I can kick a mobile soft blanket that covers it. and make it move, or shake a …realize during clean-up time that rattle and make a sound. I have put a car in the block bin and return to put it in the proper place. …look for and find a favorite book, and ask a caregiver to read it.
  • 51. ReferencesGeneral Resources Cohn, J., & Tronick, E. (1983a). Communicative rules and the sequential structure ofBrazelton, T.B. (1992). Touchpoints: Your child’s emotional and behavioral infant behavior during normal and depressed interaction. In E. Tronick development. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing. (Ed.), The development of human communication and the joint regulationFrankenburg, W.K., Dodds, J., Archer, P., Bresnick, B., Maschka, P., Edelman, N., & of behavior. Baltimore: University Park Press. Shapiro, H. (1990). Denver II Developmental Screening Test. Denver, CO: Cohn, J.E., & Tronick, E.Z. (1983b). Three-month-old infants’ reaction to stimulated Denver Developmental Materials. maternal depression. Child Development, 54, 185-193.Fogel, A. (2001). Infancy: Infant, family, and society. Belmont, CA: Greenspan, S. & Greenspan, N.T. (1985). First Feelings. New York: Penguin Books. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Greenspan, S.I., DeGangi, G., & Wieder, S. (2001). The functional emotionalLally, J.R. & Fenichel, E. (1995). Caring for infants and toddlers in groups: assessment scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt. Developmentally appropriate practice. Washington, D.C.: Zero to Three. Kopp, C.B. (2003). Baby Steps. New York: Henry Holt and CompanyLamb, M.E., Bornstein, M.H., & Teti, D.M. (2002). Development in infancy. Mahwah, Lerner, C. & Dombro, A.L. (2000). Learning & growing together: Understanding and NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. supporting your child’s development. Washington, D.C.: Zero to Three.Shelov, S.P., & Hannemann, R.E. (Eds.). (2004). Caring for your baby and young Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J.M. (Eds.) (2000). Handbook of emotions (2nd ed.). child: Birth to age 5 (4th ed.). New York: Bantam Books. New York: The Guilford Press.Tuckman, B. & Chapman, A. (n.d.). Tuckman forming storming norming performing Lieberman, A.F. (1993). The emotional life of the toddler. New York: The Free Press. model. 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Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics. on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development. J.P. ShonkoffAmerican Academy of Pediatrics (2000). American Academy of Pediatrics: & D.A. Phillips (Eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care. Pediatrics, on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: 105 (3), 645- 646. Retrieved February 17, 2006, from National Academy Press. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/105/3/645 Parks, S. (1994). Inside HELP: Hawaii Early Learning Profile [AdministrationCasamassimo, P. (1996). Bright Futures in Practice: Oral Health (1996). Retrieved and reference manual]. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation. February 17, 2006, from Pruett, K.D. (1999). Me, myself and I: How children build their sense of self. http://www.brightfutures.org/oralhealth/about.html New York: Goddard Press.Gerber (2004). 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Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. individual differences. Child Development, 55, 990-1004.Berk, L.E. (1994). Child development. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.Bredekamp, S. & Copple, C. (Eds.) (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in Social early childhood programs. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Berk, L.E. (1994). Child development. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Education of Young Children. Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss: Vol 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Bretherton, I., Fritz J., Zahn-Waxler, C. & Ridgeway D., 1986 Learning to talk about Brownell, C.A., Etheridge, W., Hungerford, A. & Kelley, S. (1997, April). Socialization emotions: A functionalist perspective. Child Development, 55, 529 – 548. of self regulation: Continuity and discontinuity over age and context. PaperBronson, M.B. (2000). 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  • 52. ReferencesGlassman, M. & Whaley, K. (2000). Dynamic aims: The use of long-term projects in Olsen, J. & Puttkammer, C. (2001). My Motor Baby. Potamac, MD: Handwriting early childhood classrooms in light of Dewey’s educational philosophy. Without Tears, Inc. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 2 (1). Retrieved January 9, 2006, Parks, D. (1997). Inside HELP: Administration and reference manual. Palto Alto, from, http://www.ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n1/index.html CA: VORT.Glassman, M. & Whaley, K. (1999). The box, a naturalistic experiment with young children: The same object as mediating factor for different activities. Early Language & Communication Childhood Development and Care, 156, 63-71. Albrecht, K., & Miller, L. G. (2001). Innovations: Infant/toddler child development.Howes, C. (1987). Peer interaction of young children. With commentary by Kenneth Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House. H. Rubin and Hildy S. Ross and Doran C. French. Monotraphs of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). Language and Literacy Society for Research in Child Development, 53(1, Serial No. 217). Development. Retrieved February 17, 2006, fromIzard, C.E., Fantauzzo, C.A., Castle, J.M., Haynes, O.M., Rayias, M.F. & Putnam, P. H. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/lang_lit.htm (1995). The ontogeny and significance of infants’ facial expressions in the Mangione, P.L., Lally, J.R., & Signer, S. (1998). Early messages: Facilitating language first 9 months of life. Developmental Psychology, 31(6), 997-1013. development and communication [Video magazine]. Sacramento, CA:Kantor, R. & Whaley, K. (1998). Existing frameworks and new ideas from our Reggio CDE Press. Emilia experience: Learning at a lab school with 2- to 4-year-old children. National Association for the Education of Young Children. (n.d.). Helping children In C. Edwards, L. Gandini, & G. Forman (Eds). The hundred languages of learn about reading. 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